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«Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement January 2007 VOLUME 1 FINAL BMDS PEIS Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency 7100 Defense Pentagon ...»

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Missile Defense Agency

Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

January 2007

VOLUME 1

FINAL BMDS PEIS

Department of Defense

Missile Defense Agency

7100 Defense Pentagon

Washington, DC 20301-7100

Volume 1

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

1 PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR THE PROPOSED ACTION

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Background

1.3 Purpose of the Proposed Action

1.4 Need for the Proposed Action

1.5 The Proposed Action

1.6 Scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

1.7 Consultations and Coordination

1.8 Summary of the Public Involvement Process

1.8.1 Scoping

1.8.2 Public Comment Period

1.9 Related Documentation

2 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES

2.1 BMDS Concept

2.1.1 BMDS Layered Defense and Missile Flight Phases

2.1.2 BMDS Functional Capabilities

2.1.3 BMDS System Acquisition Approach

2.2 BMDS Components

2.2.1 Weapons

2.2.2 Sensors

2.2.3 Command and Control, Battle Management, and Communications (C2BMC)

2.2.4 Support Assets

2.2.5 MDA’s Programs

2.3 BMDS Life Cycle Activities

2.3.1 Development of BMDS Components

2.3.2 Testing of the BMDS

2.3.3 Deployment of the BMDS

2.3.4 Planning for Decommissioning of the BMDS

2.4 Alternatives

2.4.1 Alternative 1 – Implement Proposed BMDS with Land-, Sea-, Airbased Weapons Platforms

2.4.2 Alternative 2 – Implement Proposed BMDS with Land-, Sea-, Airand Space-based Weapons Platforms

2.5 No Action Alternative

2.6 Alternatives Considered But Not Carried Forward

2.6.1 Cancel Development of Ballistic Missile Defense Capabilities...... 2-67 i 2.6.2 Single or Two-Platform BMDS

3 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT

3.1 Resource Areas

3.1.1 Air Quality

3.1.2 Airspace

3.1.3 Biological Resources

3.1.4 Cultural Resources

3.1.5 Environmental Justice

3.1.6 Geology and Soils

3.1.7 Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Waste

3.1.8 Health and Safety

3.1.9 Land Use

3.1.10 Noise

3.1.11 Socioeconomics

3.1.12 Transportation

3.1.13 Utilities

3.1.14 Visual Resources

3.1.15 Water Resources

3.2 Affected Environment

3.2.1 Arctic Tundra Biome

3.2.2 Sub-Arctic Taiga Biome

3.2.3 Deciduous Forest Biome

3.2.4 Chaparral Biome

3.2.5 Grasslands Biome

3.2.6 Desert Biome

3.2.7 Tropical Biome

3.2.8 Savanna Biome

3.2.9 Mountain Biome

3.2.10 Broad Ocean Area

3.2.11 Atmosphere

4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES

4.1 Alternative 1 – Implement BMDS Using Land-, Sea-, and Air-Based Weapons Platforms

4.1.1 BMDS Components

4.1.2 Test Integration

4.1.3 Activities at Locations Outside of the Continental U.S................. 4-113 4.1.4 Cumulative Impacts

4.2 Alternative 2 – Implement BMDS Using Land-, Sea-, Air-, and Space-Based Weapons Platforms

4.2.1 Impacts Analysis

4.2.2 Test Integration

4.2.3 Cumulative Impacts

4.3 No Action Alternative

ii

4.4 Adverse Environmental Effects That Cannot Be Avoided

4.5 Relationship between Short-Term Use of the Human Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-Term Productivity

4.6 Irreversible or Irretrievable Commitment of Resources

4.7 Federal Actions to Address Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks (EO 13045, as Amended by EO 13296 and EO 13229)

5 REFERENCES

6 LIST OF PREPARERS

7 DISTRIBUTION LIST

INDEX VOLUME 1

iii Table of Exhibits

Exhibit ES-1. Ballistic Missile Flight Phases

Exhibit ES-2. Complexities of an Integrated BMDS

Exhibit ES-3. Affected Environment Descriptions

Exhibit ES-4. Map of Global Biomes

Exhibit ES-5. Component Test Activities with Potential Impacts

Exhibit ES-6. Description of System Integration Tests

Exhibit ES-7. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 1 - Weapons..... ES-23 Exhibit ES-8. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 1 - Sensors....... ES-25 Exhibit ES-9. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 1 - C2BMC...... ES-27 Exhibit ES-10. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 1 – Support Assets.....

Exhibit ES-11. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 1 - Test Integration....

Exhibit ES-12. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 2 – Weapons.... ES-38 Exhibit ES-13. Summary of Environmental Impacts of Alternative 2 - Test Integration....

Exhibit 1-1. Ballistic Missile Defense Timeline

Exhibit 1-2. Complexities of the BMDS

Exhibit 1-3. Typical Activities for BMDS Proposed Action

Exhibit 2-1. Types and Maximum Ranges of Ballistic Missiles

Exhibit 2-2. Ballistic Missile Flight Phases and Defense Segments





Exhibit 2-3. Boost Phase and the Boost Defense Segment

Exhibit 2-4. Midcourse Phase and the Midcourse Defense Segment

Exhibit 2-5. Terminal Phase and the Terminal Defense Segment

Exhibit 2-6. Crosswalk of Functional Capability with Components

Exhibit 2-7. Block Development Process

Exhibit 2-8. The MDA Systems Engineering Process

Exhibit 2-9. Interceptor Schematic

Exhibit 2-10. Interceptor Launch

Exhibit 2-11. Radar Band Designations

Exhibit 2-12. DSP Satellite

Exhibit 2-13. Proposed Sensors, Roles and Operating Environments

Exhibit 2-14. Typical Command Center

Exhibit 2-15. BMDS Limited Defensive Capability Block 2004 Test Bed................2-29 Exhibit 2-16. Summary of Representative Test Sensors

Exhibit 2-17. Typical Test Targets

Exhibit 2-18. Representative MDA Targets and Boosters

Exhibit 2-19. MDA Programs Supporting the BMDS Acquisition Life Cycle...........2-34 Exhibit 2-20. Deployment of Countermeasures during Flight Phases

Exhibit 2-21. Facilities Available in the Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico

Exhibit 2-22. Description of System Integration Tests

iv Exhibit 2-23. Typical Fielding Activities

Exhibit 3-1. Map of Global Biomes

Exhibit 3-2. Non-Attainment Areas for Criteria Pollutants January 2004..................3-7 Exhibit 3-3. General Conformity De Minimis Levels

Exhibit 3-4. Definitions of Airspace Categories

Exhibit 3-5. Geographic Distribution for Earthquakes in the Continental U.S.........3-24 Exhibit 3-6. Landslide Areas in the Contiguous U.S.

Exhibit 3-7. Comparative A-Weighted Sound Levels

Exhibit 3-8. Examples of Outdoor Day-Night Average Noise Levels in Various Land Use Locations

Exhibit 3-9. Range of Noise Measurements

Exhibit 3-10. Summary of Quality of Assessed Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries............3-48 Exhibit 3-11. Global Distribution of the Arctic Tundra Biome

Exhibit 3-12. Regulated Activities Near Seabird Colonies in Arctic Regions............3-53 Exhibit 3-13. Global Distribution of the Sub-Arctic Taiga Biome

Exhibit 3-14. Global Distribution of the Deciduous Forest Biome

Exhibit 3-15. Global Distribution of the Chaparral Biome

Exhibit 3-16. Global Distribution of the Grasslands Biome

Exhibit 3-17. Global Distribution of the Desert Biome

Exhibit 3-18. Global Distribution of the Tropical Biome

Exhibit 3-19. Global Distribution of the Savanna Biome

Exhibit 3-20. Global Distribution of the Mountain Biome

Exhibit 3-21. Altitude Range for Atmospheric Layers

Exhibit 3-22. Relationship Between Airspace Classifications and Atmospheric Layers..

Exhibit 4-1. Life Cycle Activities Determined to Have No Significant Environmental Impact

Exhibit 4-2. Analysis of Impacts of Development Phase Activities

Exhibit 4-3. Analysis of Impacts of Test Life Cycle Phase Activities

Exhibit 4-4. Analysis of Impacts of Deployment Phase Life Cycle Activities.........4-14 Exhibit 4-5. Analysis of Impacts of Decommissioning Phase Life Cycle Activities4-15 Exhibit 4-6. Decommissioning Activities for Fixed Facilities

Exhibit 4-7. Estimated In-Flight COIL Gaseous Emissions in Kilograms (Pounds)*.....

Exhibit 4-8. Freshwater Species Tolerance to Acidity

Exhibit 4-9. Potential Exceedances Due to Accidental Oxidizer or Fuel Leak to Air During Fueling Activities

Exhibit 4-10. Potential Exceedances Due to Accidental Oxidizer or Fuel Leak at the Booster Impact Site

Exhibit 4-11. Emission Products from Launches of Representative Targets and Interceptors in metric tons (tons)

Exhibit 4-12. Emission Products from Launches of Representative Targets and Lasers in kilograms (pounds)

–  –  –

Appendix A – Consultation and Coordination

Appendix B – Public Involvement

Appendix C – Related Documentation

Appendix D – Descriptions of Proposed BMDS Elements

Appendix E – Descriptions of Proposed BMDS Sensors

Appendix F – Advanced Systems

Appendix G – Applicable Legal Requirements

Appendix H – Biome Descriptions

Appendix I – Cumulative Impacts

Appendix J – Glossary

INDEX VOLUME 2

Volume 3 APPENDICES

Table of Contents

Appendix K – Comment Responses

Appendix L – Perchlorate Technical Appendix

Appendix M – Orbital Debris Technical Appendix

Appendix N – Impacts of Radar on Wildlife

INDEX VOLUME 3

viEXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroduction

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations that implement NEPA (Code of Federal Regulations [CFR], Title 40, Parts 1500-1508); Department of Defense (DoD) Instruction

4715.9 Environmental Planning and Analysis; applicable service environmental regulations that implement these laws and regulations; and Executive Order (EO) 12114, Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions (whose implementation is guided by NEPA and the CEQ implementing regulations) direct DoD lead agency officials to consider potential impacts to the environment when authorizing or approving Federal actions.

This Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) evaluates the potential environmental impacts of activities associated with the development, testing, deployment, and planning for decommissioning of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS).

This PEIS considers the current technology components, assets, and programs that make up the proposed BMDS as well as the development and application of new technologies, and considers cumulative impacts of implementing the BMDS. A programmatic NEPA evaluation is the appropriate approach for projects that are large in scope, diverse geographically, and implemented in phases over many years. It provides the analytical framework that supports subsequent NEPA analysis of specific actions at specific locations within the overall system, i.e., tiering.

Purpose and Need for the Proposed Action

The purpose of the proposed action is for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) to incrementally develop and field a BMDS that layers defenses to intercept ballistic missiles of all ranges in all phases of flight. The proposed action is needed to protect the United States (U.S.), its deployed forces, friends, and allies from ballistic missile threats.

The BMDS is a key component of U.S. policy for addressing ballistic missile threats worldwide.

Proposed Action

The MDA is proposing to develop, test, deploy, and to plan for related decommissioning activities for an integrated BMDS using existing infrastructure and capabilities, when feasible, as well as emerging and new technologies, to meet current and evolving ballistic missile threats. The Secretary of Defense assigned this critical defense mission to the MDA.

ES-1Scope of the PEIS

This PEIS identifies, evaluates, and documents the potential environmental effects of developing, testing, deploying, and planning for the eventual decommissioning of a BMDS. Although extensive environmental analysis already exists for many of the existing and projected components of the proposed BMDS, this PEIS examines potential environmental impacts of MDA’s concept for developing an integrated system, based on current Congressional and Presidential direction. The BMDS PEIS also assesses whether cumulative environmental effects would result from implementing the proposed action.

Further, the BMDS PEIS provides the analytical framework for tiering subsequent specific NEPA analyses of activities including increasingly complex and robust System Integration Testing.

Consultation and Coordination

The MDA, as the lead agency responsible for preparing this PEIS, is required to coordinate with affected Federal, state, local, and tribal agencies, and other interested parties. The MDA identified several agencies that may be cooperating or consulting agencies within the requirements of NEPA for this PEIS. These agencies include National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries Service), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Consulting agencies may submit comments and provide data to support the environmental analysis, but they do not participate in the internal review of documents, issues, and analyses. A cooperating agency is any Federal agency, other than a lead agency, that has jurisdiction by law or special expertise with respect to any environmental impact involved in a proposal (or reasonable alternative) for legislation or other Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. (40 CFR 1508.5) MDA has held informal meetings with several agencies; however, MDA has not requested that any agencies participate as cooperating agencies for this PEIS.

Public Involvement



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