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«©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013 Background Information Plants cells and animal cells use chemical reactions to engage in photosynthesis and ...»

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Taste the Rainbow!

Using Skittles to explore the chemistry of photosynthesis

and cellular respiration

Name:__________________________• Class:____________________________

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

Background Information

Plants cells and animal cells use chemical reactions to engage in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

During this lab you will be using Skittles to represent the molecules found in photosynthesis and

respiration reactions. While studying these two reactions you will encounter the following molecules: CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2O (water), C6H12O6 (glucose), and O2 (oxygen).

As you know, photosynthesis is the process in which plants (also called autotrophs or producers) use water and the radiant energy of the sun to create simple sugar (glucose) as a food source with oxygen as one of the products of the reaction.

Cellular respiration is the process that takes place in the cells of organisms in which chemical reactions turn sugar (glucose) that we get from food along with oxygen into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the purposes of this lab, we will refer to ATP as “energy”, you can think of it as a kind of chemical battery that allows our body to store energy and rerelease it when needed.

The law of conservation of matter is a fundamental principle of science that states that matter is neither created nor destroyed, it simply changes forms. You will see that during photosynthesis and respiration that the number of atoms in the reactants (the “ingredients” on the left side of the formula) will equal the atoms in the products (the things that are given off after the “ingredients” undergo a chemical reaction, on the right side of the formula). You will also learn the molecules that make up the reactants and products for photosynthesis and respiration.

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

Directions:

1. Decide what color Skittle you are going to use to represent each kid of atom. Write the color below so you won’t forget.

_______________Carbon _______________Hydrogen _______________Oxygen

2. Complete the chart below. Use the provided equations to write out the common names of the molecules that are found in the reactants and products. For example, if NaCl were one of the molecules in the equation, you would write out Sodium Chloride (or salt) in the blank. Refer to the background information if you forgot the common names of any of the molecules.

Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O Reactants (ingredients) Products (Given off) Photosynthesis Respiration

3. How many total carbon atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? ____________

4. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? ______________

5. How many total atoms of hydrogen are there in the reactantsof photosynthesis? __________

6. How many total carbon atoms are there in the products of photosynthesis? ____________

7. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the products of photosynthesis? ______________

8. How many total atoms of hydrogen are there in the products of photosynthesis? __________ ©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

9. Place the correct color and number of Skittles you chose on all of the atoms of the reactants of photosynthesis. For example, if you chose red Skittles to represent carbon, place one red skittle for each atom of carbon on the reactants side. Arrange the Skittles in the correct order so they represent the molecules on the reactants side. Have your teacher check your model for accuracy.

10. Draw a colored picture of your Skittle representation of the photosynthesis and cellular respiration reaction (both the reactants and the products).

Photosynthesis:

Cellular respiration:

11.How many total carbon atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? _____________

12. How many total carbon atoms are there in the reactants of respiration? ________________

13. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? ___________

14. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the reactants of respiration? ______________

15. Do you notice a pattern between how many atoms are in the reactants and how many are in the products? Can you guess the significance of the pattern?

_____________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

16. How many total atoms of oxygen are there in the products of photosynthesis? ___________ ©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

Conclusion questions:

17. What were your observations about the photosynthesis and respiration formulas?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

18. What is the law of conservation of matter?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________





_____________________________________________________________________

19. How was the law of conservation of matter demonstrated in this lab?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

20. Why are the products of the photosynthesis reaction necessary for life on earth?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

21. BONUS: What is the relationship between the products of cellular respiration and our respiratory system?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

–  –  –

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013 Background Information Plants cells and animal cells use chemical reactions to engage in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

During this lab you will be using Skittles to represent the molecules found in photosynthesis and respiration reactions. While studying these two reactions you will encounter the following molecules: CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2O (water), C6H12O6 (glucose), and O2 (oxygen).

As you know, photosynthesis is the process in which plants (also called autotrophs or producers) use water and the radiant energy of the sun to create simple sugar (glucose) as a food source with oxygen as one of the products of the reaction.

Cellular respiration is the process that takes place in the cells of organisms in which chemical reactions turn sugar (glucose) that we get from food along with oxygen into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the purposes of this lab, we will refer to ATP as “energy”, you can think of it as a kind of chemical battery that allows our body to store energy and rerelease it when needed.

The law of conservation of matter is a fundamental principle of science that states that matter is neither created nor destroyed, it simply changes forms. You will see that during photosynthesis and respiration that the number of atoms in the reactants (the “ingredients” on the left side of the formula) will equal the atoms in the products (the things that are given off after the “ingredients” undergo a chemical reaction, on the right side of the formula). You will also learn the molecules that make up the reactants and products for photosynthesis and respiration.

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

Directions:

1. Decide what color Skittle you are going to use to represent each kid of atom. Write the color below so you won’t forget. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEACHER’S KEY WE

WILL USE THE FOLLOWING COLORS. YOUR STUDENTS WILL MOST

LIKELY CHOOSE DIFFERENT COLORS.

RED represents Carbon YELLOW represents Hydrogen PURPLE represents Oxygen

2. Complete the chart below. Use the provided equations to write out the common names of the molecules that are found in the reactants and products. For example, if NaCl were one of the molecules in the equation, you would write out Sodium Chloride (or salt) in the blank. Refer to the background information if you forgot the common names of any of the molecules.

Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

–  –  –

3. How many total carbon atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? 6 ©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

4. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? 18

MY STUDENTS OFTEN HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT WHY THE ANSWER IS 18.

STUDENTS NEED TO BE REMINDED THAT THEY NEED TO MULTIPLY THE 6

AT THE FRONT OF CO2 BY THE SUBSCRIPT 2, FOR A TOTAL OF 12. THEN

THEY NEED TO ADD THE 6 OXYGEN MOLECULES IN THE WATER

MOLECULE FOR A TOTAL OF 18. I USUALLY EXPLAIN THAT ANY MOLECULE

WITH NO SUBSCRIPT HAS AN UNDERSTOOD ONE IN FRONT OF IT SO YOU

ARE REALLY MULTIPLYING 6x1 TO GET 6.

5. How many total atoms of hydrogen are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? 12

6. How many total carbon atoms are there in the products of photosynthesis? 6

7. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the products of photosynthesis? 18

8. How many total atoms of hydrogen are there in the products of photosynthesis? 12

9. Place the correct color and number of Skittles you chose on all of the atoms of the reactants of photosynthesis. For example, if you chose red Skittles to represent carbon, place one red skittle for each atom of carbon on the reactants side. Arrange the Skittles in the correct order so they represent the molecules on the reactants side. Have your teacher check your model for accuracy.

OF COURSE STUDENT MODELS WILL LOOK DIFFERENT BASED ON THE

COLORS THEY CHOOSE, BUT SHOULD LOOK SOMETHING LIKE THE

EXAMPLE BELOW.

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

10. Draw a colored picture of your Skittle representation of the photosynthesis and cellular respiration reaction (both the reactants and the products).

Photosynthesis:

Cellular respiration:

STUDENT ANSWERS WILL VARY, MAY LOOK LIKE THE EXAMPLE ABOVE,

OR A VARIATION. I USUALLY CHECK THAT THE FORMULA AND COLORS

ARE CORRECT, BEYOND THAT I SIMPLY LOOK FOR CREATIVE EFFORT.

11.How many total carbon atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? 6

12. How many total carbon atoms are there in the reactants of respiration? 6

13. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the reactants of photosynthesis? 18

14. How many total oxygen atoms are there in the reactants of respiration? 18

15. Do you notice a pattern between how many atoms are in the reactants and how many are in the products? Can you guess the significance of the pattern?

STUDENTS SHOULD NOTICE THAT THE ATOMS IN THE REACTANTS AND

THE PRODUCTS ARE THE SAME. THE SIGNIFICANCE IS THAT THE

EQUATION IS BALANCED, AND IT FOLLOWS THE RULES OF THE LAW OF

CONSERVATION OF MATTER.

16. How many total atoms of oxygen are there in the products of photosynthesis? 18 ©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

Conclusion questions:

17. What were your observations about the photosynthesis and respiration formulas?

STUDENT ANSWERS WILL VARY, BUT STUDENTS SHOULD NOTICE THAT

THE ATOMS ARE REARRANGED INTO DIFFERENT MOLECULES, AND THAT

NO ATOMS WERE LOST OR GAINED.

18. What is the law of conservation of matter?

THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER IS A FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE

OF SCIENCE THAT STATES THAT MATTER IS NEITHER CREATED OR

DESTROYED, IT SIMPLY CHANGES FORMS.

19. How was the law of conservation of matter demonstrated in this lab?

STUDENTS SHOULD NOTICE THAT WE DO NOT GAIN OR LOSE ANY ATOMS WE

JUST REARRANGE THEM TO MAKE DIFFERENT MOLECULES.

20. Why is the photosynthesis reaction necessary for life on earth?

ONE OF THE PRODUCTS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS OXYGEN GAS, NECESSARY FOR

HUMAN LIFE.

21. BONUS: What is the relationship between the products of cellular respiration and our respiratory system?

ONE OF THE PRODUCTS OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION IS CARBON DIOXIDE GAS, A

WASTE PRODUCT THAT OUR RESPIRATORY SYSTEM GETS RID OF WHEN WE

EXHALE.

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES AND CLASS STARTER

I USUALLY USE THIS CLASS STARTER THE DAY AFTER WE COMPLETE THE LAB, BUT

IF YOU HAVE ADVANCED STUDENTS THEY MAY BENEFIT FROM DOING THIS

PRIOR TO THE LAB. TEACHER KEY BELOW, STUDENT COPY ON FOLLOWING PAGE

–  –  –

©T. Givens •Mister Science 2013

THE DIAGRAM BELOW SHOWS HOW MATTER AND ENERGY

INTERACT DURING THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. LIST

THE WORDS OF THE SUBSTANCES THAT ARE NEEDED AS RAW



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