FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

«Studying Style in Simultaneous Interpretation Sane M. Yagi Meta : journal des traducteurs / Meta: Translators' Journal, vol. 45, n° 3, 2000, p. ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


"Studying Style in Simultaneous Interpretation"

Sane M. Yagi

Meta : journal des traducteurs / Meta: Translators' Journal, vol. 45, n° 3, 2000, p. 520-547.

Pour citer cet article, utiliser l'information suivante :

URI: http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/004626ar

DOI: 10.7202/004626ar

Note : les règles d'écriture des références bibliographiques peuvent varier selon les différents domaines du savoir.

Ce document est protégé par la loi sur le droit d'auteur. L'utilisation des services d'Érudit (y compris la reproduction) est assujettie à sa politique d'utilisation que vous pouvez consulter à l'URI https://apropos.erudit.org/fr/usagers/politique-dutilisation/ Érudit est un consortium interuniversitaire sans but lucratif composé de l'Université de Montréal, l'Université Laval et l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Il a pour mission la promotion et la valorisation de la recherche. Érudit offre des services d'édition numérique de documents scientifiques depuis 1998.

Pour communiquer avec les responsables d'Érudit : info@erudit.org Document téléchargé le 25 November 2016 07:09 520 Meta, XLV, 3, 2000 Studying Style in Simultaneous Interpretation sane m. yagi Sultan Qaboos University, Oman RÉSUMÉ Divers outils ont été développés pour faciliter l’analyse quantitative du style d’interpréta- tion, un sujet qui n’a été que vaguement traité jusqu’à maintenant. Ces outils peuvent permettre la recherche sur des questions telles que « Comment procède l’interprète pour partager le message original reçu ? », « Jusqu’à quel point reflète-t-il l’orateur original ? »

et « Jusqu’à quel point pratique-t-il une modification ? ». De plus, un instrument adaptif de surveillance est mis au point pour faciliter la représentation graphique du développement linéaire d’un discours et de son interprétation équivalente simultanée. Non seulement nous permet-il d’évaluer la convergence et la divergence entre les deux discours, mais aussi et surtout de porter un jugement sur le tempo d’un interprète en caractérisant la périodicité (courte ou longue) de son discours, ainsi que sur son sang-froid ou son trouble en décrivant le degré de cohérence et d’aisance dans le discours.


Several tools are developed to facilitate the quantitative analysis of interpretation style, a matter that has hitherto been discussed only in vague terms. These tools can allow the investigation of questions such as: How does an interpreter divide up a source language input, to what extent does he mirror a source language speaker, and to what degree does he practise reformulation? Furthermore, an adaptive monitoring instrument is devised to facilitate the graphic representationof the linear developments of a source language discourse and its simultaneous interpretation equivalent. Not only does it allow the assessment of convergence and divergence between the two discourses, but this also permits commenting on an interpreter’s tempo by characterising the narrow and broad periodicity within his discourse, and on his composure and tribulation by describing his consistency and fluency in the discourse.

MOTS-CLÉS/KEYWORDS style, simultaneous interpretation, quantitative analysis, monitoring instrument, convergence, divergence Introduction Style in simultaneous interpretation (SI) is one of the fundamental aspects of the interpretation performance. It concerns those features that constitute the method of interpreting rather than the substance of the information being rendered. Therefore, discussing it will inevitably lead to a consideration of interpretation techniques, strategies, and cognitive tasks.

The question of what constitutes good interpretation touches the very essence of SI style. Since there is a lack of consensus among theorists and practitioners alike as to the norms of SI and the quality criteria that interpreters need to observe, it is a foregone conclusion that there are no steadfast stylistic norms and criteria. In fact, it is not wide of the mark to say that there is no reliable method for assessing SI quality Meta, XLV, 3, 2000 studying style in simultaneous strategies 521 or style. Pöchhacker (1994: 235) acknowledges this fact saying, “We seem to know what the [SI] product should be like, but we are less sure about a method for establishing what a particular product is like in a given situation. Quite obviously, researchers, teachers, and trainees need to have a method for looking at the product.” The International Association of Conference Interpreters defines quality in conference interpretation as “that elusive something which everyone recognises but no one can successfully define” (AIIC 1982). In the same vein, SI style is an elusive concept that interpretation users can sense but cannot verbalise. They can pass general value judgements about whether an interpretation performance is up to standard or not, but then they can neither agree in their priorities, tastes, and comprehension, nor in what they hold as standard. Confirming that quality assessors tend to use different yardsticks, Seleskovitch (1986) and Gile (1991a) have concluded that interpretation users are liable to give misleading evaluations because they have different expectations.

As was evident in the 1994 Turku conference on interpreting, researchers have been attempting to identify “just what it is that makes for excellence in [SI]” (Shlesinger 1997: 123). Participants in a workshop on simultaneous interpretation quality in that conference discussed the issue from three perspectives: market perspective, research perspective, and didactic perspective. They were critical that subjective criteria tend to be variable, so they expressed the need for identifying objective criteria by which quality can be assessed.

Due to the inconsistencies of quality perception among those whose discourse is the subject of interpretation as well as among those for whom the interpretation is made, there is an increasingly louder plea for more objective methods of quality assessment. There is a clear desire to pin down that which makes an interpretation performance better than another and to develop more tangible criteria for assessing the evasive aspects of quality. The need for objective methods of assessment was accentuated by several studies, among them that conducted by Gile (1991b), which found only a weak correlation between ‘satisfactory quality’ as perceived by a given speaker and the fidelity, linguistic acceptability, clarity and/or terminological accuracy of the translator’s output.

As to the development of objective methods of SI assessment, Cartellieri (1983:

213) suggests that we find quantitative features that may eventually develop into qualitative criteria. Pöchhacker (1994: 234) advocates this idea, suggesting that the question then arises as to “how we should best go about defining and analysing the text produced by the interpreter as an ‘objective’, that is, physical reality. What are the textualised parameters and variables underlying judgements of quality in simultaneous interpreting, and how can they be measured and quantified in a corpus of texts?” Quantitative Aspects of SI Style One can deal with the simultaneous interpreted discourse on many levels: pragmatic or semantic, intra- or inter-textual, qualitative or quantitative, etc. In Pöchhacker’s (1994: 238) words, the interpreted discourse is a “multi-faceted whole within a communicative situation.” Pöchhacker (1994: 236) asserts that “In simultaneous interpreting, the text as such is […] a multi-parametric semiotic whole, which, in its full complexity, often 522 Meta, XLV, 3, 2000 defies description,” so he proposes “a text model with constituents in both the auditive and the visual channels, on a ‘verbal-paraverbal-kinesic continuum.’” In his model of the SI ‘audio-visual text’, Pöchhacker suggests that “one can derive a number of textual features or parameters, such as slips and structure shifts in verbal production, voiced hesitation markers, peculiarities of voice quality and articulation, the use of (pictorial or verbal) visual information (such as slides), as well as prosodic and/or paraverbal features.” To these textual constituents, Pöchhacker (1994: 236) adds quantitative stylistic aspects of the interpreted discourse as manifested in “temporal phenomena like speed, pausing, and rhythmical pattern, which are often dominant in shaping the overall impression of a spoken text.” It is these phenomena, and hesitation, that determine the audience’s perceived degree of fluency and perhaps competence in an interpreted discourse. Other quantifiable aspects of performance affect the interpreter’s time management ability and, to some degree, accuracy. For instance, delay and discourse chunking play an important role in how interpreters manage their time, and that may indirectly affect whether they resort to Gile’s (1995) “law of least effort” and practise non-tactful omission.

The temporal phenomena Pöchhacker talks about have also been recognised as quantifiable gauges of SI performance by earlier researchers such as Goldman-Eisler (1968), Barik (1969), Gerver (1969), Chernov (1969), etc. The statistical tools developed in the present paper will be used to study only two quantitative aspects of SI style: fluency and chunking, which indirectly touch on a third aspect: lag. We need to be mindful, however, that discussing SI quality and style within a quantitative framework lays no exclusive claim to objectivity. A linguistic analysis of interpreted discourse may prove to be more reliable in quality assessment; yet if it is possible to correlate SI quantitative features with some content-based criteria, then quantitative analysis will indeed be indispensable. It will be used for substantiating and strengthening any judgement based on the linguistic content of an interpretation. Let us for now consider these stylistic quantitative aspects: fluency, chunking, and lag.

Fluency A conference speaker and audience who do not speak the language of one another can only evaluate the simultaneously interpreted discourse by its form. They assess the performance of an interpreter by the fluency and nativelikedness in their TL discourse. Kopczynski (1994) conducted a survey among conference speakers and attendees to identify what they viewed as elements that contribute to quality in a simultaneously interpreted discourse. He found that both groups ranked fluency and style third on their list of priorities after content and terminological precision.

Skilled interpreters (e.g., Jones 1998: 130) warn novices that “they should not make artificial pauses in the middle of a sentence because they are thinking of what to say next or are waiting for extra input from the speaker.” They observe that audiences sometimes expect the interpreter to “keep up a continuous flow of sound in the booth” worrying about missing out on part of the SL discourse (Jones 1998: 128).

They stress that “the constant objective of the interpreter is to provide a correct translation of the original in a form that sounds as natural and as authentic as possible in the target language: the audience should not feel they are listening to a translation” (Jones 1998: 90).

523 studying style in simultaneous strategies Not only does an interpreted discourse need to be fluent to earn the SI practitioner approval from their partners in the communication process, the speaker and audience, but also they need to imitate the tempo and intensity of the speaker’s voice according to Kopczynski (1994). He found out that the majority of his questionnaire respondents had considered important that the interpreter assume a ghost role, ie, imitating the speaker. Although the validity of this conclusion is doubtful, as Kopczynski himself indicated, it points to the importance that interpretation users place on the method of TL discourse delivery. Because of the clear relevance of fluency to perceived interpreter competence, it is sound to consider it an aspect of SI style. Fluency is immediately relevant to the method of SI delivery; it represents the fluidness and smoothness of SI delivery. Therefore, it should not be controversial to consider fluency an aspect of interpretation style.

We can study fluency quantitatively if we succeed in identifying the elements that contribute to a seemingly effortless, fluid, and smooth interpretation. There is no doubt that false-start and hesitation ridden interpretation is non-fluent. And so is an interpretation with incomplete sentences, long-drawn-out delays, and a large volume of inactivity. Since these can be readily identified, fluency ought to be quantifiable. For instance, an interpreted discourse which consists of 40% pausing and has 10 false-starts, 15 hesitations, 13 incomplete sentences, and 7 instances of extended delays, is certainly less fluent than one that has 30% pausing, 5 false-starts, 5 hesitations, 3 incomplete sentences, and only 4 instances of extended delays. All of these properties of fluency are quantifiable; therefore, it should not be contentious to claim that fluency itself is one aspect of SI style that is also quantifiable.

Chunking A fundamental aspect of SI style that affects the interpreter’s ability to cope with the seemingly unending flow of SL discourse is chunking. This is a coping strategy that interpreters use to divide up TL long stretches of discourse into chunks of manageable size. Gile (1995: 196) advocates chunking as a strategy that “can save short-term memory capacity requirements by unloading information from memory faster.” Similarly, Jones (1998) urges SI trainees to use a technique based on chunking that he coined the ‘salami technique.’ It involves slicing up long sentences into a number of shorter ones. He says, “The salami technique is particularly useful when working from languages that have a natural tendency to long, complicated sentences, particularly those that can have Russian doll-like structures, with one subordinate clause fitting in another one, which in turn fits into a main clause (such as the socalled Schachtelsätze in German)” (Jones 1998: 102).

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

Similar works:

«TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction........................................................ 1 ID Theft Victims: Immediate Steps.................................... 3 Helpful Hints...................................................... 3 Consumer Checklist................................................ 3 My...»

«THE HEALING LIGHT OF JESUS SESSION 3: MINISTERING HEALING TO OTHERS – GARY WIENS INTRODUCTION: Steps to get family/friends healed in the light. People are conflicted because of wounds in soul. Healing gives us compassion and patience for other. 1 Thessalonians 5:13-15 – give support to weak souls, showing patience, kindness and goodness. 1 Thessalonians 5:14 And we earnestly beseech you, brethren, admonish (warn and seriously advise) those who are out of line [the loafers, the disorderly,...»

«REGLAMENTO DEL CEMENTERIO SACRAMENTAL DE SAN PEDRO, SAN ANDRÉS Y SAN ISIDRO APROBADO EN JUNTA DE GOBIERNO CON FECHA 28 Abril 2009 INDICE: TITULO PRIMERO Capítulo I Disposiciones Generales Capítulo II Organización y Administración del Cementerio TITULO SEGUNDO.Del Título del “Derecho de Enterramiento” Capítulo I Naturaleza y Contenido Capítulo II De la modificación y extinción del “Derecho de Enterramiento” TITULO TERCERO.De los derechos y deberes de los usuarios Capítulo I...»

«Wing Commander Privateer Gemini Gold Wing Commander PRIVATEER Wing Commander Privateer Gemini Gold Privateer’s Manual Gemini Gold 1.03 Editor: John Cordell Wing Commander Privateer Gemini Gold Table of Contents IMPORTANT INTRODUCTION CREDITS GETTING STARTED ACQUIRING THE PROGRAM INSTALLING THE PROGRAM Windows Installation GNU/Linux Installation Mac Installation CONFIGURING PRIVATEER GEMINI GOLD LAUNCHING PRIVATEER GEMINI GOLD ON THE BASE THE CONCOURSE QUINE 4000 MISSION COMPUTER TRADING CARGO...»

«Colorectal Cancer Facts and Figures In support of the SPECTAcolor Biobank Project TURKEY Contact: Mathilde Fenoulhet, Fundraising Project Coordinator EORTC Headquarters mathilde.fenoulhet@eortc.be +32 2 774 15 17 SPECTAcolor: http://spectacolor.eortc.org Table of Contents 1. Colorectal Cancer Statistics 2. What is colon cancer? What is rectal cancer? 3. Main types of colorectal cancers 4. The Colon and Rectum 5. Understanding Cancer 6. Risk Factors and Prevention 7. Screening as part of...»

«National 4 Hairdressing: Skills for Work Course Specification Valid from August 2013 This edition: August 2013, version 2.0 This specification may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged. Additional copies of this Course Specification can be downloaded from SQA’s website: www.sqa.org.uk. Please refer to the note of changes at the end of this Course Specification...»

«European Society of Veterinary Pathology 24th Meeting Edinburgh, Scotland 31 August 2 September 2006 Abstracts Table of Contents Page Welcome from the President Welcome from the Chair of the Local Organising Committee. 4 Sponsors Programme Plenary Speakers Oral Presentations Poster Presentations Social Programme General Information Maps -2Welcome from the President Dear Participants of the 24th meeting of the European Society of Veterinary Pathology. The ESVP meets in Edinburgh for the second...»

«Trespassed on Press 177 Journalists Subjected of Press Freedom Violation in 177 Days of Madhesh Movement, August 16, 2015 – February 12, 2016 Binod Dhungel May 3, 2016 World Press Freedom Day Foreword 5 Introduction 6 General Background 6 Methodology 7 Mounted Aggression Against Press 8 1. After the Promulgation of the Constitution 8 Attacks on media houses 8 Journalists under bomb and bullet 8 Media persons manhandled/misbehaved 9 Journalists threatened 10...»

«CYBER RISK – A GLOBAL SYSTEMIC THREAT A White Paper to the Industry on Systemic Risk • October 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION PART ONE – INSTITUTIONAL CYBER RESILIENCE 1.1. Intelligence-Driven Defense 1.2. Attributes of High-Maturity Cyber Defense Programs 1.3. DTCC’s Perspective PART TWO – THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS 2.1. Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council 2.2. Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center...»

«GPSG Chartering form 2015-2016 GPSG CHARTER APPLICATION FORM for Graduate Student Organizations at UNC Charlotte If you wish to (1) Re-Charter your Graduate Student Organization (GSO) with the GPSG or (2) Charter a new GSO with the GPSG, please fill in this form. The deadline has been extended to September 25, 2015 at 11:45 PM. No more new or reCharters will be accepted after that date. If you need any assistance to fill in this form, please contact the GPSG Vice-President at...»

«Language in Society 28, 203–223. Printed in the United States of America “Why be normal?”: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls M A RY B U C H O LT Z Department of English Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843–4227 bucholtz@tamu.edu ABSTRACT The introduction of practice theory into sociolinguistics is an important recent development in the field. The community of practice provides a useful alternative to the speech-community model, which has limitations...»

«Journal of Peace, Conflict and Development www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk Issue 16, November 2010 The Dilemma of Niger-Delta Region as Oil Producing States of Nigeria P. O. Oviasuyi* Jim Uwadiae** Abstract This paper x-rayed the dilemma of Niger-Delta Region as oil producing states of Nigeria. By extension, the criminal neglect of the entire region was highlighted, and the various approaches to the de-development of the region were stated. The impressionistic efforts made by the Federal...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.