FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 17 |

«Informal e-waste management Lagos & Freiburg, June 2011 in Lagos, Nigeria – socio-economic impacts and feasibility of inter- national recycling ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Öko-Institut e.V.

Freiburg Head Office

P.O. Box 17 71

79017 Freiburg, Germany

Street Address

Merzhauser Str. 173

79100 Freiburg, Germany

Tel. +49 (0) 761 – 4 52 95-0

Fax +49 (0) 761 – 4 52 95-88

Darmstadt Office

Rheinstr. 95

64295 Darmstadt, Germany

Berlin Office

Schicklerstr. 5-7

10179 Berlin, Germany

Informal e-waste management Lagos & Freiburg, June 2011

in Lagos, Nigeria – socio-economic

impacts and feasibility of inter-

national recycling co-operations Final report of component 3 of the UNEP SBC E-waste Africa Project


Andreas Manhart (Öko-Institut e.V.) Prof. Dr. Oladele Osibanjo (BCCC-Nigeria) Dr. Adeyinka Aderinto (University of Ibadan) Siddharth Prakash (Öko-Institut e.V.) Socio-economic assessment and feasibility study June 2011 on sustainable e-waste management in Nigeria Table of contents Acknowledgements VI List of acronyms and abbreviations IX Executive Summary XI 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background of the study 3 1.2 Objectives and methodological approach 4 1.2.1 Socio-economic assessment 5 1.2.2 Analysis and feasibility of recycling technologies 7 2 Definitions 8 2.1 Collectors 8 2.2 Refurbishers 9 2.3 Recyclers 10 3 E-waste management in Lagos, Nigeria – an overview 12 3.1 Import of new, used and obsolete equipment 12 3.2 Refurbishing of used and obsolete equipment 13 3.2.1 Alaba Market 13 3.2.2 Westminster

–  –  –

Acknowledgements The study “Informal e-waste management in Lagos, Nigeria – socio-economic impacts and feasibility of international recycling co-operations” was developed in the framework of the project entitled "Building local capacity to address the flow of e-wastes and electrical and electronic products destined for reuse in selected African countries and augment the sustainable management of resources through the recovery of materials in e-wastes". The project is funded through the generous support of the European Commission, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Recyclers Association (NVMP), together with the support of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention which provided an overall coordination to the project.

Technical support for the preparation of this document was provided by the Institute for Applied Ecology (the Öko-Institut) and the Basel Convention Coordinating Centre For Training Technology Transfer for the African Region based in Nigeria (BCCC Nigeria). Other partners participating in the project include the Basel Convention Regional Centre for French speaking African countries based in Senegal (BCRC Senegal), the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), the European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the Partnership for Action on Computing Equipment (PACE).

Many people and organisations supported this project. Special thanks go to the field team who conducted the interviews and surveys within Lagos. This work was of crucial importance

for the process and the outcomes of this study. The team consisted of the following persons:

–  –  –

In addition, many other persons and organisations actively supported the project in various

ways including provision of data, scientific input and logistics. Special thanks go to:

 John A. Odey, Honourable Minister, Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja;

 Dr. Nathaniel Biodun Olorunfemi, Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja;

 Later Alhaji M.S. Bashar, Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja;

 Dr. O. O. Dada, Director Pollution Control and Environmental Health Department, Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja;

 Dr. Ngeri S. Benebo, Director General, National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Abuja;

 Mulikat Adegoke, Deputy Comptroller General, Nigeria Customs Service, Abuja;

 Architect S.M. Danhassan, General Manager, Health Safety and Environment (HSE), Nigerian Ports Authority, Lagos;

 E. A. Edozie, Deputy General Manager,(HSE), Nigerian Ports Authority, Lagos;

 Engr Rasheed Adebola Shabi, General Manager, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA);

 Olanrewaju Oresanya, Managing Director, Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA);

 Chief Emeka Dike, President-General of Alaba International Amalgamated Market Association;

–  –  –

 Executive members, Alaba International Amalgamated Market Association;

 Executive members, Computer and Allied Products Association of Nigeria;

 Executive members, Westminster Market Association;

 Steven Art, Umicore Precious Metal Refining;

 Christoph Becker, RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment;

 Ramon Coolen, Sims Recycling Solutions;

 Thomas Grammig, Consultant;

 Christina Meskers, Umicore Precious Metal Refining;

 Nikolaus Obermayr, USG Umweltservice GmbH;

 Segun Odeyingbo, Student;

 Frans Timmermans, Sims Recycling Solutions;

 Kris Wouters, Elmet s.l.

The contents of the study “Informal e-waste management in Lagos, Nigeria – socio-economic impacts and feasibility of international recycling co-operations” are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, UNEP, the United Nations, or the European Union nor are they an official record. Information contained in this document has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable; therefore neither the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, UNEP, the United Nations, nor the European Union can be responsible for the absolute correctness or sufficiency of such information.

The designations employed and the presentation do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, UNEP, the United Nations, or the European Union concerning the status and policies of any commercial or legal entity, the legal status of any country, territory or city or its authority, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

–  –  –

RoHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive SBC Secretariat of the Basel Convention S-LCA Social Life Cycle Assessment SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme VCS Voluntary Carbon Standard WEEE Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments WSIS World Summit on the Information Society

Exchange rate:

1000 Naira = US$ 6.72

–  –  –

Executive Summary Lagos is the one of the world’s largest cities and the economic centre of Nigeria. With its 17.5 million inhabitants and considerable economic growth rates in the last years, the local consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) reached high levels in absolute figures. While this growth is desirable from a development perspective and in particular regarding living standard and access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), it also raises the question on sound end-of-life solutions which are not yet in place in the country.

In addition to the local consumption, Logos has developed into West Africa’s main entry point for used and end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment. Although this equipment is mostly refurbished and sold to households and traders from Nigeria and other West and Central African countries, this sector generates significant amounts of e-waste, a problem that was first brought to public attention in 2005 with the film “The digital dump” by the NGO Basel Action Network (BAN).

In the course of the debate, the European Commission, the Governments of Norway and the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Association for the Disposal of Metal and Electrical Products (NVMP) financed the E-waste Africa Project, which is managed by the Secretariat of the Basel Convention (SBC). The project is a comprehensive programme of activities aiming at enhancing environmental governance of e-wastes and at creating favourable social and economic conditions for partnerships and small businesses in the recycling sector in Africa.

This study is integral part of the E-waste Africa Project and contains an in-depth socioeconomic study on the functioning and the sustainability impacts of the informal EEErefurbishing and e-waste recycling sector in Lagos, as well as a comparison of currently practiced and best available recycling technologies. By combining these types of analysis, the report derives “best applicable technologies” regarded suitable for the implementation in the Nigerian context. In addition, the report formulates recommendations to policy-makers, the Nigerian recycling industry and for pilot follow-up activities.

From a methodological perspective, the socio-economic study made use of the methodology provided by the UNEP/SETAC “Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products”.

Additionally, some methodological gaps related to the use of indicators were filled using ÖkoInstitut’s methodology PROSA (product sustainability assessment). For the purpose of this study, three key stakeholder categories were defined to assess the socio-economic impacts of the refurbishing and e-waste recycling sector in Lagos: workers, local communities, and society. The data was collected during 135 interviews conducted between May and December 2010.


–  –  –

Generally, refurbishing, collection, and recycling of used and end-of-life e-products takes place in and around certain business clusters. The most prominent of these clusters are Alaba Market and Ikeja Computer Village, which comprise 2,500 and 3,000 small businesses in the field of refurbishing and marketing of used electrical and electronic products. The socalled Westminster Market located close to the port is another hub for imported second-hand equipment, as well as Lawanson Market, a mid-sized second-hand market for used EEE.

The majority of refurbished products stem from imports via the ports of Lagos. The interim results from project component 2, the Nigerian e-Waste Country Assessment, show that 70% of all the imported used equipment is functional and is sold to consumers after testing. 70% of the non-functional share can be repaired within the major markets and is also sold to consumers. 9% of the total imports of used equipment is non-repairable and is directly passed on to collectors and recyclers.

The e-waste collection and recycling activities in Lagos are largely organised around the main sources of obsolete electrical and electronic products. Most of these activities are carried out by informal waste collectors (commonly referred to as ‘scavengers’) who move all around Lagos with handcarts collecting e-waste together with other metal-containing wastes.

Mostly, these collectors buy such obsolete devices for small amounts of money from businesses or private households. In addition, there are also collectors that – due to financial limitations – cannot pay for metal-containing wastes and therefore focus on what is freely available, e.g. on roadside waste dumps. As the city of Lagos is too large to easily bring the collected materials to a central recycling site, this informal collection system makes use of many small- and medium-sized scrap metal yards, where metal-containing wastes are manually dismantled, sorted, stored and sold to traders. Fractions of no value to the workers are discarded or burned. The informal waste collectors compete with a quite efficient official waste collection organised by the Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA), which delivers the collected waste to three official dumpsites in Lagos. There, waste picker communities that live on or next to the dump sites take out all fractions of value, including ewaste. Here too, dismantled and assorted e-waste is sold to traders. Fractions of no value to the waste collectors are thrown back on the dumpsite. The e-waste recyclers operating in scrap metal yards, on dumpsites or in recycling sites around second-hand markets disassemble obsolete electrical and electronic equipment in order to liberate metals that can be sold to traders. In particular, the ambition focuses on steel, aluminium and copper. Often, cables and other plastic parts are incinerated to liberate copper. In addition, certain types of printed wiring boards (PWBs) are separated, collected, and sold to traders. Wet chemical leaching processes, often associated with the recovery of precious metals from PWBs, have not been observed in Lagos.

In terms of working conditions, there is a clear distinction between the refurbishing sector that buys and repairs/refurbishes used EEE and the collection and recycling business: As working in the refurbishing sector requires a certain level of technical skills, workers are XII Socio-economic assessment and feasibility study June 2011 on sustainable e-waste management in Nigeria normally paid between US$ 2.22 and 3.36 per day, which is mostly better than the average income of e-waste collectors and recyclers, who earn between US$ 0.22 and 3.36 per day.

Although the differences seem to be of minor importance, a view on social security systems and job perspectives alter this valuation: While refurbishers usually receive a fixed salary, collectors and recyclers are usually self-employed, and therefore experience large day-today income fluctuations. Furthermore, persons working in the refurbishing sector often have the possibility to set-up their own small business, which often increases their daily income to around US$ 6.72 to 22.2. Here it is noteworthy that the sector has its own apprenticeship system, which produces around 2,000 alumni per year. Although apprentices often do not earn money during their education, they are usually provided with food and shelter and are granted a start-up budget after finishing training.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 17 |

Similar works:

«THE BLESSING OF MARRIAGE THE THREE DAY CEREMONY Blessing & Family Ministry North American Headquarters January, 2014 1 2 Outline Introduction The Spiritual Significance of the 3-Day Ceremony Reversing the Misuse of Love The Path of the Three Days of Love Preparation Selection of the Place Items You Must Have Sanctifying the Room The Altar Creating a Holy Atmosphere The Holy Handkerchief Ceremony Using the Holy Handkerchief 3-Day Ceremony Contents Day 1 Bows and Prayers Act of Love After the Act...»

«25 Years of. ‘Harm Minimisation’ – how far have we come? Third Edition By Mr. Shane Varcoe Dalgarno Institute www.dalgarnoinstitute.org.au 25 years of Harm Minimisation – How far have we come? Harm Minimisation, how far have we come? “Even the most ‘rational’ approach to ethics is defenceless if there isn’t the will to do what is right!” Alexander Solzhenitsyn What does ‘care’ look like in the current ‘substance use/illicit drug’ theatre? What is currently the emerging...»

«From: Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America, 23.1 (2003): 165-200. Copyright © 2003, The Cervantes Society of America. Jongleuresque Dialogue, Radical Theatricality, and Maese Pedro’s Puppet Show BRUCE R. BURNINGHAM or many critics, “dialogue” between two or more characters—unmediated by a narrative voice—is the basic marker of theater.1 Witness the longstanding debate over the “problematic” genre of Celestina. Our theatrical prejudice for literary dialogue can...»

«Language Mixing in Northern and Western Belize: A Comparative Variationist Approach Nicté Fuller Medina A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the PhD degree in linguistics. Department of Linguistics Faculty of Arts University of Ottawa © Nicté Fuller Medina, Ottawa, Canada 2016 ABSTRACT This thesis examines the bilingual discourse of a cohort of Belizean Spanish speakers who engage in robust language mixing...»

«2 MINUTES A DAY FOR A GREENER PLANET Marjorie Lamb 1817 Harper & Row, Publishers, San Francisco New York, Grand Rapids, Philadelphia, St. Louis London, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto TWO MINUTES A DAY FOR A GREENER PLANET Copyright 0 1990 by Marjorie Lamb. Published by arrangement with Harper Collins Publishers, Ltd., Toronto. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief...»

«The Key to Greatness or “Not to be Ministered Unto” By Bill Scheidler Text: Mark 10:35-45 (KJV) Then James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came to Him, saying, “Teacher, we want You to do for us whatever we ask.” 36 And He said to them, “What do you want Me to do for you?” 37 They said to Him, “Grant us that we may sit, one on Your right hand and the other on Your left, in Your glory.” 38 But Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you ask. Are you able to drink the cup that...»

«ODLUKA O DRŽANJU DOMAĆIH ŽIVOTINJA I KUĆNIH LJUBIMACA NA TERITORIJI GRADA BEOGRADA (Sl. list grada Beograda, br. 37/2011 i 55/2011) I UVODNE ODREDBE Član 1 Ovom odlukom određuju se mesta i prostori u kojima se mogu držati domaće životinje i kućni ljubimci u nekomercijalne svrhe, mesto i način izvođenja kućnih ljubimaca, a naročito pasa i mačaka na javne površine, organizovanje zoohigijenske službe i obezbeđivanje prihvatilišta za napuštene životinje, na teritoriji grada...»

«AASR BULLETIN 24 (November 2005) 1 Elom Dovlo University of Ghana FROM THE CHAIR It is about a year since the new executive for the AASR was elected at Tokyo. It has been a year of brainstorming to see how best we can move the AASR forward as can be seen in the report of the AASR General Secretary, Dr. Afe Adogame. He has managed to arrange meetings where some of us were able to meet and share ideas. We hope that having Afe and Jim Cox at Edinburgh will contribute to our decision making process...»

«On some ways to test Tagalog nominalism from a crosslinguistic perspective Mark C. Baker Rutgers University Daniel Kaufman’s core proposal is that much of what is typologically special about Tagalog syntax is rooted in the language having nouns but not verbs as its core lexical categories. He sees this at two levels. First, bare roots in Tagalog are nominal rather than verbal; for example, bili on its own means ‘price bought for’ rather than ‘buy’. Second, he claims that fully...»


«The Video Game Industry Routledge Studies in Innovation, Organization and Technology 1 Innovation in the U.S. Service 8 Managing and Marketing Sector Radical Innovations Michael P. Gallaher, Albert N. Marketing New Technology Link and Jeffrey E. Petrusa Birgitta Sandberg 2 Information and Communications 9 Mobility and Technology in the Technologies in Society Workplace E-Living in a Digital Europe Edited by Donald Hislop Edited by Ben Anderson, Malcolm Brynin and Yoel Raban 10 Energizing...»

«Eagle, L., Morey, Y., Dahl, S. and Verne, J. (2011) Subtle sophistry versus savvy strategy: A critical review of the potential efficacy of product placement regulations. In: The 10th International Conference on Research in Advertising (ICORIA), Berlin, Germany, 24th25th June, 2011. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/14455 We recommend you cite the published version.The publisher’s URL is: http://www.icoria.org/conference2011/ Refereed: Yes (no note) Disclaimer UWE has obtained...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.