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«and And EdQual Working Paper Leadership No.3 By Hillary A. Dachi Ndibalema R. Alphonce With George Kahangwa Raymond Boniface Mislay Moshi January ...»

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Baseline Study in Selected Districts of Tanzania



EdQual Working Paper

Leadership No.3


Hillary A. Dachi

Ndibalema R. Alphonce


George Kahangwa

Raymond Boniface

Mislay Moshi

January 2010

EdQual RPC is a Research Consortium led by the University of Bristol UK and sponsored by the

Department for International Development, UK.

The Consortium comprises:

The Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, UK The Department of Education, University of Bath, UK The Institute for Educational Planning and Administration, University of Cape Coast, Ghana The School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania The Kigali Institute of Education, Rwanda The Education Policy Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

EdQual also collaborates with the Institute for Educational Development, The Aga Khan University, Pakistan and the Instituto de Informática Educativa, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile.

EdQual runs research projects mainly in Africa, aimed at improving the quality of formal basic

education for disadvantaged groups. Our projects include:

Implementing Curriculum Change to Reduce Poverty and to Increase Gender Equity Leadership and Management of Change for Quality Improvement Literacy and Language Development through Primary Education School Effectiveness and Education Quality in Southern and Eastern Africa The Use of ICT to Support Basic Education in Disadvantaged Schools and Communities in Low Income Countries.

For more information and other papers in this series, visit www.edqual.org.

Extracts from this Working Paper may only be reproduced with the permission of the Author[s].

©EdQual 2010 ISBN: 978-1-906675-25-7 ii



List of Tables

List of Figures

Abbreviations and Acronyms


Executive Summary

1.0. Introduction

2.0. The Context of Primary Education Management

3.0. Purpose and Objectives of the Baseline Study

4.0. Research Methodology

4.1. The approach

4.2. Sampling

4.3. Data gathering

5.0. Regional Profiles and Key Indicators of Primary Education Status

5.1. The Regions

5.2. Regional Profiles

5.3. Key Indicators of Primary Education Status

5.4. Selection of Districts and Schools

6.0. Data from the Study, Analysis and Discussion of Findings

6.1. The Profile of Head Teachers

6.2. Special Education Needs

6.3. The Role of School Leadership

6.3.1. Poverty Alleviation

6.3.2. Promotion of Gender Equity

6.3.3. Promotion of Quality Teaching and Learning (T-L)

7.0. Ways to Develop School Effectiveness within the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP)

8.0. School Leadership Role Changes due to PEDP

8.1. HTs’ perception of Leadership Role Changes due to PEDP…………………………………………..32

8.2. Other HT Roles that Have Changed due to PEDP

8.3. HTs versus School Committees

8.4. Community Participation in School Performance Appraisal

9.0. Factors Explaining Perceptions of Leadership in Schools within Disadvantaged Context.......35

9.1. The Findings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35

9.2 Other Factors that Influence how People Perceive Leadership in Schools

10.0. An Appropriate Model of Training for Preparing Head Teachers

11.0. Conclusion & Implications for EdQual’s L&M Research Project


Annex One: Head Teacher Questionnaire: School Data

Annex Two: Head Teacher Questionnaire

Annex Three: Indicators of Primary Education Status – Sampled Schools

Authors’ correspondenceHillary A. Dachi: edqual@edu.udsm.ac.tz

iii List of Tables Table 1: Key Indicators of Primary Education Status by Region

Table 2: Selected Districts

Table 3: Frequency Distribution of Head Teachers by Age (N=34)

Table 4: Frequency Distribution of HTs by Sex (N=34)

Table 5: Frequency Distribution of HTs by Experience in School Headship (N=34)

Table 6: Frequency Distribution of HTs by Professional Qualifications (N=34)

Table 7: Frequency Distribution of HTs by Previous Postings (N=34)

Table 8: Frequency Distribution of HTs by Participation in Leadership/Management Training (N=34)

Table 9: Frequency Distribution of HTs by Participation in Professional Training (N=34)................10 Table 10: Frequency Distribution of Schools with Special Education (SE) Facilities and Teachers with Formal Training in SE (N=34)

Table 11: The Role of School Leadership in Poverty Alleviation

Table 12: Overall Primary Education Enrolment Trend 2003-2007

Table 13: The Role of School Leadership in the Promotion of Gender Equity

Table 14: Pupils' 2006 PSLE Scores in Sampled Primary School in Kibaha District (N=4)................20 Table 15: Pupils' Council Meetings (N=34)

Table 16: Availability of Safe/Clean Drinking Water in the Select Sampled Schools

Table 17: Pit Latrine Hold Per Pupil Ratios (PLHR) - Selected Schools

Table 18: The Role of School Leadership in the Promotion of Quality Teaching and Learning.........26 Table 19: PSLE Scores and Transition to SE Compared to the PCR and PTR

Table 20: Ways to Develop School Effectiveness within the PEDP Context

Table 21: School Leadership Role Changes due to PEDP

Table 22: Factors Explaining Perceptions of Leadership in Schools within Disadvantaged Context..35 Table 23: Indicators of Internal Efficiency - Selected Schools

Table 24: Appropriate Model of Training for Preparing Head Teachers

List of Figures

Figure 1:Pupils’ Transition to Secondary Education from Sampled Kibaha (U) District Primary Schools……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 Figure 2Pupils Transition to Secondary Education from Sampled Nyamagana District Primary Schools……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 iv Abbreviations and Acronyms BEDC Basic Education Development Committee BEST Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania COBET Complimentary Basic Education in Tanzania CSO Civil Society Organisations DBSPE District Based Support to Primary Education EFA Education for All ESDP Education Sector Development Programme EBD Emotional and Behavioural Disorders ETP Education and Training Policy GDP Gross Domestic Product GER Gross Enrolment Rate GPI Gender Parity Index HDI Human Development Index HT Head Teacher ICBAE Integrated Community Based Adult Education ILO International Labour Organization INSET In Service Training IPEC International Programme on Elimination of Child Labour JAST Joint Assistance Strategy for Tanzania LGA Local Government Authority LGRP Local Government Reform Programme MDGs Millennium Development Goals MKUKUTA Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kuondoa Umaskini Tanzania MOEC Ministry of Education and Culture MOEVT Ministry of Education and Vocational Training MVC Most Vulnerable Children NACP National AIDS Control Programme NER Net Enrolment Rate NSGRP National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty OVC Other Vulnerable Children PAR Participatory Action Research PBR Pupil Book Ratio PCR Pupil Classroom Ratio PDCc Professional Development Centres PDR Pupil Desk Ratio PEDP Primary Education Development Plan/Programme PEP Primary Education Programme PMO-RALG Prime Ministers’ Office Regional Administration and Local Government PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PSLE Primary School Leaving Examination PSRP Public Sector Reform Programme PTBR Pupil Textbook Ratio PTR Pupil Teacher Ratio REPOA Research for Poverty Alleviation SADC Southern Africa Development Community SEDP Secondary Education Development Programme SWApp Sector Wide Approach TAS Tanzania Assistance Strategy v TIP Trafficking in Persons T-L Teaching and Learning TRCs Teacher Resource Centres URT United Republic of Tanzania VCT Voluntary Counselling and Testing vi Acknowledgement The Research Team extends its appreciation to the University of Dar es Salaam; Regional and District Administrative Officers for research clearances, without which the Baseline Study could not have been undertaken. The team would also like to thank the District Education Officers for facilitating the sampling process of schools and accessing the sampled primary schools. Last but not least, the Research Team would like to extend its appreciation to the Head Teachers for filling in the questionnaires (during the pilot phase and baseline study) and provision of school data and information. However, the customary absolution stands relieving all the officials and Head Teachers of responsibility for the findings of the study and reporting of them.

vii Executive Summary

1.0. Introduction The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, from the Mid 1990s embarked on the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) and adopted the Sector Wide Approach (SWApp) to introduce and implement education reforms in all sub-sectors of the education system.

The Outcomes of the ESDP include the Primary Education Development Plan (2002-2006) (PEDP I) and the Primary Education Development Programme (2007-2011)(PEDPII). The overarching objective of PEDP I and PEDP II is to improve quality and achieve national and international targets and goals of equitable access to quality education.

2.0. The Context of Primary Education Management The PEDP I and PEDP II are skewed in favour of quantitative determinants of educational achievement which are relatively easier to assess and compute such as classrooms, text books and teachers as well as capitation and capital development grants. Data of enrolment expansion, Primary School Leaving Examination and transition to secondary education are visible, indicative targets of education progress. Yet, there are scanty data and information on qualitative determinants of learning achievements and schooling outcomes, particularly the role of Leadership and Management in the whole equation of education quality improvement.

3.0. The Purpose and Objectives of the Baseline Study Through a meta-analysis of existing initiatives and an intensive survey of literature, EdQual’s Leadership and Management (L&M) Research Project identified that gap. It was therefore expedient to undertake a baseline study to determine what Public Primary Schools’ Head Teachers consider to be the role of school leadership and management in the improvement of quality, reflecting on the holistic nature of the concepts of quality and quality improvement.

4.0. Research Methodology The Baseline study was carried out in three regions of Mainland Tanzania [Mwanza, Tanga and Pwani(Coast)] involving six Administrative Districts and thirty four Public Primary Schools. The study was both descriptive and exploratory, designed to collect quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaires. The study design was informed by the Head Teachers’ workshop that was conducted in February 2007 to identify and prioritize primary schools’ leadership and management needs.

5.0. Regional Profiles and Key Indicators of Primary Education Status Tanga is located in the North East of Tanzania. It has six administrative districts, namely: Tanga, Muheza, Korogwe, Lushoto Handeni and Mkinga.

Mwanza is located in the North West of Tanzania Mainland. It has seven administrative districts, namely: Ilemela, Nyamagana, Geita, Misungwi, Kwimba, Sengerema and Ukerewe.

Pwani (Coast) is located in the East of Tanzania Mainland. Its administrative districts include Bagamoyo, Mkuranga and Kibaha.

At 99.3% Mwanza region has a high primary education Net Enrolment Ratio (NER). Pwani and Tanga regions have 96 % and 97.8% NER respectively. The GPI of 1.00 for Mwanza suggest that gender parity is 1:1 meaning that girls and boys are equally enrolled in primary schools and the region is on track to eliminate gender disparity. The GPI of 0.99 for both Tanga and Pwani regions suggest that gender parity is approaching 1:1.

With a rate of 83.1% Pwani (Coast) region had a high percentage of pupils who passed the PSLE compared to Mwanza (76.4%) and Tanga (71%) in 2007. Paradoxically, Tanga had the highest transition rate to secondary education (92.39%) compared to Pwani (81.55%) and Mwanza (80.42%) regions.

There are very significant variations of PTR from 63:1 in Mwanza, and 53: 1 in Tanga, to 43:1 in Pwani region.

viii PCR and PPLR were very high for Mwanza, followed by Tanga and Pwani in that order.

The six administrative districts that were selected to represent the rural-urban differences, the relative social and economic differences, and primary education status of the regions, are Korogwe and Tanga (Tanga), Ilemela and Nyamagana (Mwanza), and Kibaha and Mkuranga (Pwani)

6.0. Data, Analysis and Discussion of Findings

After data analysis the following were the major findings:

6.1. Head Teachers’ Profile The majority (65%) are in their 30s and 40s, while 35% are in their 50s, suggesting that a significant proportion of Head Teachers (HTs) are ageing.

There is gender parity in the HTs position as a result of affirmative action. However, anecdotal reports indicate that a 50:50 gender ratio is more observable in the urban/peri-urban schools than rural schools because of the concentration of female teachers in urban schools compared to males.

The experience of HTs in that position is varied. The majority have an experience of between 2-5 years (47%). A very small percentage of HTs (3%) have an experience of 10 years and above.

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