«ISBN: 978-91-637-7154-5 Author and editor: Louise Olsson, Martin Åhlin, Marielle Sundin, Anna Lidström Layout: Advant Produktionsbyrå © Folke ...»
, PEACE AND
CURITY IN THE
SON, MARTIN ÅHLIN,
AND ANNA LIDSTRÖM
GENDER, PEACE AND SECURITY IN THE
EUROPEAN UNION’S FIELD MISSIONSAssessments of EUMM Georgia and EUPOL COPPS Palestinian Territories with observations from EULEX Kosovo Please cite as: Olsson, Louise et al. (2014) ”Gender, Peace and Security in the European Union’s Field Missions”, Stockholm, Folke Bernadotte Academy.
ISBN: 978-91-637-7154-5 Author and editor: Louise Olsson, Martin Åhlin, Marielle Sundin, Anna Lidström Layout: Advant Produktionsbyrå © Folke Bernadotte Academy 2014
TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD
FOCUS AND LIMITATIONS
DESIGN AND MATERIAL
2 UNDERSTANDING GENDER POLICY
2.1 EXISTING KNOWLEDGE ON GENDER AND PEACE MISSIONS
3 THE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK
3.1 EXTERNAL WORK: THE MISSION AREA
3.2 INTERNAL WORK: ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL
4 MAIN FINDINGS FROM THE FIELD
4.1 THE EUMM GEORGIA
4.2 THE EUPOL COPPS PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES
4.3 OBSERVATIONS FROM THE EULEX KOSOVO
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 CONCLUSIONS ON MANDATE IMPLEMENTATION
5.2 CONCLUSIONS ON COOPERATION WITH NATIONAL ACTORS
5.3 CONCLUSIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY............. 54
5.4 CONCLUSIONS ON EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT... 56
FOREWORDONE OF THE CORNERSTONES of the Folke Bernadotte Academy’s (FBA) mandate to support peace and crisis management operations is the implement ation, both nationally and internationally, of United Nations Security Council resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. In 2012, the Swedish Government assigned usto examine how resolution 1325 is implemented in the European Union’s (EU) Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) missions.
FBA’S UNSCR 1325 PROGRAM, consisting of Dr. Louise Olsson, Martin Åhlin, Marielle Sundin and Anna Lidström, and supported by Gabriela Elroy and Agata Szymanska, have conducted a comprehensive assessment of the work with resolution 1325 in CSDP missions. This report is much needed and provides us not only with valuable insights on the gaps in current field missions, but also valuable lessons and recommendations, directly translated from actors on ground.
THE ADOPTION OF RESOLUTION 1325 in year 2000 has altered the way the international community views conflicts, and hence also ways to achieve peace.
That said, this report demonstrates that in order for enforcement truly to happen in field missions, a more strategic approach led by decision makers at the highest levels of EU crisis management must take place. Currently the work is instead often in the hands of individual personnel and the Gender Adviser. While this is equally essential, unfortunately, it is far from enough.
WITH COMMITMENT, RESPECT AND EXPERTISE, we strive for the attainment of peace, security and development.
STOCKHOLM 01–12–2014 SvenEric Söder Director General 7
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIn 2012, the FBA was assigned by the Swedish Government to examine the implementation of the UN Security Council resolutions on Women, Peace and Security in CSDP missions. The project involved two components: a) a review of central EU policy documents on gender and UN Security Council resolutions on Women, Peace and Security completed in 2012 (see Olsson and Sundström et al. 2012) and b) an assessment of the implementation of UN Security Council resolutions on Women, Peace and Security in a selected number of CSDP missions, conducted in 2013. This report is the result of the second part of the assignment. The project has been led by Louise Olsson and conducted by a team consisting of Martin Åhlin, Marielle Sundin, Karin Sundström and Anna Lidström with support of the FBA’s Deputy Head of Department for Education, Training and Exercises, Gabriela Elroy.
The research team wishes to express a very warm thank you to everyone who has assisted in completing the project. We would especially like to thank the European External Action Service for all their invaluable assistance with the field visits. Particularly, we would like to thank Head of Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability Hansjörg Haber, Head of Crisis Management and Planning Department Walter Stevens and Rule of Law Adviser Marta Costantino. We would also like to thank the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, particularly Ann Marie Bolin Pennegård, Erik Widman, Vanda Czifra, Anders Skiöldebrand, Karin LissOla and Louise Morsing.
For the field studies performed in Georgia, Palestine and Kosovo we would like to thank all who we interviewed and who shared their valuable experience with us. For making our visits to EUMM Georgia possible we would particularly like to thank the Acting Head of Mission Gerard Fischer, Gender Adviser AnneBirgitte Hansen and Executive Assistant to the Deputy Head of Mission Luca Dussart Illies. For all the help with arranging our visit to EUPOL COPPS Palestinian Territories, we are grateful for the support from Head of Mission Kenneth Deane, Police Gender Adviser Tilly Stroosnijder and Human Rights Expert Jeff Hoppenbrouwers. Last, but not least, for the assistance with our visit to EULEX Kosovo, we would like to thank Head of Mission Bernd Borchardt, Gender Adviser Violeta Rexha and Special Assistant to Deputy Head of Mission Victoria Bullock.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYHow can we strengthen the work with UN Security Council resolutions on Women, Peace and Security in the EU’s field missions? More specifically, how can we act more strategically to reinforce gender mainstreaming,1 make use of gender specific measures,2 and increase women’s participation3 in civilian CSDP missions? An indepth assessment of two long running missions – European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) in Georgia and European Union Police Mission for the Palestinian Territories (EUPOL COPPS) – and observations from the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX Kosovo) deepen our understanding of the practical realities of such work in the field.
Thereby, this report seeks to contribute to the realization of EU Gender Policy which is based on the UN resolutions. Finally, the report presents recommenda tions on how to strengthen ongoing work.
The report shows that it is time for a more strategic approach undertaken by decision makers at the highest levels of EU crisis management. While there are important efforts being made by Gender Advisers and by individual personnel, a great deal of work remains to be done in order to enforce EU’s own policy in this area. Hence, much more effort needs to be made both at EU Headquarters and by the missions’ leadership – the latter identified as a key group of imple menters at the field level (see Council of the European Union 2012). A more strategic and institutional approach would be in line with current international focus on accountability as outlined in the UN Security Council resolution 2122 (October 2013). Progress in the field could be followed up in standardized yearly reports to the European External Action Service and Member States on implementation of the resolutions on Women, Peace and Security within CSDP missions and operations. The reporting template could build on EU’s indicators.
RECOMMENDATIONS: DEFINE MANDATE OBJECTIVES AND
DEVELOP GUIDELINESThe assessment shows that there is a need for strategic mainstreaming. This means formulating concrete objectives on the strategic level for each CSDP mission for which the mission should be required to report results. These objectives should be based on the UN resolutions on Women, Peace and Security but relate directly to the main mandate assignments of the mission. For example, for a rule of law mission, this could take the form of: “Both men and women benefit 1 In short, this means efforts to adapt the mission’s main work on mandate implementation to ensure that it improves the situation for both men and women in the host population (see Olsson and Sundström et al. 2012 for further discussions about definitions and understandings of gender mainstreaming in the EU).
2 This entails actions meant to directly support gender equality developments or improve women’s situation.
3 This relates to efforts to ensure both the participation of men and women from the host society and the participation of male and female personnel in the mission (‘gender balancing’).
11 from access to the justice system.” The formulation of specific objectives serves to clarify and strengthen the institutionalization of gender mainstreaming.
This is important as the work with ‘gender’ has so far been due primarily to personnel’s conviction rather than being part of regular implementation. The foundation for strategic mainstreaming exists in EU Gender Policy. This out lines a number of mandate areas – such as rule of law, security sector reform (including police reform) and governance – that have gender specific effects.
Gender specific effects mean that the ways these mandate areas are imple mented affect women and men differently. However, the assessment found that today there was very little of an institutionalized or strategic approach to the implementation of the missions’ mandates to handle such differences. In fact, a gender analysis of the mandate – to create clarity from the outset of a mission as to what the mandate will mean for both men and women – had most often not been performed. The use of genderdisaggregated data and information in early reports back to EU Headquarters would also make the strategic level better equipped to include gender aspects in the main operational documents.
At present, the lack of an analysis results in vagueness, i.e. unclear objectives.
Moreover, if local gender developments were explicitly included in the main operational documents, they were often in an annex to the Concept of Operations (CONOPS) or Operation Plan (OPLAN) and limited to a few tasks in the Mission Implementation Plan. Increased clarity at the strategic and opera tional level is important as vagueness propagates down to the implementation (tactical) level. Here, it was unclear to a majority of personnel what they were expected to achieve. Fortunately, this does not mean that no work was being performed. Quite a number of personnel in all three missions assessed had tried, based on personal competence, to adapt their work in order to take into account the specific situations of men and women in the host population.
Most often, however, they did not consider this to be gender mainstreaming, although that is what they, in effect, had been doing.
In short, there was a high degree of uncertainty and, as a result, many inter viewees asked for a clarification about the mission’s objectives. In addition, they expressed that there is a need for more developed guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures at their level of implementation and for their specific tasks. For example, monitors in the EUMM Georgia requested simple and basic guidelines on how to conduct genderaware monitoring.
RECOMMENDATION: DEVELOP CLEARER GUIDELINES FOR
INTERACTING WITH NATIONAL ACTORSThe assessment finds that there is a need for a more institutionalized app roach to local women’s participation. This could be accomplished by devel oping clearer guidelines for interactions with national actors and by increasing the support from the mission’s leadership. The UN resolutions on Women, Peace and Security and EU Gender Policy specify that a CSDP mission needs to interact with both men and women. All three missions struggled in this area.
Most notably, the assessment stressed the need to be more explicit in terms of developing practices about how to work with different types of actors, such as counterparts in the host government and interlocutors in the population. In the absence of careful consideration, the main counterparts and interlocutors tend to be men but there are ways in which more women could be involved.
With regard to civil society organizations, women’s organizations were in contact with all three missions, but the procedures by which this was done were often underdeveloped. Thus, there is also a need to develop and clarify the practices by which CSDP missions should support women’s organizations (or women dominated organizations) working on issues related to the mandate. There was, at times, even a confusion between women’s organizations working on issues related to the mandate (such as security sector reform or rule of law) and women’s organizations working to more directly improve women’s rights and gender equality in the host society. The vagueness of EU Gender Policy about this point is, therefore, visible in the practices of CSDP missions.
RECOMMENDATIONS: CREATE STRONGER ORGANIZATIONAL
AND PROFESSIONAL CAPACITYThe assessment found that there is a need to continue to create stronger organizational capacity. This is important in order to both succeed with strategic mainstreaming and make the best use of gender specific measures for the benefit of the mission. In parallel, there is a need to develop the professional capacity of personnel, primarily through training. Concerning organizational capacity, the field assessments began by reviewing the role of the support functions – the Gender Adviser, Gender Focal Points and Gender Specialists/Experts.
The findings underline the need to strengthen these functions. As part of this work, there are interesting international developments on which to build.