«DOCUMENT RESUME ED 467 449 EA 031 816 Fullan, Michael AUTHOR Leading in a Culture of Change. TITLE ISBN-0-7879-5395-4 ISBN 2001-00-00 PUB DATE NOTE ...»
ED 467 449 EA 031 816
Leading in a Culture of Change.
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IN A CULTURE OFNGE
BUSINESS, NONPROFIT, AND PUBLICsector leaders are facing new and daunting challengesrapid-paced developments in technology, sudden shifts in the marketplace, and crisis and contention in the public arenaif they are to survive in this chaotic environment, leaders must develop the skills they need to lead effectively no matter how fast the world around them is changing.
Leading in a Culture of Change offers new and seasoned leaders' insights into the dynamics of change and presents a unique and imaginative approach for navigating the intricacies of the change process. Author Michael Fullanan internationally acclaimed expert in organizational changeshows how leaders in all types of organizations can accomplish their goals and become exceptional leaders. He draws on the most current ideas and theories on the topic of effective leadership, incorporates case examples of large scale transformation, and reveals a remarkable convergence of powerful themes or, as he calls them, the five core competencies.
By integrating the five core competencies attending to a broader moral purpose, keeping on top of the change process, cultivating relationships, sharing knowledge, and setting a vision and context for creating coherence in organizationsleaders will be empowered to deal with complex change. They will be transformed into exceptional leaders who consistently mobilize their compatriots to do important and difficult work under conditions of constant change.
More Praise for Leading in a Culture of Change "The sign of outstanding and inspired leadership is the ability to lead rather than be led by the forces of change. How do leaders in private, public, and not-for-profit sectors meet the challenges of today's complex world? This book shows the way."
Veronica Lacey, president and CEO, The Learning Partnership "Michael Fullan debunks the notion that there is a 'one-size-fitsall' blueprint for managing change. Leading in a Culture of Change is an excellent book for all educators and business leaders. Readers will gain powerful new insights into developing the core capabilities required for effective leadership under conditions of complex change."
Kenneth Lalonde, executive vice president, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce "A great book for leaders everywhere who are truly interested in learning and cultivating the leadership potential in others."
Marilyn Knox, president, Nutrition, Nestle Canada Inc.
"Michael Fullan has no truck with simplistic solutions or superheroes. Instead he helps leaders understand the paradoxes of complex cultural changeleaders from all sectors will learn from his insights."
Heather Duquesnay, director and chief executive, National College for School Leadership, England "Leading in a Culture of Change describes vividly the kind of leadership necessary to bring about successful change in modern times. At its heart is building capacitya powerful message."
Michael Barber, head, Standards and Effectiveness Unit, Department for Education and Employment, London, England LEADING
IN A CULTURE OFCHANGE LEADING
IN A CULTURE OFCHANGE
MICHAEL FULLANIA JOSSEY-BASS NEED A Wiley Company MIK San Francisco Published by
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fullan, Michael.
Leading in a culture of change : being effective in complex times / Michael Fullan.
Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index.
ISBN 0-7879-5395-4 (alk. paper)
1. Educational leadership. 2. School management and organization.
3. Educational change. I. Title.
FIRST EDITIONHB Printing
THE MORE COMPLEX SOCIETY GETS, THE MORE SOPHISticated leadership must become. Complexity means change, but specifically it means rapidly occurring, unpredictable, nonlinear change. Moreover, the pace of change is ever increasing, as James Gleick, the author of Chaos, pointed out in a recent book called Faster, which he subtitled The Acceleration of Just About Everything (Gleick, 1999). How do you lead in a culture such as ours, which seems to specialize in pell-mell innovation?
This is the leader's dilemma. On the one hand, failing to act when the environment around you is radically changing leads to extinction. On the other hand, making quick decisions under conditions of mind-racing mania can be equally fatal. Robert Steinberg said it best: "The essence of intelligence would seem to be in knowing when to think and act Ix
quickly, and knowing when to think and act slowly" (cited in Gleick, 1999, p. 114).
This book is about how leaders can focus on certain key change themes that will allow them to lead effectively under messy conditions. The book is also about how leaders foster leadership in others, thereby making themselves dispensable in the long run. And it is about how we can produce more "leaders of leaders."
The good news is that society has not been evolving as recklessly as it seems. As we shall see, there are deep theoretical reasons why change occurs as it does. If we can come to understand these powerful themes, we will be able to influence (but not control) them for the better. I identify these themes in Chapter One, which I call "A Remarkable Convergence" because certain powerful factors have emerged that have developed independently but that are deeply compatibleindeed, synergistic. There are five themes in particular: moral purpose, understanding change, developing relationships, knowledge building, and coherence making.
Chapters Two through Six take each theme in turn and examine in more detail its inner workings. Through these five chapters I develop a comprehensive theory of leadership. In Chapter Seven, I take up the matter of becoming a leader and how systems can foster leadership development, which turns out to be more of a tortoise than a hare proposition.
Leadership must be cultivated deliberately over time at all levels of the organization.
Two things have happened in recent times that aid our pursuit of effective leadership. One is that the knowledge base for what makes for success under conditions of complexity is getting betterdeeper, more insightful. The other is that there xi
PREFACEare many more case examples of large-scale transformation in both business and education. There is literally more to learn today than ever before. Since the early 1990s we have begun to study and learn from more and more examples of purposeful reform. We are uncovering fantastic new insights from these experiences. This book draws from these new ideas in both business and education, and in so doing finds remarkable convergences in what we are discovering about how to lead in a culture of complex change.
Leadership in business and in education increasingly have more in common. As we shall see, businesses are realizing more and more that having moral purpose is critical for sustainable success. In this respect they have much to learn from schools. Schools are beginning to discover that new ideas, knowledge creation, and sharing are essential to solving learning problems in a rapidly changing society. Schools can learn from how the best companies innovate and get results.
At the most basic level, businesses and schools are similar in that in the knowledge society, they both must become learning organizations or they will fail to survive. Thus, leaders in business and education face similar challengeshow to cultivate and sustain learning under conditions of complex, rapid change.
Fortunately, there are many more examples of organizations that are engaged in successful change. I have benefited from working with a growing number of colleagues in Toronto and around the world helping bring about (and study) large-scale reform. The most interesting initiative is our critical friend evaluation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy in England, in which dramatic improvements in student performance are being attempted in all the
xli PREFACEprimary schools in the country (twenty thousand) over a fiveyear period (1997 to 2002); actually, more schools will be involved, because the results must extend beyond the primary schools into secondary schools and into the infrastructure.
I thank my colleagues Lorna Earl, Ken Leithwood, Ben Levin, Nancy Watson, Doris Jantzi, Blair Mascall, and Nancy Torrance for their work on the England evaluation.
We are also working on several other fronts: school district reform, such as the literacy project involving ninety-three schools in the Toronto District School Board; the study of literacy reform in the York Region District School Board; the development of "assessment literacy" in all eighty-four schools (and thus in the system) in the Edmonton Catholic School District; the Manitoba School Improvement Program;
and the evaluation of school improvement in the Guilford County School District in Greensboro, North Carolina. We are also trying our hand at the redesign of teacher education, both in Toronto in our own program and in Louisiana, where comprehensive reform of teacher education and school improvement is being attempted. At the same time, we have monitored large-scale change projects conducted by others around the world. Andy Hargreaves and Carol Rolheiser have been particularly helpful in working through many of the ideas as we drew lessons from educational reform initiatives.
Clearly these are exciting timesthere is a lot going on.
Not the least of these developments is the new realization that leadership is key to large-scale improvement yet must be radically different than it has been. Further, effective leadership is in very short supply. We can therefore expect to see leadership development initiatives dominating the scene over the next decade.