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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES
CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
महाराष्ट्र राज्य क अंतर्गत धले जिले
की भिल विज्ञान िानकारी ू
GROUND WATER INFORMATION
MAHARASHTRAद्वारा By ववजेश वी के Vijesh V K वैज्ञाननक ख Scientist-B मध्य क्षेत्र, नागपर ु
DHULE DISTRICT AT A GLANCE
1. GENERAL INFORMATIONGeographical Area : 8061 sq. km.
Administrative Divisions : Taluka- 4, Dhule, Sakri, Shirpur (As on 31/03/2011) and Shindkheda.
Villages : 681 Population : 2,048,781 Average Annual Rainfall (2011) : 547.21 mm
2. GEOMORPHOLOGY Major Physiographic unit : 2; Tapi valley proper and the region of the dykes and residual hills of the Sahayadri Spurs Major Drainage : 1; TapiRiver
3. LAND USE (2011-11) Forest Area : 2088 sq. km.
Cultivable Area : 4864 sq. km.
Net Area Sown : 4310 sq. km.
4. SOIL TYPE 3; Deep fertile soils in Alluvial areas and medium deep coarse soils to shallow stony soils away fromTapiRiver in Basaltic areas.
5. PRINCIPAL CROPS (2008-09) Cotton : 1150 sq. km.
Pearl millet : 1047 sq. km.
Groundnut : 358 sq. km.
Maize : 347 sq. km.
Wheat : 360 sq. km.
6. IRRIGATION BY DIFFERENT SOURCES (2006-2007) Nos./Area Irrigated (Ha) Dugwells : 59339/1194.41 Borewells : 7767/119.64 Surface flow Schemes : 1740/544.77 Surface Lift Schems : 2626/353
7. GROUND WATER MONITORING WELLS (As on 30/11/2011) Dugwells : 28
8. GEOLOGY Recent
14. GROUND WATER CONTROL & REGULATION Over-Exploited Taluka : None Critical Taluka : None Notified Taluka : None
16. MAJOR GROUND WATER PROBLEMS AND ISSUESThe drought area has been observed in western and southern parts of the district occupying parts of Sakri and Dhuletalukas. The moderate to deeper water levels of 5 to 10 m bgl is observed in almost all parts of Dhule, Shirpur, Sakri and a small patch in the SE part of Sindkhedataluka and falling water level trends are observed in most parts of the district, occupying Dhule and Shirpurtalukas and eastern parts of Sindkheda and parts of Sakritalukas. Ground water quality is adversely affected by nitrate contamination in 54% of the samples with Nitrate. The total hardness (TH) is beyond permissible limit in Avdhan, Methi and Palasner.
ii Ground Water Information Dhule District Contents
2.0 Climate and Rainfall
3.0 Geomorphology and Soil Types
4.0 Ground Water Scenario
4.2 Water Level Scenario
4.3 Aquifer Parameters
4.4 Yield of Dugwells and Borewells
4.5 Ground Water Resources
4.6 Ground Water Quality
5.0 Ground Water Management Strategy
5.1 Ground Water Development
5.2 Water Conservation and Artificial Recharge
6.0 Ground Water Related Issues and Problems
7.0 Areas Notified by CGWA/SGWA
1. Studies undertaken by CGWB.
2. Salient Features of Ground Water Exploration.
3. Annual Rainfall Data (2002-2011).
4. Aquifer Parameters.
5. Yield of Dugwells.
6. Ground Water Resources (March 2009)
7. Classification of Ground Water for Drinking based on BIS Drinking Water Standards (IS-10500-91, Revised 2003).
8. Classification of Ground Water for Irrigation based on RSC.
9. Nature and Yield Potential of Aquifers.
iii Ground Water Information Dhule District
1.0 Introduction Dhule district, formerly known as west Khandesh is located in northern part of MaharashtraState. It is bounded between north latitude 20°38' to 21°61' and east longitude 73°50' to 75°11'. The district is bounded by Nandurbar district in the north west, Nashik district in south and Jalgaon district in east. The district headquarters is located at Dhule town. For administrative convenience, the district is divided in 4 talukasviz, Dhue, Sakri, Shirpur, Shindkheda. The district has a geographical area of 8061 sq. km. out of which 2088 sq.km. is covered by forest, whereas cultivable area is 4864 sq. km. and net sown area is 4310 sq. km.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. The major part of the district comes under Tapi basin.
In the district, 11 exploratory wells (EW), 4 observation wells (OW) and 5 Piezometer (PZ) were constructed.In Alluvial area of the district, 5 exploratory wells (EW), 3 observation wells (OW) and 1 Piezometer (PZ) were constructed.
The depth of the wells ranged from 36.70 to 104.25 metres below ground level (m bgl). The discharge from these wells varied from 1.50 to 6.00 litres per second (lps), among 2 EW’s were found to be high yielding with discharge 3 lps, whereas static water levels ranged from 15.55 to 30.00 m bgl. Deeper aquifer zones have been encountered in most of the wells 30.00 to 99.00 m bgl.
In the contact areas where Basalt is overlained by alluvium, 7 EW and 1 OW were constructed. The depth of the wells ranged from 156.00 to 250.00 m bgl. The discharge from these wells varied from traces to 3.17lps, amongst these1 EW was found to be high yielding with discharge 3 lps, whereas static water levels ranged from 7.40 to 100.00 m bgl. Deeper aquifer zones have been encountered in most of the wells 65.00 to 202 m bgl. The thickness of alluvium overlying the basalt varied from 15 to 80 m bgl.
A map of the district showing the taluka boundaries, taluka headquarters, and location of monitoring wells is presented as Figure-1.
2.0 Climate and Rainfall The Climate of the district is characterized by a hot summer and general dryness throughout the year except during the south-west monsoon season, i.e., June to September. The daily mean minimum temperature was 16°C and mean maximum temperature was 45°C. The annual average rain fall in mm ranges from 499 to 864.
The decadal average of annual rainfall isidentified to be lowest in Dhuletaluka (589 mm) and highest Shirpurtaluka (875 mm) and the same is presented inTable-3. It is the minimum in the central parts of the district around Dhule and Sakri and Sindkhed and increases northwards and westwards. The study of negative departures of the annual rainfall over normal reveals that western and southern parts of the district experienced moderate and severe drought conditions for more than 20% of years. Hence this parts occupying parts of Sakri and Dhuletalukas can be categorized as drought area.
3.0 Geomorphology and Soil Types The district can be broadly divided into 2 physiographic units namely Tapi valley proper and the region of the dykes and residual hills of the Sahyadri Spurs with eastward trending streams in between. The TapiRiver valley is observed on both sides of TapiRiver in parts of Shirpur and Sindkhedtalukas, whereas the region of dykes and residual hills of the Sahyadri Spurs comprises southern part of Sindkheda and entire Sakri and Dhuletalukas. The district is drained by TapiRiver and its tributaries. TapiRiver flows westward through the central part of the district. Panjra and Aner rivers are the main tributaries of Tapi flowing northward and southward respectively to join TapiRiver In the Tapi valley proper, the soils are deep black and extremely fertile except in some portions near the main river and its tributaries, which have cut down the land very badly and removed the top soil. Otherwise the soils grade from the deep fertile soils to coarse shallow to stony soils away from the river either northwards towards the Satpudas or south ward towards the residual hills and dykes.
4.0 Ground Water Scenario
4.1 Hydrogeology The major part of the district occupying northern parts of Shirpur, southern parts of Sindkhed and entire Dhule and Sakritalukas is covered by Basaltic flows commonly known as Deccan Traps intruded by dykes of Upper CretaceousLower Eocene age. Tapi Alluvial deposits are observed in TapiRiver valley occupying parts of Sindkhed and Shirpurtalukas. A map depicting the hydrogeological features is shown in Figure-2.
4.1.1 Hard Rock Areas 18.104.22.168 Deccan Trap Basalt The Deccan Trap includes several flows of Basalt which are supposed to have extruded from fissure volcanoes. The flows have been intruded by large number of dykes of doleritic composition. The dykes are aligned in an ENE-WSW direction and a few gave N-S or WNE-ESE trends. Basalt includes the “pahoehoe” and the “aa” types of flows, the former being very common.
The ground water occurs in the near surface strata down to the depth of 20 m under unconfined conditions in the weathered zone, vesicular/amygdaloidal Basalt, jointed and fractured massive Basalt. The water bearing strata occurring below 30 m depth, beneath the redbole and dense massive Basalt exhibit semiconfined to confined conditions. On the elevated plateau tops having good areal extent, local water table develops in top most layers and the wells in such areas show rapid decline water levels in postmonsoon season and go dry during peak 4 summer. In the foot hills zone the water table is relatively shallow near the water courses and deep away from it and near the water divides. In the valleys and plains of river basin the water table aquifer occurs at shallow depth and the wells in such areas do not go dry and sustain perennial yield except in extreme summer or drought conditions. The yield of the dugwells varies from 60 to 125 m3/day, whereas those of borewells variesform 2 to 20 m 3/hr, however in most of the borewells it ranges between 2 to 10 m3/hr.
Figure-2: Hydrogeology 4.1.2 Soft Rock Areas 22.214.171.124 Alluvium Alluvial deposits of TapiRiver valley occurs in long narrow basin, which are probably caused by faulting. About a 15% of the district is occupied by Alluvium.
It consists of clays, silt, sand, gravels and boulders etc. The beds of sand and gravels are discontinuous and lenticular and pinch out laterally within short distance. They are mixed with large proportions of clayey material rendering delimiting of individuals granular horizons difficult. As per ground water exploration data Alluvium is encountered down to 100 m depth. Ground water occurs under water table, semi-confined and confined conditions in inter granular pore spaces of gravel and sand. The yield of the dugwells varies between150 and 200 m3/day, whereas that of exploratory wells varies form 1.50 to 6.00 lps as per exploration data. The yields of the tubewells drilled by State ground water department/agency ranges from 20 to 250 m3/hr.
4.2 Water Level Scenario Central Ground Water Board periodically monitors 32 National Hydrograph Network Stations (NHNS) stations in the Dhule district, four times a year i.e. in January, May (Premonsoon), August and November (Postmonsoon).
5 4.2.1 Depth to Water Level – Premonsoon (May-2011) The depth to water level in the district during May 2011 ranges between 2.51 to
19.00 mbgl. Depth to water level during premonsoon (May 2011) has been depicted in Figure-3. Shallow water levels within2- 5 m bgl are observed in small isolated patches in south eastern (Dhule and Sindhkhedatalukas) and also in minor part of Sakritaluka. The water levels between 5 and 10 m bgl are observed in major parts of the district in southern parts, central parts and extreme north eastern parts. The moderate to deeper water levels of 10 to 20 m bgl are observed in northeastern to south western part of the district, occupying major parts of Shirpur, and some parts of Sakri,dhule and Sindhkhedatalukas in very small patches. Premonsoon Water Level Trend for the period of 2001-2010 is characterized by Rise in Nardana and Kalamsare (0.0290 and 1.148 m/year respectively). And pre monsoon fall is characterized by fall in sangivi and Gotane (0.021 and 0.596 m/year respectively).
Figure-3: Depth to Water Level (Premonsoon- May 2011) 4.2.2 Depth to Water Level–Postmonsoon (Nov 2011) The depth to water level during postmonsoon (Nov. 2011) ranges between 0.14 m bgl and 8.15 m bgl. Spatial variation in postmonsoon depth to water level is shown in Figure-4. In major parts of the district water levels are between 5 and 10 m bglprimarly in Sindhkheda, Shirpur, Sakri and parts of Dhuletaluka. Shallow water levels, within 2-5 m bgl are seen south eastern, north eastern and south western parts of the district in Shirpur, Dhule and Sakri talukas. Water levels less than 2 mbgl are observed in southern parts of the district as patches. The post monsoon rising trend is observed for the period of 2001-2011 in Ajnale and 6 Deobhane(0.0036 and 0.453 m/year respectively). Also falling trend is seen in Hisala and Songir (0.0071 and 0.79 m/year respectivel;y) Figure-4: Depth to Water Level (Postmonsoon- Nov.2011) 4.2.3 Seasonal Water Level Fluctuation– (May-Nov. 2011) Waterlevel fluctuations of 0-2 m,bgl is observed in SE parts of Sindhkhedataluka and parts of DhuleTaluka at some patches. In major parts district fluctuation is within the range of 2-4 mbgl (major part of Dhule, Northern part of Sindhkheda, Southern Shirpur; SW and NE parts of Sakritaluka).
Fluctuations greater than 4 mbgl is observed in Northern part of Shirpurtaluka where predominant lithology is alluvium. Also water level fluctuation greater than 4 mbgl is seen in central and NW parts of Dhule and NW part of Sakritalukas.