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«EIH Report # 15-001 3/2/2015 University of Houston Clear Lake Environmental Institute of Houston Population Survey of the Texas Diamondback Terrapin ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Population Survey of the Texas

Diamondback Terrapin in San

Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay, and

Sabine Lake

Prepared in cooperation with Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

Contract #447483; CFDA #15.634

EIH Report # 15-001

3/2/2015

University of Houston Clear Lake

Environmental Institute of Houston

Population Survey of the Texas

Diamondback Terrapin in San Antonio

Bay, Matagorda Bay, and Sabine Lake

Prepared By Environmental Institute of Houston - University of Houston Clear Lake

George Guillen, Executive Director Rachel George, Research Assistant Amanda Moss, Senior Research Associate Bryan Alleman, Research Assistant Jenny Oakley, Environmental Scientist Debbie Bush, Web Assistant Mustafa Mokrech, Senior Research Scientist Principal Investigator George Guillen Environmental Institute of Houston University of Houston Clear Lake 2700 Bay Area Blvd Guillen@UHCL.edu Houston, Texas 77058 281-283-3950 Funding Provided through a State Wildlife Grant from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Project Manager Andrew Gluesenkamp, Ph.D.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 4200 Smith School Rd. Andrew.Gluesenkamp@twpd.state.tx.us Austin, Texas 78744 512-389-8722 Population Distribution-Texas Diamondback Terrapin EIH Table of Contents SECTION 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SECTION 2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION

SECTION 2.1.

LIFE HISTORY

Section 2.1.

1. Range

Section 2.1.

2. Description

Section 2.1.

3. Habitat Associations and Movement

Section 2.1.

4. Seasonality

Section 2.1.

5. Salinity and Osmoregulation

Section 2.1.

6. Trophic Interactions and Pathogens

Section 2.1.

7. Reproduction

Section 2.1.

8. Nesting

Section 2.1.





9. Early Life History

Section 2.1.

10. Growth and Survival

SECTION 2.2.

MAN-MADE SOURCES OF MORTALITY

Section 2.2.

1. Historical Accounts of Terrapin and Commercial Harvest

Section 2.2.

2. Habitat Loss and Historical Shell Dredging

Section 2.2.

3. Boat and Vehicle Mortality

Section 2.2.

4. Fishery Bycatch

SECTION 2.3.

RESEARCH NEED

SECTION 2.4.

STUDY OBJECTIVE

SECTION 3. METHODOLOGY

SECTION 3.1.

HISTORICAL DATA COMPILATION

SECTION 3.2.

ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRE

Section 3.2.

1. Questionnaire Development

Section 3.2.

2. Participant Selection and Solicitation Process

Section 3.2.

3. Questionnaire Follow-up and Additional Responses

SECTION 3.3.

NEW FIELD DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Section 3.3.

1. Field Site Selection Process

Section 3.3.

2. Field Site Surveys

Section 3.3.

3. Field Data Analysis

SECTION 3.4.

GIS ANALYSIS AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS

SECTION 4. RESULTS

SECTION 4.1.

HISTORICAL DATA COMPILATION

SECTION 4.2.

ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION 4.3.

NEW FIELD DATA COLLECTION

Section 4.3.

1. Site Descriptions, Environmental Data, and Search Effort

Section 4.3.

2. Terrapin Capture and Demographic Data

SECTION 4.4.

GIS ANALYSIS AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS

Section 4.4.

1. Analysis of land cover composition for 2008-2014 data

Section 4.4.

2. Analysis of land cover composition for 2010-2014 data

SECTION 5. DISCUSSION

SECTION 6. LITERATURE CITED

APPENDIX A. ENDNOTE LIBRARY

APPENDIX B. HISTORICAL TPWD DATA

1

DRAFT REPORT

Population Distribution-Texas Diamondback Terrapin EIH APPENDIX C. ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRE FORMAT & SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION

APPENDIX C.1. EXAMPLE ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX C.2. QUESTIONNAIRE DATABASE

APPENDIX C.3. SUPPLEMENTAL RESPONSES FROM RESPONDENTS

APPENDIX D. COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF RANDOMLY GENERATED SAMPLE SITES

APPENDIX E. 2014 FIELD DATABASE

–  –  –

List of Figures

FIGURE 1. ILLUSTRATION OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN ADULT TERRAPIN SIZE AND MORPHOMETRICS. LARGER FEMALE WITH WIDER HEAD ON

LEFT, SMALLER MALE ON RIGHT.

FIGURE 2. TERRAPIN EXHIBITING VARIOUS COLOR PATTERNS AND MORPHOLOGY.

FIGURE 3. EXAMPLE OF INJURIES OBSERVED AT THE SOUTH DEER ISLAND, WEST BAY SITE (MARLOW AND GUILLEN 2011).

.................22

FIGURE 4. TERRAPIN NESTING ON SHELL ISLAND NEXT TO MOSES LAKE, TEXAS. PHOTO CREDIT: AMANDA HACKNEY IN (GEORGE 2014). 24

FIGURE 5. FEMALE DIAMONDBACK TERRAPIN COVERING HER NEST SITE ON SOUTH DEER ISLAND, TEXAS. SOURCE (HOGAN 2003)........24 FIGURE 6 RANDOMIZED FIELD SITES PRODUCED IN SABINE LAKE (N = 60). RED ICONS = SAMPLE SITE LOCATIONS

FIGURE 7 RANDOMIZED FIELD SITES PRODUCED IN MATAGORDA BAY (N = 100). RED ICONS = SAMPLE SITE LOCATIONS.

FIGURE 8. RANDOMIZED FIELD SITES PRODUCED IN SAN ANTONIO BAY (N = 100).

RED ICONS = SAMPLE SITE LOCATIONS.

FIGURE 9. HEAD COUNT SURVEY TRANSECT (RED LINE) WITH START AND END POINTS (RED FILLED CIRCLES). TRAP LOCATIONS INDICATED BY

WHITE SQUARES. ACTUAL SITE COORDINATES REPRESENTED BY YELLOW BUBBLE. (A) HEAD COUNT SURVEY FOLLOWING OPEN

SHORELINE; (B) HEAD COUNT SURVEY FOLLOWING TIDAL CREEK.

FIGURE 10. SCHEMATIC OF HEAD COUNT SURVEY POSITIONS. BLACK ELLIPSE = MOTOR (STERN OF VESSEL); RED TRIANGLE = OBSERVER 1

FIELD OF VIEW (BOW); GREEN TRIANGLE = OBSERVER 3 (OPERATOR) FIELD OF VIEW; BLUE TRIANGLE = OBSERVER 2 FIELD OF VIEW

(BOW).

FIGURE 11 (A) MODIFIED CRAB TRAP WITH CHIMNEY FULLY EXTENDED. (B) CRAB TRAPS DEPLOYED IN TIDAL CREEK (ANCHORED BY 5M

PVC POLE).

FIGURE 12 STRAIGHT LINE MEASUREMENTS (MM) RECORDED FOR EACH TERRAPIN. (A) CARAPACE LENGTH (RED = SCLMIN; GREEN =

SCLMAX); CARAPACE WIDTH (BLUE = SCWMIN; YELLOW = SCWMAX); (B) PLASTRON LENGTH (RED = SPLMIN; GREEN = SPLMAX);

PLASTRON WIDTH (BLUE = SPWMIN; YELLOW = SPWMAX); (C) BODY DEPTH (RED = SDMIN; BLUE = SDMAX).

FIGURE 13 MAXIMUM HEAD WIDTH (MM; HWMAX).

FIGURE 14 EXTERNAL MARKING PATTERN MODIFIED FROM CAGLE (1939) USED TO UNIQUELY IDENTIFY EACH TERRAPIN.

FIGURE 15 MAP OF 17 “SITE” CLUSTERS CONSTRUCTED USING 0.9 KM BUFFERS USING HISTORICAL CAPTURE COORDINATES AND CAPTURE

COORDINATES FROM THIS STUDY. SEE TABLE 4 FOR CLUSTER DESCRIPTIONS.

FIGURE 16 MAP OF SITES WITH NO CAPTURES. SITES 7 AND 8 WERE EXCLUDED FROM THE ANALYSIS DUE TO LACK OF C-CAP DATA FOR

THOSE AREAS. SEE TABLE 5 FOR NO CAPTURE SITE IDS.

FIGURE 17. LOCATION OF HISTORICAL SIGHTINGS IN THE LATE 1800’S BASED DATA SUMMARIZED BY (GALLAWAY 2001).

FIGURE 18. AN 1851 MAP OF GALVESTON BAY WITH REDFISH BAR HIGHLIGHTED IN YELLOW. IMAGE COURTESY NATIONAL ARCHIVES IN

(GALLAWAY 2011).

FIGURE 19. LOCATION OF SIGHTINGS REPORTED IN (GALLAWAY 2001) DURING 1900-1970.

BLUE DOTS REPRESENT SPECIFIC LANDMARKS MENTIONED WHILE THE RED LINE DESIGNATES AREAS WHERE TERRAPIN WHERE GENERALLY SEEN OR CAPTURED.

FIGURE 20. SIGHTINGS OF TERRAPIN IN TEXAS BASED ON MULTIPLE STUDIES CONDUCTED FROM 1984 TO 2013, REPORTING ON SIGHTINGS

PRIMARILY FROM 1973 TO 2014 (CLARKSON 2012; GUILLEN ET AL. 2011; GUILLEN AND OAKLEY 2013; HALBROOK 2003;



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