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Gujarat is a state in western India. It has an area of 196,077 sq km with a coastline of 1,600 km, and population in excess of 50 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east and the Arabian Sea as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh on the west. The total geographical area is 1, 96,000 sq. km. Out of it, the total cultivable area of the state is 124 lacks hectors. The state is divided in regions like North Gujarat, Central Gujarat, South Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch Gujarat is dependent on monsoon for agricultural activities. Generally the nineteen percent of the rain falls during June to September months in Gujarat. Out of total geographical area, fifty two percent of area in Gujarat is under cultivation and twenty three percent of land is west land.

Saurashtra and Kutch needs more irrigation facility but resources are limited. Per head cultivable area in state of Gujarat is 2.3 percent and twenty three percent of total geographical area is having irrigation facility.

Under the new common guideline the fund for GSWMA is increased from Rs.6000 to Rs.12000 per hector. In the implementation of various watershed development programmes The Use of scientific techniques and emphasis on participatory planning and implementation is a major step towards sustainable development. People’s participation in development of their village is not sufficient for desired results, unless the process adequately addresses the interrelated issues of technology, equity and sustainability.

The Integrated Watershed Management Programme has three important features unprecedented devolution of decision-making power backed up by financial allocation directly to the district level and hence to the village organization level; Use of scientific tool like GIS and remote sensing and financial flexibility.

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency is the State Level Nodal Agency to implement Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) across the state of Gujarat state. The main aims of the IWMP are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as Water, vegetative cover and soil. The expected outcomes of the project are prevention of soil and water erosion, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table. To provide sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in the watershed area is expected by enabling multi cropping and introduction of diverse agro based activities.

Total 21.34 lakh hector area with an outlay of 2769.

72 crores has been covered under IWMP for the implementation that includes 3 batches sanctioned from 2009 to 2012. With work of watershed development, first time under IWMP the activities related to livelihood empowerment and Micro Enterprises development undertaken. Allocation of fund for livelihood was 215 crores in 2009-2010; it was 180 crores in 2010-2011 and 185 crores in 2011-2012 for the projects covered in each district of Gujarat.

2 The multi-functional nature of watershed project need a fair and substantial study to mobilize better involvement of people, institution and various line departments for their success. The main emphasis of the study is to produce a detailed project report for Balethi Project (IWMP XII). DPR will show the unique characteristics and problem of an area under watershed project.

The detailed project report is the proposal for the capital cost as well as the various facilities. It includes examination of technological parameters, description of the technology to be used, broad technical specification, evaluation of the existing resources, and schedule plan for various activities to be taken under Integrated Water Management Programme. It includes the action plans for livelihood improvement, water conservation activities and volume of work to be converged under different schemes.

–  –  –

I would like to be thankful of god who is almighty in world. Thereafter I am being grateful to my parents and teachers who are responsible for all of my success for ever.

Diction is not enough to express my sincere gratitude and indebtedness to chairman, GSWMA and principle secretary (Rural Development Dept) Ms. Rita Teotia IAS and Chief Executive Officer, GSWMA, Mr. Ram Kumar IFS Government of Gujarat for giving me an opportunity to work on this project.

I would like to take the opportunity to acknowledge wholeheartedly the special assistance extended to me by Dr. B.N. Hiremath, my local guide for this project work, my friends and entire staff of DA-IICT, Gandhinagar for their constant support and encouragement.

I take this opportunity to extend my heartiest thanks to Shri. N D Chaudhari (Project Director, DWDU Surat) and Shri A G Vasava (DFO, Forest Department Surat), my PIA (Project Implimenting Agency, IWMP XII) for his meticulous guidance, concrete suggestions and constant encouragement throughout the course of the project. Thereafter from the inner sanctum of my heart I am obliged to all the MDTs and WDTs of DWDU Surat for their coordination with me during the course of my project. The project work would not been success without pain taking efforts of Watershed Development Team recruited for IWMP XII. The support given by Shri D J Rajput, (Nodal Officer, IWMP XII) was really healped to understand the basics of totally unknown villages in forest area under North Part of Mandavi Range.

Suggestions and guidance given by Mr Binoy Menon (Professional Expert, GSWMA Gandhinagar) and Miss Prajakta Rathod (Technical Expert, DWDU Surat) was really unforgettable and crucial. Without the pain taking role of my friends Pawan Dixit and Pranav Patadiy, the documentary on “Preparation of DPR” would not been possible.

–  –  –

India has about 108 million hectares of rain-fed area which constitutes approximately 75 per cent of the total 143 million hectares of arable land of country. The rain fed agro ecosystem in India covers arid, semi arid and sub humid zones which occupies more than 70 per cent of the geographical area. Coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds and cotton are the major cropping systems in our country. Animal Husbandry is second highest adopted occupation of rural people in India.

Rain-fed farmers followed a low intensive sustainable farming system with excellent integration of crops-trees, pastures and livestock. In 70th the introduction of ”Green revolution” (GR) Technology has started excessive use of hybrids and high yielding varieties particularly in Wheat, sorghum, pearl millet and oilseeds. In the beginning of this revolution there was peak growth in the production of the crops but in current scenario it has become stagnant.

(Government of India, 2008, Watershed Guideline) This situation has further worsened down as the population of India is increasing by exponential rate. The concern for food security has increased the unit pressure of population over the cultivated land. The world is rapidly converting forest, wetlands and other critical habitats into agricultural land to meet the demand of food and fodder. The exploitation of nature is observed everywhere and to stop that exploitation is necessary for further generations.

The Government of India has given priority to the holistic and sustainable development of rain fed areas in India through integrated watershed development approach. “watershed is defined a geo-hydrological unit from which the runoff drains to a common point” it acts as a developmental activity of the watershed area. The main aim of the watershed approach is to conserve the rain water in different structures, drain them to a common point or at reservoirs, check the soil erosion and use the water in effective way for agriculture and allied activities. Micro planning of the watershed development is management of water in dry and semi arid regions is very necessary. (2002, John Kerr, Watershed Development in India)

1.2 History of Watershed in India

The watershed projects in India were planned for management of rain water and irrigation water by Famine Commission in 1880. Mr. VA Thampane started research on dry farming for the scarcity tracts of erstwhile Bombay state in 1923; Mr. NV Kanitkar continued that work from

1926. Later, financial support for project on dry land farming at five centers in the country was given by Imperial Council of Agricultural Research. That project included mainly soil and moisture conservation measures. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) had established eight Soil Conservation Research centers and Demonstration and Training centers in 1954. The Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) was one of the area development programmes given by the Government of India in 1972-73. The Central Soil and Water Conservation, Research and Training Institute (CSWCRTI), was reconstituted in April 1974 to attend to soil and water conservation issues on arable and non-arable lands, evolve and 7 demonstrate conservation technology on watershed basis, and capacity building through training. In 1983, a programme for development of dry land agriculture on watershed basis was initiated and the work began in 47 model watersheds for soil and water conservation measures, crop management and alternate land use systems. After the severe drought experienced in 1987, the Government of India had initiated the National Watershed Development Project for Rain-fed Areas (NWDPRA) in 1990-91 during the 8th Five Year Plan. The programmes evolved and the projects designed for using the watershed development approach were the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), the Desert Development Programme (DDP), River Valley Project (RVP), National Watershed Development Project for Rain-fed Areas (NWDPRA), and the Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) (Government of India, 2008, Watershed Guideline)

1.3 Some Important Watershed Guidelines

Various guidelines have been formulated from time to time to involve village communities in the implementation of watershed projects. A expert level committee was been appointed by Government of India under the chairmanship of Prof. C.H. Hanumantha Rao to evaluate the various area development programmes namely, Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Desert Development Programme (DDP). On recommendation of Hanumantha Rao committee report a guidelines for watershed development were adopted in 1995 (GoI 1994) and subsequently revised in 2001.

Major important principles of the guidelines were to have an integrated approach for developing the resources of a watershed on a “mini watershed” of 500 ha principle. There should be a proper coordination among various line departments. This development project should be participatory involving the people and local Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI). Later a new guidelines was formulated has hariyali guidelines on April 2003 (DOLR 2003) by the Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, to further simplify procedures and involve the panchayati raj institutions (PRIs) more meaningfully in planning, implementation and management of economic development activities in rural areas.

Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, on 15th August 2005 declared formation of National Rain-fed Area Authority to emphasize importance of rain-fed agriculture to achieve food security and inclusive growth in India. The NRAA was established in 2007 and new common guidelines for watershed development were released by the Government of India (GoI 2008).Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects gave a unified perspective to all ministries. These guidelines are therefore applicable to all watershed development projects in all Departments / Ministries of Government of India concerned with Watershed Development Projects. These Guidelines broadly indicate a fresh framework for the next generation watershed programmemes.

The key Features of this newly developed watershed approach was as under (GoI 2008)

1. Delegating Powers to all the States of India for financial and administrative management of the entire Watershed related programme and schemes.

2. Formation of agencies at state, district and taluka level for better planning, implementation and management of watershed programmes.


3. Financial Assistance to agencies at each stage.

4. Duration of the Programmme was enhanced to 4 to 7 years depending upon nature of Activities spread over 3 distinct phases viz., preparatory phase, works phase and Consolidation phase.

5. Livelihood activities were introduced for promotion of Agriculture and allied activities.

6. A Cluster Approach with a broader area coverage of average size of 1,000 to 5,000 hectares of area comprising of clusters of micro-watersheds.

7. Scientific Planning with the use of like GIS and GPS technology in planning, monitoring and evaluation of the programmme technology.

8. Capacity building programmes were involved with activities of watershed development

9. Multi Tier Approach on base of ridge to valley concept.

1.4 Project Implementing Agency 1.4.1 Introduction Generally the selection of Project Implementing Agency (PIA) is done by GSWMA, State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA)) using appropriate measures. The main job of PIA is to successfully implementation of the project. These PIAs may include relevant line departments, other organization under state or central Government, reputed government institutes/ research bodies, intermediate panchayats, nongovernmental organizations. The PIA for Balethi Watershed Project is Forest Department, Surat.

1.4.2 Forest Department, Surat

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