WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 9 |

«UNITED NATIONS TREATIES AND PRINCIPLES ON OUTER SPACE ST/SPACE/11 UNITED NATIONS TREATIES AND PRINCIPLES ON OUTER SPACE Text of treaties and ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

UNITED NATIONS

TREATIES

AND PRINCIPLES ON

OUTER SPACE

ST/SPACE/11

UNITED NATIONS

TREATIES

AND PRINCIPLES ON

OUTER SPACE

Text of treaties and principles

governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly

UNITED NATIONS

New York, 2002 ST/SPACE/11

UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION

Sales No. E.02.I.20 ISBN 92-1-100900-6 Contents Page Foreword........................................................ v Part one. United Nations treaties A. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies........................................ 3 B. Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space............. 9 C. Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects............................................... 13 D. Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space... 22 E. Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies........................................ 27 Part two. Principles adopted by the General Assembly A. Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space....................... 39 B. Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting........... 41 C. Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space...................................................... 44 D. Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space...................................................... 48 E. Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries.................................................. 55 iii Foreword The progressive development and codification of international law constitutes one of the principal responsibilities of the United Nations in the legal field. An important area for the exercise of such responsibilities is the new environment of outer space and, through the efforts of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Legal Subcommittee, a number of significant contributions to the law of outer space have been made. The United Nations has, indeed, become a focal point for international cooperation in outer space and for the formulation of necessary international rules.

Outer space, extraordinary in many respects, is, in addition, unique from the legal point of view. It is only recently that human activities and international interaction in outer space have become realities and that beginnings have been made in the formulation of international rules to facilitate international relations in outer space.

As is appropriate to an environment whose nature is so extraordinary, the extension of international law to outer space has been gradual and evolutionary— commencing with the study of questions relating to legal aspects, proceeding to the formulation of principles of a legal nature and, then, incorporating such principles in general multilateral treaties.

A significant first step was the adoption by the General Assembly in 1963 of the Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space.

The years that followed saw the development within the United Nations of five general multilateral treaties, which incorporated and developed concepts included in

the Declaration of Legal Principles:

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (General Assembly resolution 2222 (XXI), annex)—adopted on 19 December 1966, opened for signature on 27 January 1967, entered into force on 10 October 1967;

Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (resolution 2345 (XXII), annex)—adopted on 19 December 1967, opened for signature on 22 April 1968, entered into force on 3 December 1968;

Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (resolution 2777 (XXVI), annex)—adopted on 29 November 1971, opened for signature on 29 March 1972, entered into force on 1 September 1972;

Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (resolution 3235 (XXIX), annex)—adopted on 12 November 1974, opened for signature on 14 January 1975, entered into force on 15 September 1976;





–  –  –

The United Nations oversaw the drafting, formulation and adoption of five General Assembly resolutions, including the Declaration of Legal Principles. These

are:

Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, adopted on 13 December 1963 (resolution 1962 (XVIII));

Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting, adopted on 10 December 1982 (resolution 37/92);

Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space, adopted on 3 December 1986 (resolution 41/65);

Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, adopted on 14 December 1992 (resolution 47/68);

Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, adopted on 13 December 1996 (resolution 51/122).

The 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, could be viewed as furnishing a general legal basis for the peaceful uses of outer space and providing a framework for the developing law of outer space. The four other treaties may be said to deal specifically with certain concepts included in the 1967 Treaty. The space treaties have been ratified by many Governments and many others abide by their principles. In view of the importance of international cooperation in developing the norms of space law and their important role in promoting international cooperation in the use of outer space for peaceful purposes, the General Assembly and the Secretary-General of the United Nations have called upon all Member States of the United Nations not yet parties to the international treaties governing the uses of outer space to ratify or accede to those treaties as soon as feasible.1 The purpose of the present publication is to set out in a single volume the five outer space treaties adopted by the United Nations and the five sets of principles.

It is hoped that this collection will serve as a valuable reference document for all those interested in the legal aspects of outer space.

1 See the report of the Secretary-General on international cooperation in space activities for enhancing security in the post-cold-war era (A/48/221), and also General Assembly resolution 48/39, para. 2.

–  –  –

United Nations treaties A. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies The States Parties to this Treaty, Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man’s entry into outer space, Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development, Desiring to contribute to broad international cooperation in the scientific as well as the legal aspects of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that such cooperation will contribute to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States and peoples, Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled “Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space”, which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 1963, Recalling resolution 1884 (XVIII), calling upon States to refrain from placing in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction or from installing such weapons on celestial bodies, which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 17 October 1963, Taking account of United Nations General Assembly resolution 110 (II) of 3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, and considering that the aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space, Convinced that a Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, will further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

Have agreed on the following:

3Article I

The exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind.

Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of celestial bodies.

There shall be freedom of scientific investigation in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and States shall facilitate and encourage international cooperation in such investigation.

Article II Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.

Article III States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international cooperation and understanding.

Article IV

States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.

The Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military manoeuvres on celestial bodies shall be forbidden. The use of military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility necessary for peaceful exploration of the Moon and other celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited.

Article V States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, 4 distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptly returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.

In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties.

States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.

Article VI

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.

Article VII



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 9 |


Similar works:

«Permutations and Combinations In statistics, there are two ways to count or group items. For both permutations and combinations, there are certain requirements that must be met: there can be no repetitions (see permutation exceptions if there are), and once the item is used, it cannot be replaced. Both counting methods have n different items available, taken r at a time. The distinguishing aspects of the two different types of counting methods are as follows: Permutations Combinations The order...»

«102 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [Vol. 48, No.1, 1983] Zoh'l, M.G., and J. M. Espinoza 1981 AnaJisis morfologico de plataformas y canales en las zonas inundables de Neveria, Veracruz. Ms. on file, Instituto de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bi6ticos, Xalapa, Mexico. FREQUENCIES OF SPIRAL AND GREEN-BONE FRACTURES ON UNGULATE LIMB BONES IN MODERN SURFACE ASSEMBLAGES Gary Haynes During observational fieldwork in undisturbed ranges of free-rooming bison and moose, I have identified approximately BOfo of...»

«Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(8): 572-578, 2012 ISSN 1991-8178 Improving Squash Plant Growth And Yielding Ability Under Organic Fertilization Condition 1 M.I. Ezzo, 1A.A. Glala, 1S.A. Saleh and 2Nadia M. Omar 1 Horticultural Crops Technology Dept. and 2Vegetables Crop Research Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Abstract: Two year experiments were carried out in open field during fall growing season of 2011 and 2012 years, in newly reclaimed sandy soil,...»

«HULU AND THE FUTURE OF TELEVISION: A CASE STUDY An Honors Thesis (HONRS 499) by Matthew Rodgers Thesis Advisor Michael Hanley Associate Professor of Journalism Ball State University Muncie, Indiana May 2011 Expected Date of Graduation May 2011 Abstract Understanding current media trends and adapting to ever-changing consumer desires is essential to success in advertising. Hulu is one of several new Internet-based services that deliver television content to consumers without using the...»

«Queen of the Night By Adrian Tchaikovsky First off, I need to explain to you just what the Peachpit Street Merchant Company was all about. This was before the war, before the words ‘merchant company’ conjured up nothing but a pack of artisans crammed into ill-fitting armour and pretending to be soldiers. We were singers, actors and musicians. We were, for the most part, also tradesmen, shopkeepers and the like, but we were performers as well. We weren’t exactly the Grand Siennis Ballet,...»

«Canadians made an impressive contribution to the Allied defense during the Second World War. Canadian men and women participated in military campaigns in Europe and Asia, as well as working at home making munitions and uniforms or producing food for overseas and domestic consumption. All of this was accomplished through much effort and a great deal of planning. Sometimes these plans were well thought out and well executed; sometimes not. They were, however, attributable to a small group of...»

«52 IF ANYONE THIRSTS John 7:37-39 Rev. Richard D. Phillips Second Presbyterian Church, Greenville, SC, September 14, 2008 On the last day of the feast, the great day, Jesus stood up and cried out, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink.” (Jn. 7:37). I n the Bible, the week is a most important unit of time. God created the world in seven days, and God has given us the week as the basic structure for our lives, with six days for work and one day for rest. Weeks are also important in...»

«Ohio State University Extension Department of Horticulture and Crop Sciences 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1086 Stockpiling Tall Fescue for Winter Grazing AGF-xxx Chris Penrose Jeff McCutcheon Clif Little One of the greatest expenses for beef and sheep producers is winter feed costs. Brood animal profitability is dependent on low feed costs. One way to lower these costs is to field stockpile forages for fall and winter grazing. Tall fescue for grazing livestock is commonly considered...»

«WITHOUT PREJUDICE Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters 30-5-2002 Sonia Palmieri, Inquiry Secretary Cc; Committee members; Senators: Ray, Murray, Bartlett, Ferris and Mason. Phone: (02) 6277 2374 Fax (02) 6277 4710 AND TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: Sir/Madam; Thank you for your letter dated 27 May 2002. It doesn’t disclose the closing date for submissions, I noticed. This letter will be send electronically and a hard copy will be send (with enclosed CD) by postal services. All material...»

«H:\DIVTEXT\EXJOBB\MARIKA\THESIS1.DOC RI SK ASSESSMENT OF THE SKEDE LANDFILL IN LIEPAJA, LATVIA Marika Blumberga Supervisor Prof. Roger Thunvik Stockholm, 2001 1 INTRODUCTION _ 2 OBJECTIVES AND TASKS _ 3 EXISTING SITUATION_ 3.1 AQUIFER SYSTEM FRAMEWORK 3.2 GROUNDWATER FLOW SYSTEM 3.3 HYDROLOGICAL BOUNDARIES 3.4 HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES 3.5 SOURCESANDSINKS 3.6 WATER BUDGET 3.7 HYDRO CHEMICAL PATTERNS, WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS AND CONTAMINATION 4 GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT MODELLING_ 20 4.1 INTRODUCTION...»

«Tan Sri Datuk Dr. Abdul Samad Haji Alias Chairman Malaysia Deposit Insurance Corporation (MDIC) Tan Sri Datuk Dr. Abdul Samad Haji Alias was appointed as the Chairman of MDIC on 15 August 2011 and his current term of appointment continues until 14 August 2017. A Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia, Tan Sri Datuk Dr. Abdul Samad has had extensive experience in auditing and accounting. He is a member of the Malaysian Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the...»

«CS200706216 ITES GLOBAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENABLED SERVICES INC. CS200702909 PAUTANG BAYAN LENDING INC. CN200703000 (DREO) DASMARIÑAS REGION EIGHT ORGANIZATION INC. CN200719682 (MTTGCCDJ) MESA LAND.TERELAY.TECHNO PARK GREEN FIELD CAN.CALTEX DON JOSE CN200716518 (PAWIKAN) PAMAMALAKAYA AT WASTONG INGAT SA KARAGATAN NG AGPANABAT NA CS200702249 *BYTES 88 SPECIALISTS INC. CS200719852 *MARKBILT CONST. INC. CN200718087 1.I.2 RIDERS CLUB BAGBAG CHAPTER, INCORPORATED CS200702183 10 EN 1 TRADING,...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.