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«Center for Teaching and Learning CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT TOOLS CONTENTS* Matching Outcomes to Assessment Tools.1 Classroom Assessment Tools.5 Attitude ...»

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Center for Teaching and Learning

CLASSROOM

ASSESSMENT TOOLS

CONTENTS*

Matching Outcomes to Assessment Tools...………..1

Classroom Assessment Tools……………………….5

Attitude Surveys………………………………..5

ConcepTests ……………………...……………8

Concept Mapping……………………………..11

Conceptual Diagnostic Tests………………….14

Interviews…………………………………..…18 Performance Assessments………………….....22 Portfolios...…………………………………....25 Scoring Rubrics…………………………….…28 Weekly Reports……………………………….31 * Note: These materials and additional information may be found at http://www.flaguide.org/cat/cat.php.

Matching Outcomes to Assessment Tools (Charts from www.flaguide.org/goals/goaltab.php) www.flaguide.org/goals/goaltab.php) To find appropriate CAT(s) use the Student Learning CAT(s)

Outcomes table below:

• Reflect on your own course goals.

• Identify the goals within the list that most closely approximate your own (5 or 6 goals is adequate).

• Click the check boxes next to those goals.

• Click the "Submit" button.

• A chart of the goals and corresponding CAT(s) will be made which can be printed out.

Student Learning Outcomes Classroom Assessment Techniques Knowledge AS CT CM CD IN PA PO SR WR Demonstrates basic knowledge of facts X X X X X and terms Demonstrates basic knowledge of X X X X X X concepts and theories Demonstrates synthesis and integration X X X X X X of information and ideas Develops skill in using materials, tools X X X and technology central to subject Learns techniques and methods used to X gain new knowledge in subject Learns to evaluate methods and X X materials of this subject Learns modeling methods appropriate X X for subject Learns to appreciate important contributions of this subject Develops an informed understanding of the role of science and technology Student Learning Outcomes Classroom Assessment Techniques Analytical Skills AS CT CM CD IN PA PO SR WR Analyzes problems from different points X X X X X of view Recognizes interrelationships among X X X

–  –  –

Contributes his/her share of project workload Demonstrates ability to work on multidisciplinary team Demonstrates ability to take leadership role in support of team goals

–  –  –

Identifies desirable course pedagogies X Identifies perceived lab/lecture match X Identifies beliefs about the nature of a X field Indicates perceptions about X interdisciplinary connections Indicates student’s perceived level of X understanding Indicates student’s level of confidence X

–  –  –

What is an attitude survey?

While attitudinal surveys may take many forms and address a range of issues, they typically consist of a series of statements that students are asked to express their agreement or disagreement using a scale.

Why use attitude surveys?

This type of survey provides valuable information on student perceptions of and emotions regarding their classroom experience. This includes general attitudes toward the course, the discipline, and their own learning. The results from this survey can also help you identify elements in your course that best support student learning.

–  –  –

Assessment purposes

• To provide information about students’ learning styles or preferences for ways of learning, allowing instructors to choose among instructional approaches that would best meet the needs of the students

• To discover which components of the course contribute most significantly to students’ learning

• To provide feedback helpful for designing activities to foster a more realistic view of a discipline and what members of that discipline do

• To prompt students to reflect on their own learning preferences, strengths, or styles Teaching goals Student learning outcomes

• Learn the techniques and methods used to gain new knowledge in the subject

• Develop appropriate study skills, strategies, and habits

• Develop awareness of learning processes and control over those processes

• Develop a knowledge and appreciation for the subject Instructor teaching outcomes

• Develop and refine instruction based on student feedback

–  –  –

Description An attitudinal survey can provide information on student perceptions of their classroom experience. It can reveal perceptions on the content of a course, specific components of a course, course components that aid or are detrimental to learning, and the effects of course innovations. Attitudinal surveys may also focus on students’ needs in taking a course, how well those needs are met, student interest in or appreciation for the subject matter or field, student confidence in their ability to perform in a course, or their beliefs about the nature of the discipline itself.

Limitations Constructive questions or statements on an attitudinal survey are the result of considerable work in both designing the question/statement so that it measures what it was intended to measure and has reliability across students and groups. Additionally, for best results, students must be guaranteed anonymity. This means if the instructor analyzes the data, no student identification should be requested. You may ask for demographic information like gender, ethnicity, major, etc. and look for correlation across those variables. If you want to correlate student responses to their performance, you must have someone else gather and analyze the data, explicitly letting the students know you are doing so. Data analysis can be very time consuming in large classes unless you have optical scanning response forms and an optical reader. For small classes, you may provide additional space for students to elaborate on their ideas.





Sources Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Braskamp, L., & Ory, J. (1994). Assessing faculty work: Enhancing individual and institutional performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Centra, J. A. (1973). Effectiveness of student feedback in modifying college instruction.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(3), 395-401.

Davis, B. G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fowler, F. J. (1993). Survey research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Gramson, Z., & Chickering, A. (1977). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39, 5-10.

Henderson, M. E., Morris, L. L., & Firz-Gibbon, C. T. (1987). How to measure attitudes.

Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Murray, H. G. (1991). Effective teaching behaviors in the college classroom. In J. C.

Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, Vol. 7 (pp. 135New York: Agathon.

National Research Council (1997). Science teaching reconsidered: A handbook.

Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.

Reynolds, A. (1992). What is competent beginning teaching? A review of the literature.

Review of educational research, 62, 1-35.

Shulman, L. S. (1990). Aristotle had it right: On knowledge and pedagogy (Occasional paper no. 4). East Lansing, MI: The Holmes Group.

Shulman, L. S. (1991). Ways of seeing, ways of knowing – ways of teaching, ways of learning about teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23(5), 393-395.

Theall, M., & Franklin, J. (Eds.) (1990). Student ratings of instruction: Issues for improving practice. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 43. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

–  –  –

What is a ConcepTest?

The instructor presents one or more questions during class involving key concepts, along with several possible answers. Students in the class indicate by, for example, a show of hands, which answer they think is correct. If most of the class has not identified the correct answer, students are given a short time in lecture to try to persuade their neighbor(s) that their answer is correct. The question is asked a second time by the instructor to gauge class mastery.

Why use ConcepTests?

The instructor obtains immediate feedback on the level of class understanding. Students have an opportunity to enhance teamwork and communication skills. Many instructors have reported substantial improvements in class attendance and attitude toward the course.

An example During an experiment, the class is asked to vote - “How many of you think that a quarter of the laser light will now reach the solar cell? How many of you think none of the light will now get to the solar cell?” If most of the class has correctly noted that one-quarter of the light will be transmitted, you can quickly affirm why this is correct and continue with the lesson. If the majority of the class does not select the correct answer, ask your students to convince their neighbor(s) that their answer is correct. After a short discussion period, have the class vote a second time. If the class has now selected the correct answer, a quick explanation is again appropriate. If the majority of the class has not reached the correct answer, a more detailed explanation can be presented.

Assessment purposes

• To obtain real-time feedback regarding student understanding

• To determine the pace and direction of the remainder of the lecture Teaching goals Student learning outcomes

• Apply ideas and concepts while communicating verbally

• Integrate concepts

• Work cooperatively with others Instructor teaching outcomes

• Obtain real-time feedback regarding student misconceptions and understanding

• Communicate the instructor’s desire for students to be successful in the course

–  –  –

Description Questions in a ConcepTest inform or calibrate students as to how well they understand what the instructor has identified as key ideas, and they calibrate instructors as to class mastery of these ideas at the time of their presentation. ConcepTests thus make the lecture a vehicle for bringing student and instructor expectations into alignment.

Limitations If the class size is too small, students may feel more conspicuous and self-conscious, hindering their participation. Instructors may need to encourage students to sit together to participate in ConcepTests if the lecture room has many more chairs than students.

Some instructors group students into teams to work on ConcepTests during their lectures.

Links & sources Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

New Traditions Project. (1997). Establishing new traditions: Revitalizing the chemistry curriculum. Retrieved August 24, 2005, from http://newtraditions.chem.wisc.edu.

Project Galileo. (2005). Project Galileo: Your gateway to innovations in science education. Retrieved August 24, 2005, from http://galileo.harvard.edu.

Tobias, S. (1990). They’re not dumb, they’re different: Stalking the second tier. Tucson, AZ: Research Corporation.

Tobias, S. (1992). Revitalizing undergraduate science: Why some things work and most don’t. Tucson, AZ: Research Corporation.

The Trustees of Beloit College and the Regents of the University of California (2004).

ChemConnections: Systemic change initiatives in chemistry. Retrieved August 24, 2005, from http://chemlinks.beloit.edu.

The University of Wisconsin Board of Regents. (1996). Chemistry ConcepTests.

Retrieved August 24, 2005, from http://www.chem.wisc.edu/~concept.

–  –  –

What is a concept map?

A concept map is a diagram of nodes containing concept labels that are linked together with labeled directional lines. The concept nodes are arranged in hierarchical levels that move from general to specific concepts.

Why use concept maps?

Concept maps assess how well students see the “big picture.” They have been used for over 25 years to provide a useful and visually appealing way of illustrating students’ conceptual knowledge.

An example Assessment purposes

• To investigate how well students understand the correct connections among concepts in a subject

• To document the nature and frequency of students’ misconceptions

• To capture the development of students’ ideas over time Teaching goals Student learning outcomes

• Learn terms, facts, and concepts of this subject

• Organize information into meaningful categories

• Synthesize and integrate information, ideas, and concepts

• Think about the “big picture” and see connections among concepts

• Think creatively about the subject

• Improve long-term memory skills for accessible knowledge

• Develop higher-level thinking skills, strategies, and habits

• Use graphics effectively Instructor teaching outcomes

• Gain insight into the way students view a scientific topic

• Examine the valid understandings and misconceptions students hold

• Assess the structural complexity of the relationships students depict

–  –  –

Description A concept map is a two-dimensional, hierarchical node-link diagram that depicts the structure of knowledge within a scientific discipline as viewed by a student, an instructor, or an expert in a field or sub-field. The map is composed of concept labels, each enclosed in a box or oval, a series of labeled linking lines, and an inclusive, general-tospecific organization.

Limitations Concepts maps provide a useful and visually appealing way of depicting the structure of conceptual knowledge that people have stored in long-term memory. As a result, they offer a readily accessible way of assessing how well students see “the big picture.” They are not designed to tap into the kind of process knowledge that students also need to solve novel problems or for the routine application of algorithmic solutions. Because they probe an individual’s or group’s cognitive organization, they are very idiosyncratic and difficult to compare, either among individuals or groups, or across time for the same individuals or groups.



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