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«C.M.B.(BEATY) NAUDÉ, J.H (JOHAN) PRINSLOO AND ANASTASIOS LADIKOS 2006 © UNODC-UNICRI, 2006 This publication may be freely reprinted provided the ...»

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EXPERIENCES OF CRIME IN

THIRTEEN AFRICAN COUNTRIES:

RESULTS FROM THE

INTERNATIONAL CRIME VICTIM

SURVEY

C.M.B.(BEATY) NAUDÉ, J.H (JOHAN) PRINSLOO AND ANASTASIOS LADIKOS

2006

© UNODC-UNICRI, 2006

This publication may be freely reprinted provided the source is acknowledged, and a copy of the publication or reprint is forwarded to UNODC and UNICRI.

Disclaimers This document has not been formally edited by the United Nations. The views expressed here are those of

the authors and do not represent those of the United Nations. The document should be quoted as follows:

Naudé C.M.B, Prinsloo J.H., Ladikos A. Experiences of Crime in Thirteen African Countries: Results from the International Crime Victim Survey. Electronic Publication, Turin, UNICRI-UNODC, 2006.

The boundaries, names and designations used in the text and maps in this document do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

2

PREFACE

The Criminal Justice System in many of the African countries has, for decades, been exclusively an offender oriented process. The victim has been totally set aside; while in the final analysis, it appearsclearly that offender and victim are the different facets of the same social reality. That is why in African countries, the Criminal Justice System is generally perceived by the local communities as a foreign and indifferent way of solving interpersonal problematic situations, because of the absence of the victim from the scene. This often discourages the victim from reporting cases, because his/her concerns are not taken into consideration. On the other hand, the informal justice takes care of the victim. Cases are reported to the Criminal Justice System finally only when the upstream structures (family, neighbourhood, etc.) fail to overcome the problem or when the antagonists do not belong to the same social networks. It is worthy noting that some cases are only settled after the release of the offender, when the expectations of the victim (s) are taken care of by the local people.

Criminal victimization studies in Africa highlight the needed reform in the Criminal Justice System in the region: with a specific shift from “Exclusively Punitive” to “Restorative Justice”, which gives more room to the expectations of the victim and, mutatis mutandis, which is often the practise in the local communities. The only difficulty is its proper introduction in the Criminal Justice System, because it should be accompanied equally by an opening of the punitive logic to compensatory and reconciliatory logics, which are characteristic of “Restorative Justice”. Such a shift and the philosophy behind should lead to effective policies of crime prevention and treatment of offenders; effective mainly, because such policies involve the local communities’ members, especially the victim and all other related members of the concerned community.

The Experiences of Criminal Victimisation in a number of African Countries (a comparative analysis) revealed by Beaty Naude, Johan Prinsloo and Anastasios Ladikos are timely, considering that the Secretariat of the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) encourages and is mandated to offer technical assistance to its Member States, to address their Criminal Justice System reforms by introducing, inter alia, the “Restorative Justice” approach. The wealth of information contained in the study definitely will help UNAFRI in its advisory missions to its Member States and constitutes a precious data bank in this respect. The Secretariat commends the work done and proposes that the study be extended to other African countries in order to benefit from the findings of the study and confirm the trends thereof. In this regard, we wish to appeal to other stakeholders, associates and the donor community for the necessary support in developing this study.

N. Masamba Sita (PhD) Director UNAFRI

–  –  –

The University of South Africa (UNISA) and the former Technikon Southern Africa (TSA), for the research grants that enabled us to participate in the international survey, specifically professors Danny Titus and Rika Snyman, UNISA (Previously Technikon Southern Africa).

The country coordinators and the specific student field workers in the respective countries.

United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), Turin Italy, especially Dr.

Ugi Zvekić, currently the Chief of the Strategic Planning Unit, Division for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Vienna, Dr. Anna Alvazzi del Frate, Research and Analysis Section, Division for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Vienna, Austria, for their support and encouragement as well as Mr John van Kesteren, UNICRI (currently at INTERVICT, International Victimology Institute, Tilburg, the Netherlands), for compiling the statistical database for Africa.

United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI), Kampala, Uganda.





Mr Paul Smit of the Wetenschappelick Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Justice Ministry, the Netherlands for the permission granted to use the statistical data in table one (Appendix 4) in Van Kesteren, J, Mayhew, P and Nieuwbeerta, P, ‘Criminal Victimisation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries’ (2000:179).

The views, opinions and conclusions contained and expressed in this report are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the University of South Africa (UNISA), the (former) Technikon Southern Africa (TSA), United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) or the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Beaty Naudé was head of the department of criminology at the University of South Africa at her retirement in 1999. She is currently professor emeritus and research fellow in criminology at the University of South Africa. She serves on the editorial and advisory boards of various international and national journals and is the author and co-author of 150 scientific publications. She has received a number of awards for her contributions and community work relating to the criminological sciences. She is also the chairperson of the Standards Generating Body for Criminology and Criminal Justice Qualifications in South Africa. Her research interests are victim surveys, victims of commercial crimes, organised crime and corruption, crime reduction and restorative justice.

Johan Prinsloo is the Director of the Institute for Criminological Sciences at the University of South Africa. He is a member of various criminological societies and the author and co-author of several extensive research reports and popular scientific research articles. His research interests are victim surveys, commercial crime surveys, restorative justice and organised crime and corruption.

Anastasios (Tas) Ladikos is a senior researcher attached to the Institute for Criminological Sciences at the University of South Africa. He pursues the methodologies of criminological research focussing on the relationship between theory, method and empirical data on a range of different crime-related issues.

4 CONTENTS PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

CONTENTS

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1: THE INTERNATIONAL CRIME VICTIM SURVEY IN

AFRICA (BEATY NAUDÉ; JOHAN PRINSLOO)

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

1.3 THE INTERNATIONAL CRIME VICTIM SURVEY (ICVS)

1.4 CRIMES MEASURED BY THE ICVS

1.5 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ICVS

1.6 MEASURING CRIME

1.6.1 Benefits and limitations of police-recorded crime statistics................16 1.6.2 Benefits and limitations of victim surveys

1.7 COMPARISON OF POLICE-RECORDED DATA AND VICTIM SURVEYS.................20

1.8 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

1.8.1 Self-administered and postal surveys

1.8.2 Telephone interviews

1.8.3 Personal interviews

1.8.4 Street surveys

1.8.5 Method and scope

1.9 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE SAMPLE

1.9.1 Age

1.9.2 Gender

1.9.3 Employment status

1.9.4 Satisfaction with household’s income

1.9.5 Housing

1.10 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 2: HOUSEHOLD VICTIMIZATION RATES (ANASTASIOS

LADIKOS)

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 BURGLARY

2.3 ATTEMPTED BURGLARY

2.4 VEHICLE OWNERSHIP

2.4.1 Car theft

2.4.2 Theft from car

2.4.3 Car vandalism

2.4.4 Motorcycle theft

2.4.5 Theft of bicycle

2.5 THEFT OF LIVESTOCK

2.6 CONSUMER FRAUD

2.7 CORRUPTION

5 2.8 SECURITY MEASURES IN PLACE TO PROTECT HOUSEHOLD PROPERTY............39 2.9 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 3: INDIVIDUAL VICTIMIZATION RISK (BEATY NAUDÉ)......41 3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 CAR-RELATED HIJACKING INCIDENTS

3.3 EXPERIENCES OF ROBBERY

3.4 THEFT FROM THE PERSON

3.5 SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION

3.6 THE IDENTITY OF KNOWN SEXUAL OFFENDERS

3.7 THE LOCALITY OF SEXUAL OFFENCES

3.8 INCIDENTS OF ASSAULT OR THREAT

3.9 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 4: REPORTING OF CRIME, THE POLICE, AND VICTIM

SUPPORT (JOHAN PRINSLOO)

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 VICTIMIZATION AND THE REPORTING OF CRIME

4.2.1 Theft of car

4.2.2 Car hijacking

4.2.3 Theft from car

4.2.4 Vandalism to cars

4.2.5 Theft of motorcycle

4.2.6 Theft of bicycle

4.2.7 Theft of livestock

4.2.8 Burglary

4.2.9 Robbery

4.2.10 Personal theft

4.2.11 Sexual victimization (women only)

4.2.12 Assault

4.2.13 Consumer fraud

4.2.14 Corruption

4.3 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS PERTAINING TO THE REPORTING OF CRIME...........59

4.4 VICTIM SUPPORT

4.5 GENERAL ATTITUDES TO CRIME AND VICTIMIZATION

4.6 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION OF SELECTED CRIME RISK FACTORS AND

CRIME TRENDS (BEATY NAUDÉ)

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF DETERMINING CRIME RISK FACTORS TO DEAL

EFFECTIVELY WITH CRIME AND VICTIMIZATION

5.3 SELECTIVE CRIME RISK FACTORS IN AFRICA

5.3.1 Destabilization due to internal and external conflict

5.3.2. Low human and economic development

5.3.3 Heterogeneity of African populations

5.3.4 Population structure

5.3.5 High levels of firearms in circulation

5.3.6 Urbanization rates

5.3.7 The prevalence of HIV/AIDS

6 5.3.8 Economic distress, deprivation, and inequality

5.3.9 Inadequate functioning of the criminal justice system

5.3.10 Poor human and victim rights culture

5.3.11 Absence of national and regional strategies to reduce crime..............76 5.3.12 Victimization risk and repeat victimization risk

5.3.13 Lifestyle patterns

5.4 COMPARATIVE CRIME RATES IN AFRICA AND IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

77

5.5 COMPARATIVE CRIME RATES IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND LATIN AMERICA..........78

5.6 SELECTIVE CRIME TRENDS IN AFRICA

5.7 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

ANNEXURE

7 SUMMARY This publication represents the first independent comparative crime survey conducted in Africa as part of the International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS).

In 1987 a working group, consisting of a number of international experts in criminology, was set up to develop the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) questionnaire and fourteen industrialized countries participated in the first ICVS survey in 1989. At the same time the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) in Italy investigated the possibility of carrying out similar surveys in cities in a selection of developing countries with the main task to sensitize local governments to the dimensions and extent of crime in their urban areas. The ICVS working group was then broadened to include representatives from UNICRI resulting in five developing countries participating in the ICVS.

Since then more than seventy two countries have participated in the ICVS - 24 industrialized countries and 48 cities in developing countries.

Greater participation of African countries in the ICVS, especially in southern Africa, emanated from the initiatives of the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) in Italy to conduct similar surveys in cities in a selection of developing countries with the main task to sensitize local governments to the dimensions and extent of crime in their urban areas. Collaboration with UNICRI and the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) eventually led to an expansion of the ICVS in the Southern African region (funded by the University of South Africa (UNISA) and former Technikon Southern Africa (TSA) with a view to establish an independent crime database, create an awareness of the value of crime victim studies and to promote the sharing of expertise in the effective reduction of crime and to obtain a broader picture of crime problems in the region. Victim surveys were since 1998 conducted in Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, and Zambia while the data base was expanded with additional data from Botswana, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda and Zimbabwe.



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