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«Chris Lattak MSU 1999, JD 2002, but continuously learning Trickl-eez Irrigation Company Nye Heritage Farms & Apple Barn, System design, sales, ...»

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Chris Lattak

MSU 1999, JD 2002,

but continuously learning

Trickl-eez Irrigation Company Nye Heritage Farms & Apple Barn,

System design, sales, installation LLC - Co-owner, Farm Manager

• 10+ years, working primarily • 110 acre fruit and vegetable

with new, smaller growers farm in SW MI

• K-Line Pasture Irrigation • Nye's Apple Barn & Farm

Market, St. Joseph, MI

• Vinifera, Hops, Pome, Stone,

• Returned to the farm in 2004 Berries, some veggies after unexpected passing of

• Frost Protection step-dad

• Sub-surface Drip in field crops

• Juice grapes, apples, peaches,

• Focus on innovations in the sweet cherries, pears, berries industry - where is the industry all manner of veggies, squash going? and pumpkins for the market Getting Down and Dirty with Cooper (3 ½), Cheryl, Vineyard Soils Chris, Connor (6mos.) ∞ Re-Discovery of Vineyard Establishment Innovations ∞ Water Quality in relation to foliar nutrients, chemigation, hydration and facilitator of Plant/Soil Biology/Nutrition Interaction ∞ Innovations in finding where we are on the map in relation to where we want to go - built on the foundation of soil/plant health – focusing on what, how and when we deliver.

Sustainable agriculture is not enough. We have no desire to sustain where we are today. We need regenerative agriculture systems which constantly improve soil and plant health. - J. Kempf Healthy plants create healthy soils, not just the other way around. - J. Kempf Fenn Valley Vineyards & Wine Cellar Fennville, MI Grower Trial no hard numbers, vineyard manager's estimations

Treatments:

1) No Mulch, No Irrigation (Irrigation added after plants started going downhill fast)

2) No Mulch, Drip Irrigation ** Weeding 3x/season - Mechanical w/ hoe/hand follow up

3) Mulch (½ Vegetable Plastic, ½ Fabric - same used in blueberries) & Drip Irrigation All received the same fertility program, which began well after planting No mulch, No Irr. (Irr added later) Riesling on 101-14 10' Row, 6' Vine Loamy Sand, Sandy Loam Soils Mulch, Irrigation 8-27-14 No mulch, Irrigation Riesling 8-27-14

–  –  –

- Fabric left in place, straw to cover root graft

- Plastic removed, and hilling of soil on all non-fabric rows Fenn Valley - Riesling Results @ End 2015 The rows left in fabric mulch/straw continue to show the greatest amount of growth - expect a heavy to near full crop in 2016 (3rd leaf) Plastic Mulch rows still well ahead of nonmulched rows, but not as advanced as the fabric mulched rows Non-Mulched a full year to 1 ½ years behind the mulched rows Added drip irrigation to almost all previous newer plantings on the farm; plastic mulch and drip on all new plantings Fenn Valley 2016 and Beyond

• If Fenn Valley did not hill all vineyards/grafts at the end of season, they would use fabric for first 3-4 years.

• Eyes open for biodegradable mulch that could be used first year, then buried (don't want plastic floating around the vineyard).

• Vegetable tape irrigation as stop-gap, to be replaced by long term hard hose tubing hung from a lower wire.

• Overhead frost protection system to be retrofitted and zoned for drip irrigation and fertigation.

• Fine tune application timing and amounts, as well as fertigation program.

Click to add text Our experience at Fenn Valley closely matches the results from MSU. Weed control is paramount. We did see more growth when just Irrigation was applied, but the full package of full season weed control, water and nutrients is the hands down winner.

Weed Control Options (first 2 years) Mechanical/Manual & Chemical Control - $1,771 Plastic Mulch & Mechanical/Manual & Chemical - $1,039 Mechanical Weed Control & Minimal Manual - $1,016 Short-Term vs. LongTerm System Short-Term Advantages

• Lower cost/acre - $192 vs.

$1,155

• Slightly lower labor / installation costs Long-Term Advantages

• Durability - 25+ years

• Tubing clipped to wire, out of the way of pruning, mechanical weeding, hilling, etc.

• Pressure compensating Short-Term -Drip Tape emitters for even application on long rows, undulating or sloped terrain Long-Term - Tubing

• Self-cleaning emitters, Antisyphon - less likely to clog

• Wider range of operating pressure

–  –  –

Additional slides are included in the handout covering the plant, soil, microbiological interaction covered in the following video.

John Kempf, Founder - Advancing Eco Agriculture (AEA) www.advancingecoag.com AEA creates regenerative agricultural systems that help farmers grow disease and insect resistant crops with complete plant nutrition.

I highly recommend all of the seminars/topics that are available on YouTube - Advancing Eco Agriculture Soil/Plant/Biological/Water/Nutrition Interaction – What are the primary take-aways?

1) Soil (Nutrients and Biology) work integrally with plants a. Soil is the plant's digestive system b. Plants feed the soil biology i. 70% of a plant's photosynthates (simple sugars/energy) are sent through the roots out to the soil biology ii. If you had 100# of plant above ground, 100# below, then 460# of growth is sent into the biosystem as exudates 2) 2 Models of Plant Nutrition a. Accepted Standard – Plants absorb nutrition directly as simple ions from the soil solution i. "Glorified Hydroponics" - soil as hydroponic medium ii. Plants dependent on applied nutrients iii. Soil biologicals and interactions are minimal b. Real World – nature's way – Plants absorb nutrients as microbial Metabolites produced by the total soil microbial system (soil food web) i. The soil food web – Bacteria, Fungi, Nematodes, Actinomycetes, Protozoa feed on root acids % exudates (sugars, amino acids, lipids) And minerals, nutrition and organic residues in the soil profile Soil/Plant/Biological/Water/Nutrition Interaction





3) Microbial populations need nutrients a. Microbials digest sugars, absorb nutrients from the soil matrix to build and reproduce, recycle through the soil food web again and again, eventually turning into stable humic substances b. Nematodes eat bacteria and produce waste that is released as plant available nutrients (amino acids, essential fatty acids, organic acids), and metabolites combined with minerals/nutrients

4) Soil Biology can access water and nutrient reserves not available to plant's roots and root hairs a. Plant root and root hairs can, generally, access 25-30% of the moisture Content of the soil, as measured at full water holding capacity b. The remaining 70-75% is so tightly held/adsorbed by soil colloids and Aggregates that they are not plant available c. Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacteria are capable of accessing an additional 40% of the water held in the soil i. Mycorrhizae increase the surface absorbing area of plant's roots By 100 – 1,000 times ii. Mycorrhizae release enzymes that dissolve hard to capture nutrients that are tightly bound in the soil (ie. N, P, Fe) for their own life processes, but will also transfer them directly to the plant's roots Roots & Mychorrhizae

Roots only

"Mycorrhizal fungi increase the surface absorbing area of roots 100 to a 1,000 times, Roots only thereby greatly improving the ability of the plant to access soil resources. Several miles of fungal filaments can be present in less than a thimbleful of soil. Mycorrhizal fungi increase nutrient uptake not only by increasing the surface absorbing area of the roots, but also release powerful enzymes into the soil that dissolve hard-to-capture nutrients, such as organic nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and other “tightly bound” soil nutrients. This extraction process is particularly important in plant nutrition and explains why non-mycorrhizal plants require high levels of fertility to maintain their health. Mycorrhizal fungi form an intricate web that captures and assimilates nutrients, conserving the nutrient capital in soils." - Mycorrhizal Applications, Inc.

Advancing Eco Agriculture Core Concepts:

Our Mission: We create regenerative farming systems that help farmers grow disease and insect resistant crops with complete plant nutrition.

1. Healthy Plants Resist Insects and Disease We understand that animals and people have an immune system that is our natural defense against pathogens. For our immune system to function properly and fulfill its purpose, it needs to be supported with the proper nutrition. If nutritional elements are lacking, or not properly balanced, the immune system’s ability to perform is compromised. This same concept holds true for plants. Plants which have adequate nutrition have inherent resistance mechanisms that allow them to be resistant to diseases and insects.

2. Mineral Nutrition Supports Plant Immunity For plants to reach an optimum level of health and immunity, they need to have a fully active enzyme system to continuously process and create higher-order compounds. The thousands of enzymes needed in metabolic processes each require a mineral “enzyme cofactor” to function. Without the mineral cofactors, enzyme pathways collapse and plants accumulate soluble compounds in plant sap, leading to pest infestations as plant health begins to fall apart. Plants may require as many as 58 trace mineral enzyme cofactors to have a completely functional enzyme system needed to maintain the plant’s inherent immune system.

3. Microbial Metabolites Are a More Efficient Source of Nutrition The ultimate level of plant nutrition is when plants can absorb the majority of their nutritional requirements as microbial metabolites. In this model, the soil microbial community serves as the plant’s digestive system. A complex community of soil microorganisms digest and break down organic residues and plant root exudates. In this digestive process, minerals are extracted from the soil mineral matrix and released in a bioavailable form that plants absorb and utilize very efficiently. For plants to achieve superior levels of plant health, they are dependent on an active microbial digestive system in the soil. As long as they are absorbing most of their nutrition in the form of simple ions from the soil solution, they will never have the energy levels needed to maintain optimum levels of immunity.

4. Quality Drives Yield Regenerative models of agronomy and plant nutrition focus on improving quality and plant health, rather than increasing yields. When we balance plant nutrition to improve quality, the energy and immunity of the crop increase significantly, creating higher yields, better shelf life, improved flavor, and reduced dependence on pesticide applications. As quality improves, you can't stop yield from increasing. This fundamentally different approach to plant nutrition leads to significant yield increases, ranging from 10-30 percent on many different types of crops.

5. Healthy Plants Create Healthy Soil There is a common understanding that healthy soils create healthy plants. The reverse is also true. Healthy plants with high levels of energy can send as much as 70 percent of their total photosynthates into the soil through the roots at some stages of growth. These root exudates are the fuel that drives the soil microbial community and leads to the rapid formation of organic matter. This process, called carbon induction, is the fastest and most efficient way to sequester carbon and build soil organic matter.

Plants are the best, most efficient way to address soil health issues, and quality water via irrigation and/or foliar spray is the most important delivery method.

Water Quality & Reading a Water Analysis Emphasis on pH, Hardness, & Bicarbonates Water Quality and Reading a Water Analysis Primary Focus for foliar and irrigation nutrient and chemical application

–  –  –

Plant Sap Analysis - Blood Tests for Plants The secret is in the sap. Counter nutrient stress before your crop even shows symptoms.

- Input management is critical to your bottom line.

- Our powerful technology empowers you to supply fertility inputs in exacting amounts.

- Apply the exact amount of inputs your plants need, and be able to verify nutrients are reaching their target tissues.

- Monitoring a crop with sap analysis identifies indicators of nutrient crises before they occur, four to six weeks before tissue analysis. This data allows Marrone Bio Innovations – Regalia Fungicide AgriOzein On Target Spray Systems

–  –  –

John Kempf AEA Notes and Observations on Grapes

1. Powdery Mildew: There is quite a bit of literature regarding powdery mildew on grapes and other crops, correlating it to manganese deficiencies. Some of the earlier research is cited in Francis Chabboussou’s book ‘Healthy Crops’, as well as in ‘Mineral Nutrition and Plant Disease’. From a practical management perspective, I can say that we consistently see powdery mildew levels dropping very quickly when we address manganese. I have less experience with downy.

2. Nematodes. We see very nice responses and reduced nematode pressure with applications of molybdenum and complex carbons. Based on some early results, I suspect SeaShield also actively suppresses them, although we need to do more research on this. HumaCarb, Salute Molybdenum, SeaCrop, and SeaShield all seem to have an impact on nematodes, and a combination application of these products should work very well.

3. Phylloxera: One of my mentors, Bruce Tainio, (no longer living) had a lot of experience on grapes. He discussed phylloxera being a challenge when sap pH’s were quite acidic, and plants had inadequate levels of calcium.

4. If they want to shorten internode spacing, a heavy application of SeaStim will accomplish that.

5. Excessive Vegetative shoot growth can be managed by using nutritional supplements which enhance root growth and reproductive dominance. For example, applications of Cobalt can trigger aggressive root development and cytokinin production which regulates shoot growth.



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