WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 33 |

«by AMM Quamruzzaman A thesis submitted to the Department of Sociology in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Queen's ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

THE MILITIA MOVEMENT IN BANGLADESH

Ideology, Motivation, Mobilization, Organization, and Ritual

by

AMM Quamruzzaman

A thesis submitted to the Department of Sociology

in conformity with the requirements for

the degree of Master of Arts

Queen's University

Kingston, Ontario, Canada

May, 2010

Copyright © AMM Quamruzzaman 2010

Abstract

In the post-9/11 world, Bangladesh has been identified as a new hub of the Al-Qaeda network in

South Asia. Most of the contemporary national and international media reports, security documents, and even academic studies point to the fact that an Islamist movement is on the dramatic rise in Bangladesh in recent years. These reports and studies portray the Islamist movement as closely linked with terrorism and devoid of any historical roots and relations with other types of movement. Contrary to this view, this study argues that the Islamist movement is not an unprecedented phenomenon but historically linked with a broader militia movement which subsequently leads to the emergence of Bangladesh as a nation state in 1971. Since its inception, the nation state is dealing not only with the Islamist movement but also with two other types of militia movement almost simultaneously – the leftwing and the ethnic. Having identified these three types, this study defines the militia movement in terms of five analytical categories – ideology, motivation, mobilization, organization, and ritual – following Freilich and others. It analyzes the Bangladesh militia movement in terms of these five dimensions, providing historical-empirical data from both primary and secondary sources to show how the contemporary militias are carrying forward the legacy of their historical forerunners. This study concludes with policy recommendations on how informed decisions can be made to effectively deal with the militia issue.

ii Acknowledgements My interest in comparative criminology begins when I took a course on Advanced Issues in Socio-Legal Studies during the winter of 2009. Since then, I have always tried to relate various criminological theories studied in the course with the socio-legal issues in Bangladesh, the country I have come from. I am indebted to Professor Stephen W. Baron, the instructor of the course, for the inspiration, insight and encouragement that he has provided to me to study a contemporary pressing issue in Bangladesh – the militia movement.

I have also received insightful feedbacks, constructive suggestions, and encouraging comments from my thesis supervisor, Professor Rob Beamish. I was a Teaching Assistant of his course during the fall of 2008, which discussedon social movements, organization, ideology, and war among other topics. I have taken many ideas from his discussions and incorporated them into my thesis. With proper guidance and supervision from Professor Rob Beamish, I have completed my work on time. Thanks are not enough to express my gratitude to him.

To collect the data for the study, I visited my field in Bangladesh. For this purpose, I received a partial financial support from the Blakely Family Student Initiatives Fund. I am grateful to the Blakely Family for this generous support. I am also thankful to Wendy Schuler, Joan Westenhaefer, and Michelle Ellis for their overall assistance.

Finally, I acknowledge the contributions of my parents Mohd. Mowla Baksha and Shamsunnahar Begum, my wife Afroza Parvin, our beloved chilfren Cleon Aristo and Orion Alex, and the vibrant Bangladeshi community here in Kingston who have always provided me with much needed inspiration, mental support and understanding to complete my study successfully.

–  –  –

Abstract

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, Images

List of Acronyms

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Literature Review

Chapter 3 Militia Ideology

Chapter 4 Militia Motivation

Chapter 5 Resource Mobilization

Chapter 6 Militia Organization

Chapter 7 Militia Ritual

Chapter 8 Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix A Major Militia Groups in Bangladesh

Appendix B JMB Leaflet 2005

–  –  –

Tables Table 1: Basic Data about Bangladesh

Table 2: Quantities of arms and explosives recovered (April 2004 – December 2007).............. 122 Table 3: Ideology and other features of major militia groups in Bangladesh

Figures Figure 1: An analytical model of the militia movement

Figure 2: Map showing distance between West Pakistan and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)... 59 Figure 3: Map showing internal displacement in Bangladesh

Figure 4: Map of Bangladesh showing the locations of major rebellions (1947-2003)............... 112 Images Image 1: Banners, festoons, and placards used in Hizb ut-Tahrir's demonstration in Dhaka...... 137 Image 2: A demonstration of the networks of influence in New York

Image 3: A public display of violence

Image 4: Training of SB militias in jungle warfare

Image 5: Ceremonials of a public meeting

Image 6: JMB leaflet 2005

v List of Acronyms

AHAB Ahl-e Hadith Andolan (People of Hadith Movement) AL Awami League (Mass Peoples League) BAKSAL Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (Bangladesh Peasants, Industrial Workers, and Mass People's League) BDR Bangladesh Rifles BIISS Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies BJP Bharatiya Janata Party BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party CCOMPOSA Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia CHT Chittagong Hill Tracts CID Criminal Investigation Department CUFL Chittagong Urea Fertilizer Limited DGFI Directorate General of Forces Intelligence EBR East Bengal Regiment EBWM East Bengal Workers' Movement EPR East Pakistan Rifles GMF Gono Mukti Fouz (People's Liberation Soldiers) GOB Government of Bangladesh HUJI Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami (Movement for an Islamic Holy War) HWF Hill Women's Federation ICS Islami Chhatra Shibir (Islamic Student Camp) IOJ Islami Okiya Jote (United Islamic Front) ISI Inter Services Intelligence (Pakistan intelligence agency) JMB Jamaat-ul Mujahidin Bangladesh (Party of Mujahidin Bangladesh) JMJB Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (Awakened Muslim Masses of Bangladesh) JI Jamaat-e-Islam (Party of Islam) JSD Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (National Socialist Party) LWE Left-Wing Extremism NAP National Awami Party NBCP New Biplobi (Revolutionary) Communist Party vi NSCN National Socialist Council of Nagaland NSI National Security Intelligence PBCP Purba Banglar Communist Party (Communist Party of East Bengal) PBSP Purba Bangla Sarbohara Party (East Bengal Proletarian Party) PCJSS Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti (Chittagong Hill Tracts People's Solidarity Organization) PCP Pahari Chattra Parishad (Hill Students' Council) RAW Research and Analysis Wing (Indian intelligence agency) RCP Rangamati Communist Party RIHS Revival of Islamic Heritage Society RPF Rohingya Patriotic Front RSO Rohingya Solidarity Organization SATP South Asia Terrorism Portal SB Shanti Bahini (Peace Army) TJ Tablighi Jamaat (Proselytization Society) UAB Ulema Anjuman al-Baiyinaat (Clerics' Circle of Clear Understanding) ULFA United Liberation Front of Assam UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UPDF United Peoples Democratic Front USAID United States Agency for International Development VDP Village Defence Police

–  –  –





Demonizing the militia movement as terrorism has often increased the suffering of common people rather than solving their problems. If the pressing problems the common people persistently suffer from are addressed properly and with good intentions, then there is no need to declare wars against terror by the hegemonic powers at national and international levels. Wars and fights – when they persist – only benefit those who exercise the power while those who have to follow their commands and those who are not one of the parties in the battle are the common victims of all misfortunes. Even wining a battle by those who fight against the incumbent hegemonic powers does not end the mass suffering.

The US-declared global war on terror after the September 11, 2001 incidence led to two subsequent invasions in Afghanistan and Iraq. However, the sufferings and sacrifices of the common people in these countries did not end. Thousands of innocent people died and they are still dying as victims of the invasions. The global war on terror has in fact globalized terrorism and it particularly labeled Islamist militias as terrorists, firstly by calling it a 'Crusade' and secondly by directing it towards Muslim countries only. Moreover, short-sighted "politicization tends to indiscriminately cluster together nationalists, freedom fighters, resistance movements and out-and-out terrorists," equating the militia movement with terrorism.1 Bangladesh, a small Muslim country in South Asia, is not out of the globalizing impact – it has been identified as the hub of the Al-Qaeda network in South Asia. Consider, for example, The Washington Post article on "A New Hub of Terrorism? In Bangladesh, an Islamic Movement with Al-Qaeda Ties is on the Rise." The author of the article Selig S. Harrison comments: "While 1 Mufleh R. Osmany, "Chairman's Speech. Global War on Terror: Bangladesh Perspective" in Mufleh R.

Osmany and Mohammad Humayun Kabir (eds.), Global War on Terror: Bangladesh Perspective (Dhaka:

APPL and BIISS, 2007), p.10.

1 the United States dithers, a growing Islamic fundamentalist movement linked to al-Qaeda and Pakistani intelligence agencies is steadily converting the strategically located nation of Bangladesh into a new regional hub for terrorist operations that reach into India and Southeast Asia."2 There are hundreds of reports like this made available to the public by national, regional and international news media and intelligence sources. The major claims of these reports are as follows: (i) the Islamist militancy is on the rise in Bangladesh; (ii) Bangladesh is being Talibanized by Islamist militants; (iii) Bangladesh is going to be another Afghanistan; (iv) Bangladesh is becoming a regional terrorist hub linked with Al-Qaeda; (v) Bangladesh is emerging as a new hub of pro-Bin Laden jihadi terrorism, and so forth.3 Two things are noteworthy about the claims: (i) it seems that there is only Islamist terrorism or Islamist militancy in Bangladesh which is mainly linked with the Al-Qaeda network, and (ii) the Islamist militancy is on the rise only after September 11, 2001. In reality, there are at least three types of militants – I would call them militias – in Bangladesh, one of them being the Islamist. The other two types – leftwing and ethnic – are as important as the Islamist because they have been waging a movement for a long time to initiate a change in the society. Since independence from Pakistan in 1971, Bangladesh is dealing with these three types of militias almost simultaneously.

In August 1947, the British rule in India came to an end. According to the popular demand of that time, British India was divided into two countries – Pakistan as a separate homeland for the Muslims and India as a homeland for the majority Hindu population. The partition of the two 2 See Selig S. Harrison, "A New Hub of Terrorism? In Bangladesh, an Islamic Movement with Al-Qaeda Ties is on the Rise," The Washington Post, August 2, 2006; available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/01/AR2006080101118.html, accessed January 30, 2010.

3 For a comprehensive list of sources that made those claims, see Congressional Research Service report on "Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations" by Bruce Vaughn, updated on August 2, 2007, available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33646.pdf, accessed January 31, 2010; and South Asia Analysis Group report on "Bangladesh & Jihadi Terrorism" by B. Rahman, updated on January 7, 2004; available at http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers9/paper887.html, accessed January 30, 2010.

2 countries was done in such a way that from the very inception, Pakistan was divided into two separate geographical parts, East and West. The distance between East Pakistan and West Pakistan was over 3,000 km with vast Indian territory in the middle. The two parts of Pakistan were not only geographically separate but also ethnically distinct. Of the total population of federal Pakistan, East Pakistan was the home of over 60 percent people who spoke in Bangla, unlike the people of West Pakistan who spoke in Urdu. However, the Urdu-speaking West Pakistanis dominated the politics and administration of Pakistan and through their discriminatory policies created wide-spread grievances among the Bangla-speaking people in East Pakistan. This ultimately led to the Bangladesh movement which was advanced on the principles of Bengali nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy, rejecting the religion-based ideology of the Pakistan movement, and resulted into the independence of Bangladesh as a nation-state in 1971 through a violent war largely fought by scores of private militia groups assisted by India. The Bangladesh movement is the first militia movement in the history of the new nation.

Ironically, within a couple of years after the formation of Bangladesh, the key leaders of the Bangladesh movement were assassinated in a military coup in 1975 and the country was under the military rule for the next fifteen years. The military rulers were those Bengali Muslim Generals who served in the Pakistan army before the liberation war and fought a battle against India in 1965. After 1975, they took pro-Islam policy and tried to keep a distance from India.

They removed the fundamental principles of Bengali nationalism, secularism, and socialism from the original constitution of 1972 and created opportunities for the Islamist parties, which were banned in the newly independent country, to take part in the open politics. They utilized Islam to legitimize their rule. Although about 90 percent of the population in Bangladesh is Muslim, most of them are liberal Muslims who do not support radical Islamism. However, with the support

–  –  –

create a fairly wide support-base in the country by now.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 33 |


Similar works:

«Talent Time 2014 Rules KAGW Entertainment Team In order to enter into the Talent Time Competition, Participants must agree to be bound by these rules and indicate acceptance when completing their online registration. KAGW reserves the right to solely determine eligibility for the reasons stated herein or on any other reasonable basis. KAGW also reserves the right to make minor alterations to rules at any time, and you agree to abide by the most recent version of these rules. You are accordingly...»

«Pulsed Laser Diode for use as a Light Source for Short-Exposure, High-Frame-Rate Flow Visualization N. J. Parziale∗ B. E. Schmidt† J. S. Damazo† P. S. Wang† H. G. Hornung† and J. E. Shepherd†,,,,, A pulsed laser diode (PLD) is demonstrated as a practical light source for high-speed digital schlieren and shearing-interferometric cinematogrpahy. Frame rates of greater than 300k fps with exposure times on the order of 10 ns have been achieved with an inexpensive and user-friendly...»

«Scholarship Students 2013/14 Grow. Discover. Dream. Cosima Graef Academic Scholarship • SEAMC participant 2012/13 • Secondary writing competition 2011/12 • U12 Cobras badminton team Grow. Discover. Dream. Emily Choi Academic Scholarship • Earned Distinction in ICAS, Mathematics • Earned High Distinction in ICAS, English • Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth summer program Grow. Discover. Dream. Barak Michaelis Academic Scholarship • DC Cobras basketball, cross...»

«MSc Student Handbook Introduction and Welcome! Welcome to the School of Food Science & Nutrition at the University of Leeds. The Staff here hope that you are ready to commence your studies, and that you will find your time here both enjoyable and rewarding. The MSc Student Handbook is intended to be a source of useful information about the School and how it operates. Included, amongst other things, is full information about the courses and modules available in the School, how student progress...»

«Possible Bacon Allusions Barry R. Clarke Preliminary Here we shall present some interesting occurrences of Bacon’s name in the Shake-speare work. There is no intention to associate Bacon with esoteric theories, only to represent him as one who might have had the humour and imagination to leave his signature. The reader must decide for himself how likely it is that the examples that follow were intentionally placed there. There is evidence that Shake-speare inserted topical references in his...»

«Lasting Screen Stars Lucy Bolton • Julie Lobalzo Wright Editors Lasting Screen Stars Images that Fade and Personas that Endure Editors Lucy Bolton • Julie Lobalzo Wright School of Languages, Linguistics and Film Queen Mary University of London London, UK ISBN 978-1-137-40732-0 ISBN 978-1-137-40733-7 (eBook) DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-40733-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016936089 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 The author(s) has/have asserted their right(s) to be...»

«Final Report: Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum Online (ITLC Online) by Linda Robinson, Joyce Johanson, Carol Schneider, and Patricia Hutinger Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood Western Illinois University Macomb, Illinois 61455 December 2006 H327A030048 Table of Contents Executive Summary Overview Theoretical Framework Foundations of ITLC Online Review of the Literature Emergent Literacy Benefits of Technology for Children Advantages of Web-based Training for Adults...»

«Aetiology of pressure ulcers Sandra Loerakker October, 2007 BMTE 07.39 Promotor: prof. dr. ir. F.P.T. Baaijens Coach: dr. ir. C.W.J. Oomens Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Biomedical Engineering Section Materials Technology Division Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Contents 1 General information 2 1.1 Prevalence and costs of pressure ulcers................... 2 1.2 Classification systems............................ 2 1.3 Risk...»

«PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN THE DRC’S MINING SECTOR: DEVELOPMENT, GOOD GOVERNANCE AND THE STRUGGLE AGAINST CORRUPTION? ASADHO/KATANGA On the occasion of the international conference, Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption. New Frontiers in PublicPrivate Partnerships which is being organized on 14 and 15 March 2007 in Brussels by the Belgian Government in collaboration with the World Bank and the OECD, we would like to present a number of recommendations that we believe will...»

«ARTICLE Game Theory as an Instrument for the Analysis of International Relations Hector Correa 1. Introduction International relations, as characterized, among other authors, by Evans and Newnham (1998, pp. 274n), Lake and Powell (1999, pp. 3n), Reynolds (1994, pp. 15n) and Wolfers (1991, pp. 31n) deals with the interactions among specific actors which include nation-states, international organizations, and multinational corporations. From this it follows that game theory, whose objective is...»

«Mercedes de Acosta (1934). Courtesy of the Rosenbach Museum & Library.Black and White: Mercedes de Acosta’s Glorious Enthusiasms Patricia White A June 1934 Vanity Fair item highlighted for its readers the latest roles of movie royalty Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich as Queen Christina and Catherine the Great, respectively, with “a composite photograph by Edward Steichen,” “ingeniously constructed by superimposing two separate pictures... [of] those rival Nordic deities of...»

«Working Document of the NPC Study: Arctic Potential: Realizing the Promise of U.S. Arctic Oil and Gas Resources Made Available March 27, 2015 Paper #8-3 BEHAVIOR OF SPILLED OIL – CURRENT PRACTICE/OPERATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGY CONSTRAINTS, AND OPPORTUNITIES Prepared for the Technology & Operations Subgroup On March 27, 2015, the National Petroleum Council (NPC) in approving its report, Arctic Potential: Realizing the Promise of U.S. Arctic Oil and Gas Resources, also approved the making available...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.