WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 8 |

«IMPACT OF TERRACE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN ANJENI AREA, WEST GOJAM BY: ALEMAYEHU ASSEFA JULY, 2007 ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

IMPACT OF TERRACE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT ON SOIL

PROPERTIES IN ANJENI AREA, WEST GOJAM

BY:

ALEMAYEHU ASSEFA

JULY, 2007

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

IMPACT OF TERRACE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT ON SOIL

PROPERTIES IN ANJENI AREA, WEST GOJAM

BY:

ALEMAYEHU ASSEFA

ADVISOR:

AKLILU AMSALU (Dr.)

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES OF

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER’S IN GEOGRAPHY

AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

JULY, 2007

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

IMPACT OF TERRACE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT ON SOIL

PROPERTIES IN ANJENI AREA, WEST GOJAM

BY:

ALEMAYEHU ASSEFA

APPROVAL OF THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS

Name: Signature ________________________________________ ____________

Advisor _______________________________________ _____________

External examiner ______________________________________ ____________

Internal examiner Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to thank the Almighty God since everything is done through the help of him.

My deepest gratitude goes to my advisor Dr. Aklilu Amsalu for his constructive comments which was helpful for strengthening the study.

My heart-felt gratitude extends to my mother W/ro Almaz Wasihun for providing me with moral and financial support during my educational career.

I am also happy to forward my acknowledgement to Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Amhara Regional and Agricultural Institute (ARARI), and JACS HoA (NCCR N-S).

Farmers of the Anjeni area who were willing to provide their opinions as well as the data collectors are also appreciated.

Finally, my thanks extend to all my families especially Ato Assefa Ayele and Ato Yilkal Goshu, and to my friends who helped me in one way or another.

i

Table of Contents

Page Acknowledgements -------------------------------------------------------------i List of Tables --------------------------------------------------------------------v List of Figures -------------------------------------------------------------------vii

Abstract

--------------------------------------------------------------------------viii Abbreviations -------------------------------------------------------------------ix

1. INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------1

1.1 Statement of the problem -----------------------------------------------1

1.2. Objectives of the Study -------------------------------------------------3

1.3. Research Questions-----------------------------------------------------3

1.4 Data Sources and Methods ---------------------------------------------4 1.4.1 Data Sources ------------------------------------------------------4 1.4.2 Sampling Methods--------------------------------------------------4 1.4.3 Methods of Data Analysis -----------------------------------------6

1.5 Significance of the Study -----------------------------------------------6

1.6 Scope of the Study -------------------------------------------------------7

1.7 Limitation of the Study--------------------------------------------------7

1.8. Organization of the Paper ----------------------------------------------8

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE -------------------------------------------------9

2.1 Land Degradation and Soil Conservation in Ethiopia---------------9 2.1.1 Land Degradation--------------------------------------------------9 2.1.2 Soil Conservation in Ethiopia ------------------------------------12

2.2 Overview of Terraces in Ethiopia ---------------------------------------15

2.3 Classification of Terraces ------------------------------------------------17

2.4 Benefits of Terraces-------------------------------------------------------20

2.5 Problems of Terraces -----------------------------------------------------22

3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA-----------------------------------23

3.1 Location and Size ---------------------------------------------------------23

3.2 Topography and Geology-------------------------------------------------25 ii

3.3 Climate ---------------------------------------------------------------------25

3.4 Soils -------------------------------------------------------------------------28

3.5 Natural Vegetation --------------------------------------------------------30





3.6 Agriculture and Farming System---------------------------------------30

3.7 Population------------------------------------------------------------------31

4. RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS ---------------------------------------------32

4.1. Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties of Terraced and Non-Terraced Plots--------------------------------------32 4.1.1. Total Nitrogen -----------------------------------------------------32 4.1.2. Organic Matter ----------------------------------------------------34 4.1.3. Available Phosphorus --------------------------------------------35 4.1.4. Available Potassium ----------------------------------------------36 4.1.5. PH -------------------------------------------------------------------37 4.1.6 CEC ------------------------------------------------------------------38 4.1.7 Texture --------------------------------------------------------------38

4.2 Construction, Maintenance, Benefits and Problems of Terraces -----------------------------------------------------------------38 4.2.1 Features of Terraced and Non-terraced Farm Plots ----------38 4.2.2 Construction of Terraces -----------------------------------------40 4.2.3 Effects of Terraces on Erosion -----------------------------------42 4.2.4 Supportive Conservation Measures -----------------------------48 4.2.5 Proportion of Terraced and Non-terraced Farm Plots --------51 4.2.6 Comparison of Terraced and Non-terraced Farm Plots ------53 4.2.7 Maintenance of Terraces------------------------------------------54 4.2.8 Destruction of Terraces -------------------------------------------57 4.2.9 The Future of Terraces and Terrace Use in Anjeni -----------58 4.2.10 Benefits of Terraces ----------------------------------------------59 4.2.11 Problems of Terraces --------------------------------------------60

–  –  –

Table 1: General Classification of Terraces Based on Different Criteria ------------------------------------------------------------------19 Table 2: Runoff and Soil loss from Terraced and Non-terraced catchments at Ibadan, Nigeria, from a single Rainstorm received on 6 July, 1981 ---------------------------------------------21 Table 3: Mean Annual Minimum and Maximum Average Temperature (1984-1993) ------------------------------------------------------------27 Table 4: Major Soil Units and Sub- groups, Their Area Coverage in the Minchet Catchment, Anjeni ------------------------------------------29 Table 5: Number of Households and Persons in Anjeni SWC Research Unit ----------------------------------------------------------31 Table 6: Average Laboratory Results of Total Nitrogen, Organic Matter,Available Potassium, Available Phosphorus, PH, Cation Exchange Capacity and Texture of the Topsoil (0 -20 cm) of the Farm Plots ----------------------------------------34 Table 7: Number of Farm Plots of Household Heads ----------------------39 Table 8: Total Farm Size of Household Heads ------------------------------40 Table 9: Farmers' Sources of Information on the Construction of Terraces ----------------------------------------------------------------41 Table 10: Farmers' Opinions on the Rate of Soil Erosion Before the Introduction of Terraces --------------------------------------------42 Table 11: Farmers’ Opinions on the Rate of Soil Erosion After the Introduction of Terraces -------------------------------------------43 Table 12: Mean Annual Runoff and Soil Loss (Experimental Plot I)-----44 Table 13: Mean Annual Runoff and Soil Loss (Experimental Plot II) ----45 Table 14: Annual Discharge and Suspended Sediment Yield ------------46 v Page Table 15: Farmers' Opinions on the Causes of Erosion on their Farm Plots -------------------------------------------------------------------47 Table 16: The Proportion of Non-terraced Farm Plots of the 18 Household Heads in Comparison with the Total Number of Plots Owned ------------------------------------------------------52 Table 17: Practices used by Household Heads to Maintain Terraces ---55 Table 18: Sources of Labour for Maintaining Terraced Farm Plots of the Respondents --------------------------------------------------56 Table 19: Farmers' Reasons for Vertically Digging Terrace Risers-------58 Table 20: Farmer's Opinions on the Benefits of Terraces -----------------60 Table 21: Farmers' Perceptions on Problems of Terraces -----------------61 vi List of Figures Page Fig. 1: Schematic Presentation of Cause and Effect of Land Degradation--------------------------------------------------------11 Fig. 2: Location of the Study Area ---------------------------------------------23 Fig. 3: Aerial Photo of a Terraced Minchet Catchment and its Surroundings----------------------------------------------------24 Fig. 4: Mean Monthly Minimum and Maximum Air Temperatures of Anjeni Area (1984-1993)-----------------------26 Fig. 5: Mean Monthly Rainfall Distribution of Anjeni Area (1984-1993) --------------------------------------------------------28 vii

Abstract

Ethiopia has been facing land degradation problems. These problems are among the factors that have contributed to the outbreak of famines in the country that initiated the Government of Ethiopia and its foreign partners to emphasize on SWC at the severely eroded areas (mainly at the catchments level). Such practice mainly incorporated physical SWC measures including terraces. However, these measures have failed to bring the desired outcomes. That is, they failed to improve the productivity (fertility) of the already degraded areas.

The objectives of this study were to identify the difference between physical and chemical properties of terraced and non–terraced farm plots and explore the opinions of farmers on construction, maintenance, problems and benefits of terraces in Minchet catchment and its surrounding areas in Anjeni, West Gojam. Soils were sampled from three slope positions (upslope, middle slope, and downslope) as well as from three locations on the plot (upper, middle, and lower) under cultivation of terraced and non–terraced plots. The questionnaire survey using random and purposive sampling techniques was also conducted to generate data on the perceptions of household heads of terrace users.

The laboratory analysis indicated that the mean total nitrogen, organic matter, and available phosphorus contents of the non–terraced farm plots are relatively better than the terraced ones. The available potassium and CEC of both plots are found to be high. The PH value is found acidic while the texture of the sampled soils is more of clay. Thus, the soil parameters of the terraced plots need to be amended by applying appropriate supportive conservation measures that could enhance soil fertility.

The questionnaire survey of household heads revealed that the farmers strongly appreciated the ability of terraces in reducing soil erosion and increasing productivity. They showed their interests in continuing by adopting this SWC measure. However, farmers also noted the concentration of water at the lower section which causes a plant disease called “Wag” for barley, inconvenient to dig drainage ditches, the elevated terrace risers prevent the oxen not to plough the two corners (the upper and lower most ends) of the terrace bench, the upper section losses its moisture easily than the lower one, hiding place for rodents, and the terrace is too narrow making farming difficult as the major problems of terraces.

As indicated above, the laboratory analysis and the questionnaire survey contradict each other. However, although the soil samples are small, they are collected following a standard procedure. Thus, the reliability of mainly the farmers’ opinions is doubtful which needs further research.

viii Abbreviations

ARDU Arsi Rural Development Unit CEC Cation Exchange Capacity CSA Central Statistical Authority DA Development Agent EHRS Ethiopian Highlands Reclamation Study FAO Food and Agricultural Organization FFW Food-For-Work GOs Governmental Organizations IIRR International Institute of Rural Reconstruction ILRI International Livestock Research Institute m asl meter above sea level NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium NRC National Research Council PA Peasant Association PH Power of Hydrogen SCRP Soil Conservation Research Programme SIDA Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency SWC Soil and Water Conservation WFP World Food Programme

–  –  –

1.1 Statement of the problem Ethiopia is a relatively large country with a variety of soil types and climatic conditions. It has abundant water resources, diversified flora and fauna, and substantial underground resources.Yet,the standards of living of the people remain at a dismal level.Moreover,studies show there is substantial mismanagement of our natural resources in the form of over utilization of soils(Dessalegn and Taye,2006).



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 8 |


Similar works:

«DOUG SCOTT Fame and Fortune Risk, responsibility, and the guided climber N ear the entrance to most Buddhist Monasteries there is a painting of the wheel of life. At the hub of the wheel is a symbolic explanation for all our suffering. There is a pig representing our ignorance, a cockerel representing greedy. desires and a snake representing the anger within us. In our ignorance, we become attached to our desires for such things as fame, fortune and power over others. But no sooner have we...»

«Review of International Studies http://journals.cambridge.org/RIS Additional services for Review of International Studies: Email alerts: Click here Subscriptions: Click here Commercial reprints: Click here Terms of use : Click here Integration or separation? The stigmatisation of excombatants after war JAREMEY R. MCMULLIN Review of International Studies / Volume 39 / Issue 02 / April 2013, pp 385 414 DOI: 10.1017/S0260210512000228, Published online: 11 October 2012 Link to this article:...»

«WT/DS489/6 10 de abril de 2015 (15-1960) Página: 1/14 Original: inglés CHINA MEDIDAS RELACIONADAS CON LOS PROGRAMAS DE BASES DE DEMOSTRACIÓN Y PLATAFORMAS DE SERVICIOS COMUNES SOLICITUD DE ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UN GRUPO ESPECIAL PRESENTADA POR LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS La siguiente comunicación, de fecha 9 de abril de 2015, dirigida por la delegación de los Estados Unidos al Presidente del Órgano de Solución de Diferencias, se distribuye de conformidad con el párrafo 2 del artículo 6 del ESD. _...»

«SUPREME COURT OF CANADA CITATION: Carter v. Canada (Attorney General), 2015 SCC 5 DATE: 20150206 DOCKET: 35591 BETWEEN: Lee Carter, Hollis Johnson, William Shoichet, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association and Gloria Taylor Appellants and Attorney General of Canada Respondent AND BETWEEN: Lee Carter, Hollis Johnson, William Shoichet, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association and Gloria Taylor Appellants and Attorney General of Canada and Attorney General of British Columbia Respondents...»

«1 A NURSING INTERFACE TERMINOLOGY: EVALUATION OF CONTENT VALIDITY. The main goal of this observational and descriptive study is to evaluate whether the diagnosis axis of a nursing interface terminology meets the content validity criterion of being nursingoriented. Nursing diagnosis concepts were analyzed in terms of presence in the nursing literature, type of articles published and areas of disciplinary interest. The search strategy was conducted in three databases with limits in relation to...»

«HCJ 2056/04 Beit Sourik Village Council v. The Government of Israel 1 HCJ 2056/04 Beit Sourik Village Council v.1. The Government of Israel 2. Commander of the IDF Forces in the West Bank The Supreme Court Sitting as the High Court of Justice [February 29, 2004; March 11, 2004; March 17, 2004; March 31, 2004; April 16, 2004; April 21, 2004; May 2, 2004 ] Before President A. Barak, Vice-President E. Mazza, and Justice M. Cheshin Petition for an Order Nisi. For petitioners—Mohammed Dahla For...»

«KAZUHIKO ABE PRESIDENT & CEO, CAPCOM, USA Mr. Kazuhiko Abe is the President and CEO of Capcom, USA, serving as the director and executive corporate officer of the company here in the United States. Mr. Abe comes from a strong financial background, starting in 1987 when he worked for the Mitsubishi Bank, Ltd (now The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. After seven years of service at said bank, he was promoted to deputy manager of the New York Branch. Following this, Mr. Abe has served as...»

«Bulletin of the Marathwada Mathematical Society Vol. 10, No. 1, June 2009, Pages 36–42. CONVERSE OF LAGRANGE’S THEOREM AND SOLVABLE GROUPS Salunke J. N.∗and A.R. Gotmare † Abstract In this paper the following results related to groups are discussed. (i) Every finite group is isomorphic to a group of even permutations. (ii) If a finite group of permutations has an odd permutation then it has a subgroup of index 2. (iii) Group of order twice an odd number is solvable. (iv) If G is a...»

«1 MASSACHVSETTS INSTITVTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.001|Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs Sample assignment Object-oriented programming Reading: Section 4.1 Languages for Object-Oriented Programming This problem set is probably the most di cult one of the semester, but paradoxically, the one that asks you to write the least amount of code, and for which you should have to spend the least time in lab, provided that you prepare...»

«G   D           S         I            OCTOBER BOOKS Rosalind E. Krauss, Annette Michelson, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin H. D. Buchloh, Hal Foster, Denis Hollier, and Mignon Nixon, editors Broodthaers, edited by Benjamin H. D. Buchloh AIDS: Cultural Analysis/Cultural Activism, edited by Douglas Crimp Aberrations, by Jurgis Baltrusaitis ˇ Against Architecture: The Writings of Georges...»

«Gothenburg Studies in Informatics, Report 42, September 2009 ISSN 1400-741X (print), ISSN 1651-8225 (online), ISBN 978-91-628-7877-1 http://hdl.handle.net/2077/20887 DIGITAL INNOVATION IN THE VALUE NETWORKS OF NEWSPAPERS Maria Åkesson School of Information Science, Department of Applied Information Computer and Electrical Engineering Technology Halmstad University Chalmers University of Technology & University of Gothenburg maria.akesson@hh.se DOCTORAL DISSERTATION ABSTRACT After decades of...»

«Maine Silver, Watches, and Jewelry: Makers and Dealers, 1760 to the Early 1900s A Checklist Edwin A. Churchill, Ann P. Thomas, & Kathleen B. Kirkham Compilers and Editors Maine State Museum Augusta, Maine 2014 Copy right 2014 Edwin A. Churchill Except for purposes of review, no part of this checklist may be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder 1 Table of Contents Acknowledgements Introduction Abbreviations and Explanations Checklist 2 Acknowledgements Any work like this...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.