FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

«Burning with Enthusiasm: Fuelwood Scarcity in Tanzania in Terms of Severity, Impacts and Remedies Fred Håkon Johnsen 1. Introduction Deforestation ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


NO. 1 – 1999

Burning with Enthusiasm:

Fuelwood Scarcity in Tanzania

in Terms of Severity, Impacts

and Remedies

Fred Håkon Johnsen

1. Introduction

Deforestation and fuelwood scarcity are problems that have attracted a

great deal of attention in Tanzania. Former President Julius K. Nyerere

described the situation with the following words (Mnzava, 1981: 745):

Large areas of our country have already been denuded of trees and still people cut without planting. We are beginning to feel the effects but not everyone has yet made the connection between water shortage alternating with flooding and tree cutting in which we causally indulge. We in Tanzania still have time to avoid dis- aster if we take action now.

In the Tanzanian context fuelwood is a main concern in any discussion on energy. This is obvious from the fact that 88 per cent of the total energy consumption in Tanzania is estimated to be firewood and 4 per cent charcoal, leaving only 7 per cent for petroleum and 1 per cent for electricity from hydropower (Mnzava, 1990). Surprisingly, the overwhelming importance of fuelwood has not always been well understood. In a world-wide assessment of energy resources done in 1979, a 23 page country study of Tanzania didn’t even mention fuel- wood (WENDS, 1979).

Opinions differ widely on essential issues such as to what extent fuelwood consumption causes deforestation, whether or not there is a fuelwood crisis, and what measures to employ in order to improve the availability of household energy.

This article discusses the severity of the fuelwood shortage in 107 Fred Håkon Johnsen Tanzania. In literature fuelwood shortage is described as a problem for two different reasons. First, fuelwood gathering has been described as a major cause of deforestation and environmental degradation.

Second, there are social impacts of inadequate supply of household energy. Both these kinds of impacts are discussed.

Many measures against fuelwood scarcity have been suggested and implemented with great enthusiasm. The discussion in this paper shows that most such measures have not had any significant impact on environmental degradation or availability of energy. The discussion of remedies to alleviate fuelwood scarcity is limited to directly energy- related interventions including investments in woody biomass produc- tion, introduction of improved stoves, and switching from fuelwood to other energy sources. An alternative approach was suggested by Hofstad (1990), who claims that agricultural development and reduced population growth would be the most important contributions to reducing deforestation and fuelwood scarcity. In a more recent work (Hofstad, 1997) he also suggested that road construction and insecure land tenure are important driving forces behind deforestation. Such causes and measures, relating to the general development of the society, are not the focus of this article.

The article is limited to fuelwood for household use. This is the overall dominating use of fuelwood, as 85 per cent of the total energy consumption in the country takes place within the households (Mnzava, 1990). Some fuelwood, however, is used for village industries, including tobacco curing, burning bricks, lime and cement making, fish smoking, baking, local beer brewing, tea drying and village metal works, while relatively small amounts of fuelwood are being used for large scale industrial activities (Mnzava, 1981). Out of these activities, tobacco curing is a process reported to pose a real threat to forests (Ishengoma, 1987).

In this article, firewood is defined as woody biomass used for fuel without processing, in contrast to charcoal. Fuelwood or woodfuel is a concept covering both firewood and charcoal.

2. How Severe is the Fuelwood Problem?

1. Fuelwood supply and demand Until recently, estimates of demand and supply of fuelwood in Tanzania tended to be utterly pessimistic. One typical report estimated the annual fuelwood consumption at 35 million m3, while only 19 million m3could be harvested on a sustainable basis (Ishengoma, 1987).

108 Burning with Enthusiasm: Fuelwood Scarcity in Tanzania A thorough study by Hosier et al. (1990) indicated that the situation may not be all that bad. Four different regionalised fuelwood balance studies for Tanzania were compared. Though the four studies used the same methodology, the results seemed rather conflicting. Out of Tanzania’s 20 regions, the number of regions that faced a fuelwood deficit varied from 6 to 15 within the four studies. Moreover, the total fuelwood balance for the country was positive (i.e. increment larger than consumption) in two of the studies, and negative in the two others.

One conclusion by Hosier et al. (1990) was that the emphasis on wood balance ‘tends to exaggerate the need for action, ignoring the capabilities of the local population to respond to a wood shortage’.

Even if the consumption may not exceed yield at national level, local fuelwood shortages do occur. As Munslow et al. (1988: 11) put it, ‘supply-and-demand balances and projections hide a complex pattern of surplus and deficit. Fuelwood shortages occur in pockets or mosaics of varying levels of stress’.

Consequently, it may not make much sense to talk about a national fuelwood crisis. Fuelwood shortages can only be described and handled in a meaningful way on a local level. Quantitative assessments of local fuelwood consumption have been made in a sample of 15 villages in the semi-arid area of Tanzania (FAO, 1984), in a sample of 12 villages representing 9 regions (Nkonoki, 1983), in Dar es Salaam (Mnzava, 1985; Andersson and Holm, 1990), in Morogoro (Ngowi, 1986), in Zanzibar town (Masoud, 1990), in Sumbawanga town (Sabuni, 1990) and in Hai district of Kilimanjaro region (Ishengoma et al., 1992). The results varied widely, from around 1 m 3 to more than 3 m3 of firewood per person per year, suggesting that people adjust their consumption patterns in response to the availability.

The total impact of fuelwood scarcity can be separated into environmental impacts and social impacts, as expressed in a seminar on national energy policy for Tanzania in 1990 (Kilahama, 1991): ‘The development of national energy policy in relation to woodfuels can be

summarised in two objectives:

i) to decrease pressure on the already overexploited traditional sources of wood supply in order to avoid further environmental degradation; and ii) to reduce the household fuel bill for many people who are forced to spend over 30 per cent of their income on domestic energy alone.’

2. The environmental impact of fuelwood consumption Fuelwood gathering has been mentioned as an important cause, and 109 Fred Håkon Johnsen often the most important cause, of deforestation. One example is Misana (1988: 111), who estimated the Tanzanian annual fuelwood demand at 40.2 million m3 while the annual increment was only 19.6 million m3. The deficit of 20.6 million m3 was according to Misana ‘to be met by over-exploiting the few existing forests causing a deforestation rate of 400 000 hectares’.

This view has been seriously challenged. A broad assessment of the fuelwood situation in the SADCC region concluded that rural subsistence households do not, broadly speaking, cause deforestation (Bhagavan, 1984: 25). They gather fuelwood ‘on and in the vicinity of the farm, from land lying fallow, not from forests’. Bhagavan argued further that the subsistence farmer does not cut down a tree to obtain firewood; at most he or she breaks off branches from it. Instead, the dominant causes for deforestation are charcoal production, firewood for curing tobacco and tea, timbering, and clearing land for agriculture.

Ramadhani (1989) studied four villages in Dodoma Rural District and found land clearing for agriculture to be by far the most important driving force behind deforestation, though commercial charcoal making, grazing by livestock and fuelwood collection also had some impact.

Lundgren and Lundgren (1983) pointed out three major forces enhancing the deforestation in Tanzania: The villagisation programme which has concentrated the pressure on the forests, the fast population growth in the mountain area and the expansion of agricultural uses such as tobacco, which needs firewood for curing. The effect of the villagisation programme has been explained more in detail by Kihiyo (1991) and Kikula (1997).

To conclude about the deforestation issue, there seem to be strong indications that firewood gathering is not the most important cause.

The fact that there are other important forces seems to be recognised by the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism (1989,

annex 4: 6):

Supply-demand gap models therefore tend greatly to overestimate the contribution of woodfuels to deforestation, and hence the need for energy-focused remedies for it. If all woodfuel consumption ceased tomorrow, deforestation in Tanzania would not be halted.

The production of charcoal for sale is probably a much more severe cause of deforestation than firewood gathering for home consumption in rural areas, because charcoal burners cut the whole tree. It has been estimated that 4354 ha of woodland are cleared per year in order to 110 Burning with Enthusiasm: Fuelwood Scarcity in Tanzania supply Dar es Salaam with charcoal (Monela et al., 1993).

Apart from the general concern about deforestation, there is also a worry that rare habitats are threatened. An assessment of coastal forests in Tanzania showed that the total remaining area of such forests may be less than 400 km2 (Burgess et al., 1992). These forests are described as habitats for globally important flora and fauna, which may be completely removed. The forests are being destroyed, ‘following the sequence (a) logging for timber and fuel; (b) pole-cutting to build houses; (c) wholesale burning for charcoal; (d) wholesale conversion to agriculture.’

3. The welfare effect of fuelwood scarcity In rural areas, firewood is normally not a commodity which the average household would consider buying in the market. Welfare effects of reduced fuelwood supply are therefore indicated by the time spent for fuelwood gathering rather than by monetary measures. Too much time spent on fuelwood gathering may have serious implications on the welfare, particularly of women and small children. It has been reported that ‘because of overworking and walking long distances, women do not have enough time to cook for children at least three times a day, even when food is available’ (Mongela, 1991: 84).

In the survey by FAO (1984), village averages of walking distances for firewood collection ranged from 2.5 to 4.2 km, with a median of

3.1 km. Village averages of time spent per trip ranged from two and a half hours to four hours, and the number of trips per week from 1.3 to

3.9. The village averages of total time per week spent on fuelwood collection ranged from 2.6 hours to 10.7 hours.

Helmfrid and Persson (1987) reported from Karatu, Arusha that women and children spent up to eight hours to bring home a backload of firewood. This is probably an extreme case. In his survey of 12 villages distributed on 9 regions, Nkonoki (1983) found that the average villager spent a total of 5.77 hours on bringing home 3 bundles of firewood per week. In Nkonoki’s survey, only 7 per cent of the households had more than 5 km distance to the firewood.

Rajeswaran (1983) found that the labour cost of firewood collection for one family was TShs1 821 per year, when using the minimum wage rate as a shadow price on labour. The corresponding cost for charcoal bought on the market was TShs 2190 per year and for kerosene TShs 4873 per year.

11. The Tanzanian Shilling (TShs) had a relatively stable official value at around 12 TShs to 1 US$ during the first half of the 1980s. After deregulation of the currency market, the official value of Tshs dropped dramatically.

111 Fred Håkon Johnsen

In exceptional cases, firewood has a monetary market even in rural districts. As an example, Johansson (1991: 25) reported from Babati that fuelwood is sold in the villages with prices ranging from 30 to 70 TShs per headload.

In the towns, fuelwood is certainly a market commodity. However, there is no single Tanzanian market price for fuelwood. The price varies greatly depending on location, season, amounts bought, and also the quality of the fuelwood.

Nkonoki (1983) found firewood prices ranging from TShs 1.50-2 per bundle in rural Kondoa to TShs 8-10 in Kinodoni town. Prices of charcoal ranged from TShs 3-4 in rural Kondoa to TShs 12-15 in Kinodoni town.

In their study of Hai district in Kilimanjaro region, Ishengoma et al.

(1992) found the price of fuelwood to range from TShs 500 to TShs 1600 per m3, with an average of TShs 1000. The charcoal price varied from TShs 400 to TShs 700 per bag of approximately 28 kg, with an average of TShs 560.

Ishengoma (1984) surveyed Morogoro town and found that those who buy charcoal in small amounts pay more than twice as much per unit as those who buy whole bags. Ishengoma also observed a price increase of 30-50 per cent during the heavy rains.

The income share spent on fuelwood is even more interesting for understanding the socio-economic implications than the fuelwood prices cited above. According to Chandrasekharan and Davis (1986: 1), an average family in Dar es Salaam spent 20-25 per cent of its income on fuelwood. Nkonoki (1983) found that a poor urban dweller used 28-34 per cent of his income on fuel, while the rural poor spent 12-18 per cent. People with higher income spent a lower percentage on fuel.

Following standard economic theory, serious resource scarcity is indicated by a sharp rise in the price of that particular resource. Such an increase in price has been observed in Zanzibar where firewood is the most important energy source (Masoud 1990: 80). The annual increase in the firewood price in the period 1985-1989 was 37 per cent, while the nominal growth of household income was only 22.6 per cent. This caused an increase in the share of household income needed for an adequate fuelwood supply from 25 per cent in 1985 to 40 per cent in 1989.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

Similar works:

«Curriculum Vitae Ruihua Liu Department of Mathematics, University of Dayton 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-2316 Email: rliu01@udayton.edu Tel: (937) 229-1021 Fax: (937) 229-2566 Web: http://academic.udayton.edu/ruihualiu/ EDUCATION Ph.D., August 2001, Applied Mathematics University of Georgia, Advisor: Qing Zhang, Dissertation Title: Control and Filtering of Stochastic Markovian Systems. M.S., August 2001, Computer Science University of Georgia, Advisor: Thiab Taha, Thesis Title: Numerical...»

«“A tour d’force. Strategists at Work is a practical, step-by-step guide to creating strategies and then shifting them when they hit real-life. A blend of practical insights and deep wisdom from the best of traditional and contemporary thinking about strategy, MacIntosh and MacLean provide a compelling view of how smart strategy happens.” Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, Stanford University “Robert MacIntosh and Donald MacLean have written an absolutely marvelous book. It should be read by...»

«HIV Test Informed Consent Form Standard Insurance Company Individual Division 1100 SW Sixth Avenue Portland OR 97204-1093 In order for us to evaluate your eligibility for insurance coverage, Standard Insurance Company (Standard) may require that you provide blood, urine and/or saliva samples for testing and analysis. One of the tests performed on these bodily fluids will determine the presence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By signing and dating this form, you agree...»

«Draft: Golden Threads Copyright © Rossen, 2011 Tuesday, March 5, 2013 Golden Threads Preamble My Family in Greece John Augustus Toole Who can tell which Angel of Good Fortune must have smiled upon the young loyalist Irishman, John Augustus Toole, when he joined the British Navy as a midshipman and sailed out to the Mediterranean sometime in the first decade of the 19th Century? He was landed on the enchanted island of Zante where he met the great love of his life, the Contessina Barbara...»

«D US-China Education Review B 8 (2012) 712-720 Earlier title: US-China Education Review, ISSN 1548-6613 DAVID PUBLISHING Sweating the Small Stuff and Missing the Mark: A Critical Analysis of the Charter School Movement Amber Parks Penny Wallin University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA Mississippi State University, Meridian, USA  The promise of quality education is a cornerstone of American culture. Why, then, is this not the experience of every child in our nation? In the 1990s, the charter school...»

«Nevil Shute and the DMWD by John Anderson presented at the Nevil Shute Reunion meeting York, May 15th -16th 2004 Introduction In most of the biographies of Shute, given at the front of his published novels, the part about his service in the Second World War reads. During the War Nevil Shute served in the Navy doing secret work for the Admiralty. He still found time to write however. Those interested in Shute's life wonder what this secret work was and what was his part in it. Shute's own...»

«www.lilletourism.com PRESS KIT LILLE 2016 ALL YOU NEED IS LILLE Press Release Just 80 minutes away from London, 1 hour from Paris and 35 minutes from Brussels, Lille could quite easily have melted into the shadows of its illustrious neighbours, but instead it is more than happy to cultivate and show off all that makes it stand out from the crowd! Flemish, Burgundian and then Spanish before it became French, Lille boasts a spectacular heritage. A trading town since the Middle Ages, a stronghold...»

«Forest Signpost A Guide to Services For Older and Disabled People in the Forest of Dean Updated August 2014 Introduction This Guide has been produced as a result of partnership working between a number of organisations in the Forest of Dean. It is designed to do two things firstly, raise awareness of the services available to older, disabled and vulnerable people in the Forest of Dean, and secondly to offer information to service providers. The booklet gives a brief overview of a range of...»

«AD-A266 509 NAWCWPNS TP 8125 What is the Radar Tracking Glint Problem and can it be Solved? SDTICPhysics by D TBrett Borden Division ELECTE Research Deparnment JUL 07 1993 AMAY 13 (A NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION CHINA LAKE, CA 93555-001 Approved for public rdleu. ; diibudon is unlimiied. 9 15324 98'• 6 '0 W//l/llI//I//l///l//////igVA ID.. 04 _ Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division FOREWORD The work described in this report was performed during the 1993 fiscal year as part...»

«Rapid Site Access Program FAQ Frequently Asked Questions by Workers Contents [Holding down the “Control” button and click on any of the below questions should take your directly to that question] INTRODUCTION Q: What is the Rapid Site Access Program (“RSAP”)? Q: What are the purposes of the RSAP? Q: What owner sites may I access without a site access test by joining RSAP?. 5 Q: What do I agree to when I sign up for RSAP? Q. REALLY, why should I join RSAP? Q: How can I sign up for RSAP?...»

«THE SOURCE IS A LIE Abusing the Java Reflection API to create a detached backdoor and uncovering it. Andreas Nusser SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab, Vienna, 04/2012 V 1.0 Whitepaper: The Source Is A Lie SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab Responsible: A. Nusser Version/Date: 1.0/16.04.2012 Confidentiality Class: public TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Introduction String Basics Fun With Reflection And Strings Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, who is Administrator? Uncovering the Illusion References © SEC CONSULT...»

«Copyrighted Material Introduction POGROM IN GUJARAT is a study of an anti-Muslim pogrom in Gujarat, India, that began on February 28, 2002, and lasted for three days— approximately seventy-two hours. Officials rationalized the violence as a reaction—pratikriya—to the aggression of its victims. In the city of Ahmedabad and in Gujarat’s central provinces, a state of exception ruled for approximately three weeks. Several mass killings were followed over a few months by many instances of...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.