«Environmental Assessment/ Overseas Environmental Assessment April 2010 Commander Pacific Missile Range Facility P.O. Box 128 Kekaha, Kauai, Hawaii ...»
Pacific Missile Range Facility
Intercept Test Support
Overseas Environmental Assessment
Pacific Missile Range Facility
P.O. Box 128
Kekaha, Kauai, Hawaii 96752-0128
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188
1a. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION1b. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified
2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF REPORTDistribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE
5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S)
4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S)
6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION(If applicable) U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense SMDC-ENN Command/U.S. Army Forces Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) P.O. Box 1500 Huntsville, Alabama 35807-3801
9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER8a. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL ORGANIZATION (if applicable) Commander, Pacific Missile Range Facility
10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) P.O. Box 128 PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT NO. NO.
Kekaha, Kauai, Hawaii 96752-0128
11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Pacific Missile Range Facility Intercept Test Support Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment (Unclassified)
12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Pacific Missile Range Facility Intercept Test Support Team, Mr. David Hasley, Chairman
(Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The U.S. Navy has prepared this Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment (EA/OEA) to evaluate and disclose the environmental consequences of updating the capabilities of the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Kauai, HI to support future tests of Ballistic Missile Defense intercept technologies.
The Proposed Action for this EA/OEA is to further enhance the intercept capabilities of missile defense tests at PMRF. The Proposed Action would support and maintain future Department of Defense (Army, Navy), Missile Defense Agency, and other potential customers' research, development, test, and evaluation activities, and associated range capabilities (including hardware and infrastructure improvements).
The Proposed Action would also include testing defensive missile systems such as the Aegis Ashore Missile Defense program, which would adapt the Aegis Standard Missile and AN/SPY-1 Radar for land-based operations. These programs would involve the placement of additional landbased systems at PMRF, including required missile launcher, radar, and support facilities.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroduction The United States (U.S.) Department of the Navy (Navy) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA)/Overseas Environmental Assessment (OEA) to evaluate and discuss the environmental consequences of updating the capabilities of the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Kauai, HI to support future tests of Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) intercept technologies. This EA/OEA is in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 United States Code § 4321 et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] §§ 1500-1508 ); Department of the Navy Procedures for Implementing NEPA (32 CFR § 775 ); and Executive Order 12114, Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions. The NEPA process ensures that environmental impacts of proposed major Federal actions are considered in the decision-making process. Executive Order 12114 requires environmental consideration for actions that may significantly harm the environment of the global commons (e.g., environment outside U.S. Territorial Seas). This EA/OEA satisfies the requirements of both NEPA and Executive Order 12114.
Background PMRF is located in Hawaii on and off the western shores of the island of Kauai and includes broad ocean areas to the north, south, and west. The relative isolation of PMRF, a year-round tropical climate, and an open ocean area relatively free of human interference are significant factors in PMRF’s excellent record of safely conducting testing and training activities. PMRF has a mission to provide training for Navy and other Department of Defense (DoD) personnel using existing equipment and technologies for real-world requirements to maintain and achieve required states of readiness. PMRF is a Major Range and Test Facility Base and as such supports the full spectrum of DoD Test and Evaluation requirements, such as research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) programs developed by the DoD (Navy, Army) and the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). PMRF also is the world’s largest instrumented, multienvironment, military test range capable of supporting subsurface, surface, air, and space operations.
PMRF consists of 1,100 square nautical miles (nm2) of instrumented underwater ranges, 42,000 nm2 of controlled airspace, and a Temporary Operating Area (TOA) covering 2.1-million nm2 of ocean area. The TOA was established to support missile defense testing and extends primarily north and west of Kauai. The range and speed of the weapon and missile systems tested at PMRF require the large TOA to contain debris and expended materials from test missions.
To ensure safe operations, PMRF requests use of the airspace from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) during missile defense testing. The FAA issues a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) to prevent aircraft from flying into specific areas of airspace until testing is complete.
Purpose and Need The purpose of the Proposed Action is to provide PMRF with the enhanced capability to further test and evaluate Navy and DoD BMD systems, as well as train personnel in the use of these systems.
More specifically, the purpose of the Proposed Action is to:
Enhance PMRF’s range capability and support facilities in order to support future requirements of testing existing and new BMD programs at PMRF.
Evaluate airspace needed to accommodate more complex intercept engagement scenarios for missile defense test programs.
Upgrade base activities and facilities to support future fleet training, land-based training, RDT&E activities, and base operations and maintenance activities as required.
Provide additional capabilities to ensure safe conduct and evaluation of training and RDT&E missions in a modern, multi-threat, multi-dimensional environment, for future programs, which would continue as fully integrated range services, at PMRF.
The ability to provide complex missile defense testing scenarios is a major concern and goal of the U.S. Navy; therefore, the implementation of the Proposed Action is needed because missile defense tests are becoming increasingly more complicated with multiple engagements, longer time of flight, intercepts at higher altitudes, and increased closing velocities.
PMRF needs these additional enhancements to deliver quality data products to improve the customers’ abilities to achieve readiness and other national defense objectives. Targets which simulate the characteristics of incoming hostile missiles are required. To be effective, future testing and engagement scenarios will need to be conducted in a more realistic fashion. PMRF needs these additional enhancements to deliver quality data products to improve the nation’s abilities to achieve readiness and other national defense objectives.
Proposed Action The Proposed Action for this EA/OEA is to further enhance the intercept test capabilities of PMRF. This enhancement includes the construction and modification of PMRF facilities to test new land-based interceptor systems and the enhancement of current intercept test capabilities of PMRF. The Proposed Action would support and maintain DoD (Army, Navy), MDA, and other potential customers’ RDT&E operations, and associated range capabilities (including hardware and infrastructure improvements).
Under the Proposed Action, existing range and land-based operations and training, and the ongoing maintenance of the technical and logistical facilities would continue. In this context, increased flexibility in missile defense testing would represent a small incremental change in ongoing activities, although the area used would be increased, with longer engagement distances, higher altitudes, and longer-range targets and interceptors.
The Proposed Action would also include testing of defensive missile systems such as the Aegis Ashore Missile Defense program which will adapt the Aegis Standard Missile and AN/SPY1 Radar for land-based operation. These programs would involve the placement of new landlaunched systems at PMRF, including required missile launcher, radar, and support facilities.
PMRF identified sites available for use by the Aegis Ashore Missile Defense program. The
Missile Defense Agency’s siting process narrowed the potential sites to the following:
No-Action Alternative The No-action Alternative for this EA/OEA is a continuation of current and previously analyzed and approved activities. The No-action Alternative is the combination of the programs and actions analyzed in the 2008 Final Hawaii Range Complex Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement and any additional PMRF programs analyzed since April 2008, as they relate to BMD test systems, sensors, and facilities. If this alternative is selected, PMRF would continue existing range training and operation activities, and base operations and maintenance activities. Any mitigation measures developed for these activities would continue to be implemented.
Impact Assessment Methodology Thirteen broad areas of environmental analysis were originally considered to provide a context for understanding the potential effects of the Proposed Action and to provide a basis for assessing the severity of potential impacts. These areas included air quality, airspace, biological resources, cultural resources, geology and soils, hazardous materials and waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics, transportation, utilities, and water resources. These areas were analyzed as applicable for the proposed location or activity.
Results Under the Proposed Action, a limited number of small, lightweight fragments resulting from some missile intercepts could potentially drift beyond current PMRF-controlled areas. Intercepts at higher altitudes would not necessarily generate more debris fragments, but the greater altitude would cause the small, lightweight fragments to be widely dispersed over a larger area, including land areas. The enhanced testing could result in the dispersion of small, lightweight fragments over land areas on Kauai, Niihau, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), over the open ocean between individual islands, or over part of the channel between Kauai and Oahu depending on the actual test parameters. The fragments would not be harmful to people on the ground, and PMRF would continue to ensure the protection of the public from any intercept or other missile debris through the application of established standard range safety procedures and risk standards, including Range Commanders Council (RCC) Standard 321, April 2010 PMRF Intercept Test Support EA/OEA es-3 Executive Summary Common Risk Criteria Standards for National Test Ranges, Subtitle: Inert Debris. The RCC Standards are guidelines that provide definitive and quantifiable measures to protect missionessential personnel and the general public. These guidelines address flight safety hazards (including inert debris) and consequences potentially generated by range operations. The fragments would be light-weight and widely dispersed and thus it is highly improbable that there would be any harm to vegetation or wildlife.
The pattern of the fragments could result in effects to all or parts of the airspace over Kauai, Niihau, the NWHI, over the open ocean between individual islands, or over part of the channel between Kauai and Oahu depending on the actual test parameters.
PMRF would notify the FAA that a test is being planned that could temporarily affect airspace.
The FAA would review the request and advise regarding windows of opportunity for the testing in order to minimize or avoid effects. These windows would determine whether the test could be performed, since a minimum of 2 hours (includes launch, intercept, and fragment settlement) of time would be required for a test. PMRF would then request altitude reservations from the FAA, which, if approved, would issue NOTAMs covering this additional temporary airspace.
Each individual test is coordinated with FAA prior to altitude reservation request. If Medevac or other emergency flights are requested prior to a missile launch, the launch would be delayed until the medical emergency flight is over.
Table ES-1 summarizes the conclusions of the impact analyses made for each of the areas of environmental consideration.