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«Keywords: Criminality, Effectiveness, Metropolitan Manila, Philippine National Police, Philippine Constitution The society is faced with various ...»

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International Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities http://www.ijrssh.com

(IJRSSH) 2016, Vol. No. 6, Issue No. III, Jul-Sep e-ISSN: 2249-4642, p-ISSN: 2454-4671



Edna Aquino, Rowena A. Pila & Jeremias F. Buraga

Keywords: Criminality, Effectiveness, Metropolitan Manila, Philippine National Police, Philippine Constitution The society is faced with various social problems and concerns. One of these problems is criminality, which affects all parts of the country and every aspect of community life. The problem of criminality is aggravated due to the population growth, unemployment and rapid urbanization. There is no single formula and theory that can explain the vast range of criminal behavior. A criminal could be a shoplifter stealing goods from a grocery store, a pleasant young man who suddenly and inexplicably murders his family or a gun-for-hire who brutally assassinates a government official. In addition, the crime problem weakening the traditional social control, moral standard the alienation from family and social groups and the rising affluence enjoyed by some sectors of society.

In the Philippines, kidnappings, bank heists, robbery and murder in the countryside have remained the biggest threat for public safety and security among the people particularly in the National Capital Region. To ensure community safety of the people, the elected and appointed local government officials, Philippine National Police and enacted ordinances that served as the tool or instrument in the protection of community. In accordance with the 1987 Philippine Constitution, under Article XVI (General Provisions), Section 6 provides: „The State shall establish and maintain one police force, which shall be national in scope and civilian character, to be administered and controlled by a national police commission. The authority of local executives over the police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law.

Further, in the passage of Republic Act 7160, otherwise known as the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 in Article 2, Section 28 stated that,” authorizes local government executives to have operational control over police and policing in their respective local jurisdictions.

Specifically, it defines the extensive powers that local elected executive officials, such as provincial governors or city and municipal mayors, exercise over PNP officers and personnel assigned to their jurisdictions. Chapter III, Section 51 of RA 6975 empowers provincial governors to select and appoint their police provincial directors, oversee the implementation of their respective provincial public safety plans and preside over their respective provincial peace and order councils. In other words, city and municipal mayors are given even more powers over PNP personnel assigned to their respective towns or cities. They include the power of operational 99

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(IJRSSH) 2016, Vol. No. 6, Issue No. III, Jul-Sep e-ISSN: 2249-4642, p-ISSN: 2454-4671 supervision and control over policing, which means mayors of towns and cities could direct, superintend, oversee and inspect Philippine National Police units or forces.

On the other hand, Under the Local Government Code of 1991, effective on January 1, 1992 and which repealed P.D. 1508 the revised of Katarungang Pambarangay Law fully reorganized to strengthen the peace and order under local government units. In addition, the essence of the Katarungang Pambarangay Law is the amicable settlement of conflicts wherein the disputing parties are encouraged to make mutual concessions to obtain a peaceful resolution of the dispute without formal adjudication thereof. It is a tool for declogging the courts and providing access to services at minimum cost to both the government and litigants, with the objective of promoting the speedy administration of justice. Lastly, the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM) was established by the Philippine Congress through the enactment of the Police Act of 1966, also known as Republic Act (RA) 4864. Among its specific roles in relation to enforcing police accountability are the following: To develop policies and set down a police manual of regulations for more efficient organization, administration and operation of policing; to examine, audit and establish standards for policing on a continuing basis; to approve or modify plans for police education and training, logistics, communications, records and others;

to monitor and investigate anomalies and irregularities in the police and to monitor the performance of local chief executives as agents exercising authority over police within their localities (National Police Commission 2008, pp. 1-2).

Mandaluyong City is used as the locale of the study. In the successive series of legislative procedures including the signing of Republic Act 7675 by President Fidel V. Ramos on February 9, 1994, a plebiscite confirmed the conversion of Mandaluyong from municipality to a highly urbanized City. Due to the commitment and dynamic leadership of the local public officials of Mandaluyong City, the expansion and relocation of major capital investments gradually shifted towards the city and transformed into one of the most promising business and financial centers in Metro Manila. Thus, at present, its nicknames are “Tiger City of the Philippines”, “Metro Manila‟s Heart, “and the “Shopping Mall Capital of the Philippines.

Mandaluyong is a city that lies at the heart of Metropolitan Manila. It has a total land area of 1.126 hectares. This constitutes 1.77% of the 636 sq.km total land area of Metro Manila which is composed of 16 cities and one municipality. It is bounded on the North by the City of San Juan, on the Northeast by Quezon City, on the East by the Pasig City on the south by Pasig River and the Makati City, and on the West by San Juan City of Manila. The city has a total population of 339,169 (2010 NSO Population).

However, despite of the recognition has been awarded to Mandaluyong City it becomes one of Metro‟s most dangerous places to live in. Based on the comparative statistics period covered 2012- 2013 prepared by the Mandaluyong police, the report showed the index crime for 2013 in Mandaluyong City increased by 314 from the total of 1008 as of 2012 while 1,322 as of

2013. The overall increase in crime against person such as murder, homicide and rape cases was relatively low in terms of murder and homicide, while robbery the total of 233 as of 2012 100

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(IJRSSH) 2016, Vol. No. 6, Issue No. III, Jul-Sep e-ISSN: 2249-4642, p-ISSN: 2454-4671 increased to 287 as of 2013. Index crime refers to the crimes against persons such as murder, homicide, physical injuries and rape; and crimes against property included robbery, theft, and carnapping. In other words, the statistical data was very alarming in fact the city lies at the heart of Metropolitan Manila and it is considered as one of the most progressive economic centers in the country.

It is in this context that the researcher endeavored an in- depth analysis of the policing program towards crime prevention approaches in Mandaluyong City. Thus, the study is significant for the security of the people and it has been regarded as the most promising business and financial centers in Metro Manila.


On the basis of the foregoing theories culled from the review of various related literature and studies, the research paradigm that serves as guide to the study is the system‟s approach or Input – Process – Output model devised by Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, Jr. (1995).

Given the foregoing system‟s model, the research paradigm of the study is presented in Figure 1 for clearer understanding and appreciation.

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(IJRSSH) 2016, Vol. No. 6, Issue No. III, Jul-Sep e-ISSN: 2249-4642, p-ISSN: 2454-4671 The input variables in this study include the increase of crime rate and cases of Philippine National Police and Katarungang Pambaranggay in Mandaluyong City.

The process box includes a critical analysis, qualitative analysis and documentary evidences gathered in the Philippine National Police, enacted ordinances in the Municipal Office of Mandaluyong City and interview to the PNP Chief and Local Public Officials.

The expected output of the study would be stakeholders‟ assessment in the enacted ordinances of the City and policing program implemented as provided by the Philippine National Police.


The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of crime prevention approaches in Mandaluyong City from 2012- 2013. Specifically, the study sought answers to the following


1. What are the prevalent criminal cases in Mandaluyong City?

2. What enacted ordinances and programs were implemented by the Local Chief Executive to promote peace and order in Mandaluyong City?

3. What are the strategies/ approaches have been made in policing crime reduction by the Philippine National Police in Mandaluyong City?

4. How do the multi- sector groups assess the extent of effectiveness in the implemented enacted ordinances to promote peace and order in Mandaluyong City?

4.1. Youth Sector 4.2. Business Sector 4.3. Education Sector 4.4. Health Sector

5. What are the challenges faced in policing crime reduction in Mandaluyong City?

6. What are the recommendations to policing program in Mandaluyong City?


The general intention of the study is to help policy makers to define more clearly national security policies and plans and to help them become more forward looking in regard to security planning.

To the local elected, appointive officials and PNP, the findings of this study will provide insights of how to address the demands and needs of their constituents, thus, giving the means of improving and uplifting their performance as local area managers and internalizing their accountability to the people.

This study could serve as reference for other researchers in their studies in the same field of endeavor.


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(IJRSSH) 2016, Vol. No. 6, Issue No. III, Jul-Sep e-ISSN: 2249-4642, p-ISSN: 2454-4671 It is believed that shall be of interest and significance to public administrators in general and the people of the localities in particular. It will provide certain baseline information for the voting citizens to view the public servant objectively. Valuable insights brought forth in this study could influence the formulation of policies, programs, procedures and regulatory measures that could improve the performance of Philippine National Police, Katarungang Pambarangay and Local Chief Executive (LCE).


This chapter presents a review of related literature and thematic outline adopted for this study. These were derived through extensive research from books, journals, theses and other published and unpublished papers which cover the effective policing towards crime prevention approaches under Local Government Units.

Defining Policing Many authors have referred to the difficult task of defining Policing in one paragraph. It is a philosophy of full service, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems. Koch and Bennett (1993:37) and Bennett (1993) defined a policing philosophy as "A belief or intention held by the police that they should: Consult with and take account of the wishes of the public in determining and evaluating operational policing policy and practice; and Collaborate with the public whenever possible in solving local problems." Kelling and Moore (1988:6-21) stated that it is passed through the "political" era (with intimate police and community relations) and the "reform" era (with professionally neutral and distant relationships).

In the Philippine setting, Philippine National Police is responsible in peace and order of the country. Based on the Constitution, the PNP is the national in scope and civilian in character, administered by the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM) the ratio is about one policeman in every 689 to 700 people nationwide. On the other hand, the Philippine National Police work closely with other government institution such as the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), The Department of Justice (DOJ), and network with other public and private institutions in the resolutions of crimes.

Likewise, it supports the efforts of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) to fight against communist insurgency and Muslim recession in the country.

In the Philippine Air Force the training starts upon recruitment. For the military officers, the Philippine Military Academy serves as the hallmark for breeding men who would later become commanders of their own brigades. Hence, the National Defense College of the Philippines offers a Masters Degree in National Security Administration upon completion, and an opportunity for military officers to earn the star rank. Each branch of the AFP, namely the 103

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(IJRSSH) 2016, Vol. No. 6, Issue No. III, Jul-Sep e-ISSN: 2249-4642, p-ISSN: 2454-4671 Army, the Navy and the Marines, and the Air Force provide continuing learning opportunities through the General Staff College and the Joint Course Staff College.

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