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«Contact Information Department of Economics, University of Oxford Oxford OX1 3UQ, UK UK: +44 7763511365 US: +1 (413) 519 9650 Employment Postdoctoral ...»

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Updated October 2015







Placement Director: David Cutler 617-496-5216 OHART @FAS.HARVARD.EDU Placement Director: Oliver Hart 617-496-3461 Graduate Administrator: Brenda Piquet 617-495-8927 BPIQUET@FAS.HARVARD.EDU Contact Information Department of Economics, University of Oxford Oxford OX1 3UQ, UK UK: +44 7763511365 US: +1 (413) 519 9650 Employment Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Nuffield College and Economics Department, University of Oxford (September 2013 – August 2016) Academic Affiliations Research Fellow, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford (2013 – present) Research Associate, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies (2013 – present) Associate, Center for International Development, Harvard University (2013 – present) Affiliate, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi (2014 – present) Education Harvard University, Ph.D. in Economics, 2013 Yale University, B.A. in Ethics, Politics and Economics magna cum laude, 2004 References Asim Khwaja Andrei Shleifer Sumitomo Foundation Professor of International Professor of Economics Finance and Development Department of Economics Harvard Kennedy School Harvard University Harvard University ashleifer@harvard.edu asim_ijaz_khwaja@harvard.edu +1 (617) 495-5046 +1 (617) 384-7790 Professor Edward Glaeser Douglas Gollin Fred and Eleanor Glimp Professor of Economics Professor of Development Economics Department of Economics Department of International Development Harvard University University of Oxford eglaeser@harvard.edu douglas.gollin@qeh.ox.ac.uk +1 (617) 495-0575 +44 (1865) 281832 Teaching and Research Fields Primary: Development Economics, Political Economy Secondary: Urban Economics, Economic Geography

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2015 Quantitative Methods (Oxford MSc in Economics for Development) 2013-2015 Development Economics I (Oxford MPhil in Economics) 2009-2011 PED-309: Development Policy Strategy (Harvard Kennedy School MPA/ID, teaching fellow for Professor Ricardo Hausmann) 2009 Econ 2390b: Development Microeconomics (Harvard graduate, teaching fellow for Professors Sendhil Mullainathan and Richard Hornbeck) Professional Activities Referee Quarterly Journal of Economics, Review of Economics and Statistics, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Economic Development and Cultural Change, World Politics Panelist USAID Development Innovation Ventures Proposal Review Co-organizer CSAE (Development Economics) External Seminar, University of Oxford (2014-2015);

IGC Workshop on Industrial Research and Data Needs in India (2015) Presentations (including scheduled) 2015-2016 Pennsylvania State University, Harvard University, Oxford Development Workshop, Paris School of Economics, University of Oxford, Northeast University Development Conference (NEUDC), Dartmouth College 2014-2015 University of Oxford, Northeast University Development Conference (NEUDC), University of Essex, Indian Statistical Institute, Centre for Policy Research (Delhi) 2013-2014 Northeast University Development Conference (NEUDC), University of Oxford, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (India) 2012-2013 Northeast University Development Conference (NEUDC), University of Oxford, Harvard University, Planning Commission (India)

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2007-2009 Graduate Fellowship, Harvard University Job Market Paper The Economic Effects of Road Construction in Rural India (with Paul Novosad) This paper investigates the economic effects of reducing transportation costs in rural areas. We construct a new, high spatial resolution household dataset to estimate the impact of a national rural road construction program in India that has built over 400,000 km of paved roads. Program rules provide exogenous variation in road assignment. We find that paved road construction to previously unconnected villages leads to a large and significant sectoral reallocation of economic activity out of agricultural cultivation. These results are driven by locations close to major cities, suggesting the importance of access to urban markets in the process of structural transformation. We provide further evidence that this exit from agriculture is concentrated among younger workers and households with low levels of land, precisely those groups we expect to have the lowest costs and highest returns to sectoral reallocation.

Other Research Papers Politics and Local Economic Growth: Evidence from India (with Paul Novosad) Does politics have an impact on local economic outcomes? Using a regression discontinuity design built around close elections from 1990-2005, we examine the local economic effects of one form of political favoritism: the benefit of having a local politician who is aligned with the party in control of government. We show that private sector employment in politically aligned constituencies grows by 1.7 percentage points more per year than in non-aligned constituencies. We find no effect on government employment or supply of public infrastructure. Stock prices show 12-15% positive cumulative abnormal returns when an aligned candidate wins the constituency where a firm is headquartered, suggesting that political alignment is a net benefit to both local labor and capital. Finally, we use international survey data to classify industries by their dependence on (i) government bureaucracy, (ii) direct transfers in the form of procurement, and (iii) external finance. We find the effect of political alignment is largest in industries that depend most on government officials, with no significant effect of dependence on credit or procurement. This suggests that the effect of alignment works through regulation. The results are consistent with a model of politicians choosing policy levers to maximize electoral gain.

Dirty Politics: Natural Resource Wealth and Politics in India (with Paul Novosad) Does extractable natural resource wealth cause adverse political outcomes? We interact global price changes with locations of mineral deposits within India to isolate exogenous variation in local resource wealth. By exploiting temporal variation with locations held constant, we remove confounding factors that vary across locations and may be correlated with the importance of natural resources. We find that natural resource wealth increases the likelihood that criminal politicians are elected to office, and increases margins of victory and incumbency advantages in local elections. We can exclude the possibility that these results are driven by higher budgets alone, as mining royalties are not distributed locally. We test three channels for the criminality effect: (i) moral hazard; (ii) adverse selection of politicians into the political system; and (iii) greater success of criminal candidates in elections. The evidence favors the third channel. We discuss potential interpretations based on changes in voter, candidate and party behavior.

Work in Progress The Impacts of Local Control over Political Institutions: Evidence from State Splitting in India (with Paul Novosad) Local Employment Multipliers in India (with Karan Nagpal and Paul Novosad) The Cost of Road Construction in Tanzania (with Martina Kirchberger and Paul Novosad)

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Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR), Postdoctoral Fellow, 2013-present


Harvard University, Ph.D. Economics, 2013 University of Bologna, B.A. Economics cum laude, 2004 University of California Berkeley, Education Abroad Program Student, 2003-04

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Teaching and Research Fields:

Primary field: Development Economics Secondary fields: Agricultural Economics, Political Economy, International Trade, Public Finance

Teaching Experience:

Fall 2015 Development Economics (Ph.D.), Stanford, co-instructor Spring 2014, 2015 Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (B.A.), Stanford, instructor Spring 2010 Development Economics (Ph.D.), Harvard, teaching fellow for Prof. M. Kremer Fall 2009 International Trade (B.A.), Harvard, teaching fellow for Prof. M. Melitz Fall 2004, 2006 Advanced Micro (M.A.), Bologna, teaching fellow for Prof. P. Onofri

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Research Experience and Other Employment:

2009-11 Government of Sierra Leone, Agricultural Tracking Survey, Technical Consultant 2005-06 Research Assistant to Michael Kremer and Ted Miguel, Kenya

Professional Activities:

Referee: American Economic Review, Quarterly Journal of Economics, American Economic Journal:

Applied Economics, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Journal of African Economies, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of International Economics, Journal of International Trade and Development, Journal of Public Economics, Review of Economics and Statistics, Routledge, World Bank Economic Review Grant Proposal Reviewer: J-PAL ATAI, Private Enterprise Development in Low Income Countries (PEDL), USAID Development Innovation Ventures (DIV)

Presentations (includes scheduled):

2015/16 Zurich, UC San Diego, UC Berkeley, University of Southern California, Oxford, Yale School of Management, NEUDC, UC Santa Cruz, McGill, Stanford, CEPR/PODER Annual Symposium on Development Economics, Harvard 2014/15 NBER Summer Institute Development Economics, Barcelona GSE Summer Forum Development Economics, PACDEV, Boston University, American Economic Association Meetings, Columbia, BASIS Annual Conference, IGC Growth Week, Stanford SIEPR 2013/14 European Economic Association Meetings, World Bank, Royal Economic Society, CSAE Oxford, UC Berkeley ARE, UC Davis ARE, IPA-SME/PEDL Conference, Millennium Challenge Corporation, National Tax Association Conference, UC San Diego, IGC Growth Week, BASIS Annual Conference, Stanford, SIEPR 2012/13 Paris School of Economics, NBER Development and Organizational Economics Workshop, Stanford SIEPR, JPAL ATAI 2010-2012 NBER Africa Conference, NSF/AERC Agriculture Session

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USAID Development Innovation Ventures, “A Randomized Evaluation of Inventory 2010 Credit” (with Rachel Glennerster) $230,000 J-PAL ATAI, “Contract Farming, Technology Adoption and Agricultural Productivity” 2010 (with Michael Kremer and Sendhil Mullainathan) $180,000 IGC, “Agriculture, Technology Adoption and Infrastructure: Evidence from Sierra Leone” 2009 (with Rachel Glennerster and Tavneet Suri) $123,000

Honors and Fellowships:

2013- JPAL/CEGA Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative (ATAI) Network Member 2012 Harvard GSAS Dissertation Completion Fellowship 2010 Harvard Derek Bok Center Certificate of Distinction in Teaching 2008 Harvard Interdisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy Fellowship 2007-09 Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS) Fellowship 2007-08 Harvard Sustainability Science Program Giorgio Ruffolo Fellowship 2004 Rotary Award, Best Graduate in Economics at the University of Bologna 2000-2004 University of Bologna, Collegio Superiore Fellowship


“Ghost-House Busters: The Electoral Response to a Large Anti Tax Evasion Program.” with Ugo Troiano, Quarterly Journal of Economics, forthcoming “Loyalty, Exit and Enforcement: Evidence from a Kenya Dairy Cooperative.” with Rocco Macchiavello, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 105.5 (2015): 286-90.

“Contract Farming and Agricultural Productivity in Western Kenya.” with Michael Kremer and Sendhil Mullainathan, in S. Edwards, S. Johnson, D. Weil (eds.), NBER Volume on African Economic Successes: Sustainable Growth, University of Chicago Press, forthcoming “Production in Advance versus Production to Order: The Role of Downstream Spatial Clustering and Product Differentiation” with G. Alfredo Minerva, Journal of Urban Economics, 70.1 (2011): 32Firms’ International Status and Heterogeneity in Performance: Evidence from Italy." with Valeria Gattai and G. Alfredo Minerva, Rivista di Politica Economica, V-VI (2007): 151-187

Research Papers:

“Firm and Market Response to Saving Constraints: Evidence from the Kenyan Dairy Industry” (with Rocco Macchiavello) (Job Market Paper) The paper documents how saving constraints spill over into other markets. Producers' demand for (commitment) saving devices enables trustworthy buyers to offer low frequency payments and purchase at a lower price, thus changing the nature of competition in the output market. We present a model of this interlinked saving-output market for the case of the Kenyan dairy industry. Multiple data sources, experiments, and a calibration exercise support its microfoundations and predictions concerning: i) producers' demand for low frequency payments as a commitment device; ii) an asymmetry across buyers in the ability to credibly commit to low frequency payments; iii) a segmented market equilibrium where buyers compete by providing either liquidity or saving services to producers; iv) low supply response to price increases. We derive policy implications concerning contract enforcement, financial access, and market structure.

“Interlinked Transactions and Pass-Through: Experimental Evidence from Sierra Leone” (with Tristan Reed) (Revise and Resubmit, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics) Interlinked transactions, in which prices are determined jointly with the terms of a credit relation, are a feature of many business relationships. We present a randomized experiment designed to study how value is passed along agricultural supply chains. In response to a wholesale price increase, we find limited pass-through of the price to farmers. We find a large increase, however, in credit provision. Our results suggest that the presence of interlinkages is a candidate explanation for low rates of price pass-through observed in many settings. We develop and test a model that shows this explanation has substantially different implications for welfare than others.

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