FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 26 |


-- [ Page 1 ] --

Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre Agency



April, 2010



Table of contents


Physical characteristics 3

Population 3 Political Situation 4 Economic and social context 4 Bulgarian regions and territorial structure 5 Historical context 5 Communist Bulgaria 6 Modern Bulgaria 6


Restitution of land 8 Land consolidation 8 Planning 9 Rural Development 9 Economic issues 10


Real Estate Market 11 Acquisiton of Immovables 11 Taxes and fees related to real estate 12 Transparency of the real estate market and evaluation 13 Banking and credit market 13 IV. LEGAL FRAMEWORK 14


Nearly 100 years cadastre in Bulgaria 16 Development of the institutional framework since 1992 16 Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre Agency (GCCA) 17 Institutions in the field of land registration 18 Cadastral map and registers Property register 19 Contents and objects of cadastral maps 20 Creation of a cadastral map 21 Contact zones 22

a) Accuracy

–  –  –

Physical characteristics Republic of Bulgaria is situated on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. State borders of Bulgaria with a total length of 2245 kilometers. Northern border with Romania, which passes along the Danube has a length of 609 kilometers. West bank of the Black Sea forms the entire eastern border of Bulgaria with a length of 378 km. To the south is bordered by Turkey (259 km) and Greece (493 km) to the west - with Serbia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, they are respectively 341 and 165 kilometers. The country covers an area of 110 993.6 km 2.

Bulgaria is a country of mountains, rivers and hilly plains. The two main mountain ranges are called Balkan Stara Planina and Rhodope Mountains. Mountains, which was named Balkan Peninsula, extending from northwest of the country, south of Sofia Valley in west central Bulgaria, and continues east to the Black Sea.

The main river in Bulgaria is the Danube River, it passes along the northern border. Iskar River, the longest river in Bulgaria, springs from the Rila mountain in a northerly direction passing through Sofia, before it joins the Danube. Maritza, the other major river, rises in the Rila Mountains in an easterly direction, then continued south through southeastern Bulgaria determining the boundaries between Greece and Turkey.

Bulgaria's capital Sofia is a city that is located in the western part of the country. This is the largest and most populated city in Bulgaria, and the chief political, cultural and commercial center. Plovdiv is the second largest city in Bulgaria. It is located in the center of the agricultural region in southern Bulgaria and is a center of food industry. The third largest city of Varna is located on the Black Sea coast and is the main seaport of the country.

Population According to the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, the country's population at the end of

2006. is numbered 7.6793 million. Compared with the level of the previous year, the population has decreased by 39.5 thousand, which is attributable to negative natural population growth. Data on the population in Bulgaria demographic trend of decline since 1990.

The proportion of women in the general population continues to be greater than that of men.

At the end of 2006 registered female population numbered 3.9584 million, or 51.5 percent of the total population. Proportion of population in urban areas in 2006. was 70.6 %. Based on available data from population censuses from 1887, Rural population was to a large percentage of the total population by 1965, some. The resultses of census in 1975. show that in urban areas is higher than in rural. Since then, this trend continued in the same direction.

3 Political Situation The process of political change and democratization in Bulgaria began in late 1989. And soon thereafter, in July 1991. Has adopted a new Constitution and the Grand National Assembly.

Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic. Its Constitution is the supreme law of the country. State power is divided between legislative, executive and judicial branches. Ultimate legislative power in Bulgaria is exercised by Parliament (or National Assembly). The National Assembly is a unicameral parliament composed of 240 Members representative (MP) elected for four years.

The president is head of state who is elected directly by voters for not more than two consecutive terms of five years.

The Council of Ministers is the executive body and manages internal and external policy.

The legislature is controlled by the Supreme Court, Supreme Administrative Court, appellate, district, regional and military courts.

Economic and social context Bulgarian economy in transition from centrally planned to market-oriented began in 1990. The lack of structural reforms led to severe economic and financial crisis in 1996. Which lasts until the beginning of 1997. In the same year, with international support, Bulgaria adopted a comprehensive program of structural reform aimed at stabilizing the macroeconomic situation in the country. The program includes the construction of a currency board, the implementation of strict fiscal policy, liberalization of trade and prices, and accelerating privatization of state enterprises. As a result, the program successfully Bulgaria's economy has stabilized, inflation has reduced the growth rate of GDP increase, and improved confidence of investors.

Bulgaria completed the privatization of the electricity and telecommunications companies along with 2/3 of the state assets. Sectors that contribute most to GDP growth in Bulgaria are industry and services.

Agriculture is affected negatively by fragmentation of arable land due to the recovery process of the ownership of agricultural land. Fragmentation poses a significant barrier to long-term investments in agriculture, land improvements and efficient use of agricultural machinery.

Despite these obstacles, agriculture remains an important sector in the economy of Bulgaria because of its high productivity.

Territory of Bulgaria is divided into 264 municipalities and 28 districts. Municipalities are legal entities and have the right of ownership and independent municipal budgets. Mayors and municipal councils are elected through direct local elections every 4 years and be guided in their activities by laws and regulations. The municipal council is a body of local government, which sets policy for the development of the municipality. The municipal council is composed of directly elected councilors. Executive authority in the municipality is mayor.

The regions are administrative-territorial units for the implementation of regional policy of central government. Regional governance is carried out by governors and regional administrations. The regional governor is the sole executive power in the region, performing the government in the region and ensure compliance with national and local interests in the implementation of regional policy. The regional governor is appointed by the Council of Ministers.

4Bulgarian regions and territorial structure

Historical context Bulgaria's history dates back 3000 years ago. The Bulgarian state was founded in 681 AD, when Slavs and Proto are united under the scepter of Khan Asparuh.

Passage of the Bulgarians to Christianity in 865 AD joined Bulgaria to the Christian civilization. The creation of the Cyrillic alphabet in the second half of the ninth century, during an age when previously only Latin and Greek alphabets were used for writing, gives a strong impetus to the cultural development of the country. Unfortunately in 1396 Bulgaria fell under Ottoman occupation, which lasted nearly 500 years. Liberation War (Russo-Turkish War) regained the independence of Bulgaria in 1878. In 1879 the Constituent Assembly taking your first Constitution of Bulgaria, which is one of the most democratic constitutions of the day. In the early twentieth century Bulgaria was involved in the Balkan wars of the early twentieth century - the First Balkan War (1912), and the Second Balkan War (1913), a disastrous ending. In the summer of 1915, Bulgaria entered the First World War on the side of the central forces and signed an armistice with the Franco-British force on 29 September 1918.

The peace treaty with Bulgaria was signed on November 27 1919. in Neuilly-sur-Seine.

Bulgaria loses much of its territory. Between the two world wars, Bulgaria was ruled by a series of short-lived governments. After the outbreak of WWII, Boris III of Bulgaria declares neutrality. However, Bulgaria is under pressure to join the Bulgarian army and began to participate in military operations. Of particular concern is that the Bulgarian government managed to keep the Jews living in Bulgaria, as a result of which were rescued from the Holocaust.

–  –  –

Communist Bulgaria After the Second World War the Bulgarian Communist Party became the leading political force in the country. Under Soviet leadership, destroyed the remnants of the old system, and in 1947 was imposed one-party system. From 1954 to 1989, Todor Zhivkov, Chairman of the State Council, dominated political life, becoming the longest leader stayed in power. Policy is directly linked with that of the Soviet Union, industry was nationalized and agriculture collectivised. During the socialist period in Bulgaria, lasting from the end of World War II to 1989, farmland in general collectivised. In urban areas, private property continues throughout the socialist period, except for older buildings which have been confiscated or expropriated by the state. During the socialist period of many apartment blocks were built by municipalities, public institutions or public companies, which have been offered individuals, families and staff of relevant organizations of low-rent apartments. Unlike other Eastern European countries in the communist bloc, there was no Soviet troops in Bulgaria. The Communist Party has tried to modernize the economy of Bulgaria, and has achieved some success with industrialization, thanks not least the participation of Bulgaria into the Union Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, which gives Bulgaria a captive market of transport and IT products in Eastern Europe. But the 1980's, as elsewhere in Eastern Europe, the economy is sluggish and the system began to disintegrate.

Modern Bulgaria Zhivkov resigned on November 10, 1989, the day after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Although his fall from power has been catalysed by economic and social turmoil, it is a consequence of a unilateral decision, not a general revolution. He was replaced by Petar Mladenov, who led the Congress in February 1990 the Bulgarian Communist Party, where the totalitarian system was denounced in Bulgaria began to manage the principles of market economy, multiparty democracy and free elections.

During the transitional period that followed, governments short-lived coalitions and frequent rule the country. Reforms are sparse. Since the early elections in 1997 caused by economic and political crisis, governments have been able to meet its full 4-year term, but no government is reelected. However, the relative stability allows Bulgaria to make greater progress in the country observed a period of strong economic growth. Bulgaria joined NATO in 2006 and became a member of the European Union in 2007. Soon after the fall of communist rule in 1989, Bulgaria launched extensive land reforms. Restitution of private ownership of land is virtually completed in 2000, creating nearly 8.3 million individual plots belonging to approximately 1.9 million private owners. Restitution of forests and lands of forest fund ended in 2001 in urban areas were offered the tenants to buy their homes at affordable prices, but to land them remains municipal property. Bulgaria receives considerable assistance from the European Union for restitution, along with planning and setting up new frontiers of agricultural land and funding for the establishment of registers of owners of digital maps in a computer database. Every municipality has a land committee (LC), belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture, who are responsible for maintaining records and 6 maps of agricultural land and forests. Cadastres to urban areas are maintained by the municipal technical services (MTS) of the municipal administrations. District courts have maintained a system of ownership of real estate database for the property owner. However, not all transactions were recorded. Also with the EU in 1990 at the offices of the district courts were installed computer systems to record the names of owners and other key information from deeds, but without access to the same property identifiers and thus continues the personal registration system (based on the data owner). It should be noted that Bulgaria continues to have a registration system whereby legally valid information contained in notarial acts. Notaries were privatized in 1998.

At the start of restitution is created a large number of private surveying companies. Their licensing is introduced as a compulsory requirement for performance of surveying activities with the new Law on cadastre and land registry in 2000. It has been established and the Cadastre Agency on - later renamed the Agency for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre (GCCA).

Pattern of land administration in Bulgaria in 2001 can be summarized as follows:

• 285 municipal offices for the maintenance of records and issue of maps and drawings, necessary for all types of transactions for properties in urban areas. Various quality of the maps are often outdated and available in digital form only 10% of urban areas

• an appropriate number of land commissions responsible for restitution of property in agricultural and forest areas and maintain computerized records and digital maps of agricultural properties and for the issuing of drawings of them.

• 112 district courts make the entries of transactions on a personal system, based on the deed, with rising paper archives, but supported by a computerized system for the description of key data.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 26 |

Similar works:

«Stories becoming sticky How civic initiatives strive for connection to governmental spatial planning agendas Hetty van der Stoep Thesis committee Promotors Prof. Dr A. van den Brink Professor of Landscape Architecture and Professor of Land Use Planning Wageningen University Prof. Dr M.N.C. Aarts Endowed professor of Strategic Communication, University of Amsterdam Associate professor, Strategic Communication Group, Wageningen University Other members Prof. Dr P. Leroy, Radboud University...»

«A Model Plan for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness 2002 1 A Model Plan for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Version 5.2, 2002 Contents_ Acknowledgements Terms of reference Abbreviations 1. Introduction 1.1 Development of the Plan 1.2 Scope and structure of this document 1.3 Use of the plan Recommendation 2. Epidemiology of influenza 2.1Influenza virus structure 2.1.1 Antigenic drift and shift 2.2 Interpandemic influenza 2.3 Pandemic influenza 2.4 Influenza pandemic this century 2.5 Modelling 2.6...»

«INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING ONLINE APPLICATION (Competitive Examination for Direct Recruitment to the post of Junior Personal Assistant & Stenographer Grade-II, 2015) GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Applicants are advised to check their eligibility before proceeding to fill online application.2. Applicants are advised to take print out of format of application form annexed to these instructions and fill and check the entries to be made by them before proceeding to fill online application to avoid any...»

«Page 1 A regular meeting of the Council of the City of Blue Ash, Ohio, was held on March 10, 2005. Mayor Rick Bryan called the meeting to order in Council Chambers at 7:30 PM.OPENING CEREMONIES Mayor Bryan led those assembled in the Pledge of Allegiance. Mayor Bryan asked for a moment of silence in memory of the son of former Councilman Robert Schueler who recently passed away.ROLL CALL MEMBERS PRESENT: Mayor Rick Bryan, Vice Mayor Robert Buckman, Councilman Lee Czerwonka, Councilman Henry...»

«LondonWest Midlands enViROnMental stateMent Volume 4 | Off-route effects November 2013 ES 3.4.1 4 LondonWest Midlands enViROnMental stateMent Volume 4 | Off-route effects November 2013 ES 3.4.1 High Speed Two (HS2) Limited has been tasked by the Department for Transport (DfT) with managing the delivery of a new national high speed rail network. It is a non-departmental public body wholly owned by the DfT.A report prepared for High Speed Two (HS2) Limited: High Speed Two (HS2) Limited, Eland...»

«/9 5 6 -19 5 7 CORNELL UNIVERSITY Dial 43211 and give extension number T O R E P O R T F IR E O R O T H E R EM ERGENCY D IA L 0 Instructions CALLING FROM ITHACA PHONES T o reach Cornell University, dial 43211, and give the operator the extension num ber (the num ber preceded by X in this directory). CALLING FROM EXTENSION PHONES I N A N E M E R G E N C Y O R FOR A S SIS T A N C E : Dial 0 to reach the Cornell operator. T O R E A C H A N O T H E R E X T E N S IO N : Look up the num ber (preceded...»

«THE EDEN PLAGUE Plague Wars Series Book 0 by David VanDyke Table of Contents The Eden Plague (Sixth Edition) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Epilogue The Eden Plague Copyright (c) 2012 by David VanDyke...»

«BRIEFING PAPER Undercounting the Homeless How the Bloomberg Administration’s Homeless Survey Undercounts the Street Homeless and Misleads the Public May 24, 2004 Introduction and Summary For the second year the Bloomberg Administration has released a statistical estimate of New York City’s street homeless population that dramatically undercounts the street homeless population. Indeed, the Bloomberg Administration actually claims that the number of homeless New Yorkers sleeping outdoors in...»

«1 Plato’s Meno trans. by J. Holbo & B. Waring (©2002) MENO: Can you tell me, Socrates, is virtue the sort of thing you can teach someone? Or is it the sort of thing no one can teach you, but you pick it up by practicing it? Or maybe it’s neither: virtue is something people are born with, or something they get some other way? SOCRATES: Thessalians used to have a good reputation among Greeks, Meno – for being such good riders and for being so rich; now, it seems, they are famous for...»

«Text Chunking using Transformation-Based Learning Lance A. R a m s h a w Mitchell P. Marcus Dept. of C o m p u t e r Science C o m p u t e r and I n f o r m a t i o n Science Dept. Bowdoin College University of P e n n s y l v a n i a Brunswick, M E 04011 USA Philadelphia, PA 19104-6389 USA ramshaw@polar, bowdoin, edu mit ch©linc, cis. upenn, edu Abstract Eric Brill introduced transformation-based learning and showed that it can do part-ofspeech tagging with fairly high accuracy. The same...»

«Copyright by Joel Matthew Silverman 2006 The Dissertation Committee for Joel Matthew Silverman Certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: Pursuing Celebrity, Ensuing Masculinity: Morris Ernst, Obscenity, and the Search For Recognition Committee: Mark C. Smith, Supervisor Janet M. Davis Julia Mickenberg Elizabeth Engelhardt Sarah Weddington Pursuing Celebrity, Ensuing Masculinity: Morris Ernst, Obscenity, and the Search For Recognition by Joel Matthew Silverman,...»

«Himalayan Small Hydropower Summit (October 12-13, 2006), Dehradun SMALL HYDROPOWER AND HEADWORKS MODELLING Tulsi Prasad Phuyal Manohar Shrestha Research Engineer Deputy General Manager Hydro Lab, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal Hydro Lab, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal ABSTRACT It is obvious that headworks (HW) is one of the most decisive components of the Hydropower projects. Headworks structures in hydropower projects are to extract the design discharge properly by minimizing the problem cause by...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.