FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«Mineral Resource Information in Support of National, Regional and Local Planning Oxfordshire Commissioned Report CR/04/062N BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Mineral Resource Information in

Support of National, Regional

and Local Planning


Commissioned Report CR/04/062N



Mineral Resource Information in

Support of National, Regional and

Local Planning


G E Norton, D G Cameron, A J Bloodworth,

D J Evans, G K Lott, K A Arbon, N A Spencer and

D E Highley

Key words

Mineral resources, mineral planning, Oxfordshire.

Front cover Excavator working bed of sand from the Highworth Grit (Kingston Formation, Corallian Group) at Shellingford Quarry near Faringdon.

Bibliographical reference G E NORTON, D G CAMERON, A J BLOODWORTH, D J EVANS, G K LOTT, K A ARBON, N A SPENCER, and D E HIGHLEY. 2004. Mineral Resource Information in Support of National, Regional and Local Planning - Oxfordshire. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, CR/04/062N. 12pp.

Keyworth, Nottingham British Geological Survey 2004


The full range of Survey publications is available from the BGS British Geological Survey offices Sales Desks at Nottingham, Edinburgh and London; see contact details below or shop online at www.geologyshop.com Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG 0115B936 3100

The London Information Office also maintains a reference e-mail: sales @bgs.ac.uk collection of BGS publications including maps for consultation. www.bgs.ac.uk Online shop: www.geologyshop.com The Survey publishes an annual catalogue of its maps and other publications; this catalogue is available from any of the BGS Sales Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA Desks. 0131B667 1000

e-mail: scotsales@bgs.ac.uk The British Geological Survey carries out the geological survey of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the latter is an agency London Information Office at the Natural History Museum service for the government of Northern Ireland), and of the (Earth Galleries), Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London surrounding continental shelf, as well as its basic research SW7 2DE projects. It also undertakes programmes of British technical aid in 020B7589 4090

1 Introduction

1.1 Resources and reserves

1.2 Environmental designations

2 Sand and gravel

2.1 River terrace deposits

2.2 Glaciofluvial Deposits

2.3 Bedrock deposits

3 Crushed rock aggregate

3.1 Limestone

3.2 Ironstone

4 Chalk

5 Building stone

6 Coal

7 Hydrocarbons

7.1 Conventional oil and gas

7.2 Coal bed methane (CBM) potential

8 Brick clay

9 Fuller’s earth

10 Aims and limitations

11 Planning permissions for the extraction of minerals


Topographic base

Constraint information

FIGURES Figure 1. Production of sand and gravel in Oxfordshire, 1979-2002 (Source Annual Mineral Raised Inquiry, Office for National Statistics)

Figure 2. Marlstone Rock Formation ironstone being worked for crushed rock aggregate at Wroxton Fields Quarry near Banbury, Peter Bennie Ltd.

Figure 3. Surface planning permissions and landscape and nature conservation designations in Oxfordshire

i ii 1 Introduction This report is one of a series prepared by the British Geological Survey for various administrative areas in England for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister’s research project Mineral Resource Information in Support of National, Regional and Local Planning.

The accompanying map relates to the county of Oxfordshire and delineates the mineral resources of current, or potential, economic interest in the area and the sites where minerals are or have been worked. It also relates these to national planning designations, which may represent constraints on the extraction of minerals.

Three major elements of information are presented:

• the geological distribution and importance of mineral resources;

• the extent of mineral planning permissions and the location of current mineral workings;


• the extent of selected, nationally-designated planning constraints.

This wide range of information, much of which is scattered and not always available in a consistent and convenient form, is presented on a digitally-generated summary map on the scale of 1:100 000. This scale is convenient for the overall display of the data and allows for a legible topographic base on which to depict the information. However, all the data are held digitally at larger scales using a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows easy revision, updating and customisation of the information together with its possible integration with other datasets. The information will be incorporated into a regional GIS which will provide a Summary of the Mineral Resources of the South East Region.

The purpose of the work is to assist all interested parties involved in the preparation and review of development plans, both in relation to the extraction of minerals and the protection of mineral resources from sterilisation. It provides a knowledge base, in a consistent format, on the nature and extent of mineral resources and the environmental constraints which may affect their extraction. An important objective is to provide baseline data for the long term. The results may also provide a starting point for discussion on specific planning proposals for minerals extraction or on proposals, which may sterilise resources.

It is anticipated that the map and report will also provide valuable background data for a much wider audience, including the different sectors of the minerals industry, other agencies and authorities (e.g. The Planning Inspectorate Agency, the Environment Agency, The Countryside Agency and English Nature), environmental interests and the general public.

Basic mineral resource information is essential to support mineral exploration and development activities, for resource management and land-use planning, and to establish baseline data for environmental impact studies and environmental guidelines. It also enables a more sustainable pattern and standard of development to be achieved by valuing mineral resources as national assets.

The mineral resources covered are sand and gravel, crushed rock aggregate, chalk, fuller’s earth, brick clay, building stones, coal and hydrocarbons.

1.1 RESOURCES AND RESERVES Mineral resources are natural concentrations of minerals or bodies of rock (or fluids such as oil and gas) that are, or may become, of potential interest as a basis for the economic extraction of a mineral product. They exhibit physical and/or chemical properties that make them suitable for specific uses and are present in sufficient quantity to be of intrinsic economic interest. Areas that are of potential economic interest as sources of minerals change with time as markets decline or expand, product specifications change, recovery technology is improved or more competitive sources become available.

That part of a mineral resource, which has been fully evaluated and is commercially viable to work is called a mineral reserve. In the context of land-use planning, the term mineral reserve should strictly be further limited to those minerals for which a valid planning permission for extraction exists (i.e. permitted reserves). Without a valid planning consent no mineral working can take place and consequently the inherent economic value of the mineral resource cannot be released and resulting wealth created. The ultimate fate of mineral reserves is to be either physically worked out or to be made non-viable by changing economic circumstances.

Mineral resources defined on the map delineate areas within which potentially workable mineral may occur. These areas are not of uniform potential and also take no account of planning constraints that may limit their working. The economic potential of individual sites can only be proved by a detailed evaluation programme. Such an investigation is also an essential precursor to submitting a planning application for mineral working. Extensive areas are shown as having no mineral resource potential, but some isolated mineral workings may occur in these areas. The presence of these operations generally reflects local or specific situations.

1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNATIONS The map shows the extent of selected, nationally-designated planning constraints as defined for the purposes of this study. These are defined on a common national basis and therefore represent a consistent degree of constraint across the country. No interpretation should be made from the map with regard to the relative importance of the constraints, either in relation to mineral development proposals or in relation to each other. Users should consult policy guidelines issued by the relevant Government department, statutory agency or local authority.

The constraints shown on the map are:

• Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty – Chilterns (part)

• National nature conservation designations – National Nature Reserves (NNR) and Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

• International nature designations – Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), Special Protection Areas (SPA) and Ramsar sites

• Scheduled Monuments Mineral development may also be constrained by many other factors not shown on the map, including local landscape designations, considerations relating to the protection of other resources, such as groundwater, and local amenity or environmental concerns, such as noise, traffic and visual impact. These have been excluded because the constraint is not defined on a national basis or the information is not generally available. The extent or degree of relevance of such constraints can be ascertained from the relevant statutory agency or the appropriate Mineral Planning Authority.

2 Sand and gravel Sand and gravel are defined on the basis of particle size rather than composition. In current commercial practice, following the introduction of new European standards from 1st January 2004, the term ‘gravel’ (or more correctly coarse aggregate) is used for general and concrete applications to define particles between 4 and 80 mm, and the term ‘sand’ for material that is finer than 4 mm, but coarser than 0.063 mm. For use in asphalt 2 mm is now the break point between coarse and fine aggregate. Most sand and gravel is composed of particles that are rich in silica (quartz, quartzite and flint), but other rock types may occur locally.

The principal uses of sand are as fine aggregate in concrete, mortar and asphalt. The main use of gravel is as coarse aggregate in concrete. Substantial quantities of sand and gravel may also be used for construction fill.

Oxfordshire produced 1.5 million tonnes of sand and gravel in 2002, and has estimated permitted reserves of 12 million tones. Recent production figures are shown in Figure 1.

Sand and gravel resources occur in a variety of geological environments. In Oxfordshire, these resources fall into three categories: river terrace deposits; glaciofluvial deposits; and bedrock sand and gravel. The first two categories are considered as superficial deposits and were assessed in parts of Oxfordshire by BGS in the 1970s and 1980s. Resources identified in these areas are identified separately on the map, and the possible extent of sand and gravel concealed beneath overburden is shown. These concealed resources were defined by overburden to mineral ratios (overburden to mineral less than 3:1). Outside these areas, available data are more limited.

Generally, only exposed sand and gravel are defined, although sub-alluvial resources of sand and gravel occurring beneath modern river floodplains may be extensive in some areas, and are marked on the map. However, narrow ( 200 m width) spreads of sub-alluvial deposits are mainly excluded from the map. Their limited width is likely to preclude economic working of any sand and gravel present.

The river terrace deposits and the glaciofluvial deposits were probably formed by a similar mechanism, i.e., deposited mostly from meltwater during glacial episodes. However, the superficial deposits are split into these two different categories on this map for the following reasons. The glaciofluvial deposits are older (Anglian and pre-Anglian age) and are generally less continuous than river terrace deposits, and smaller in extent. Glaciofluvial deposits are thought to be derived partly from lithologies in the Midlands and thus have a higher proportion of quartz-rich clasts. Most current sand and gravel workings are in river terrace deposits.

Thousand tonnes Figure 1. Production of sand and gravel in Oxfordshire, 1979-2002 (Source: Annual Minerals Raised Inquiry, Office for National Statistics)

2.1 RIVER TERRACE DEPOSITS These deposits occur in both raised river terrace sequences and as flood plain terraces associated with and underlying present day alluvium. They are of late Anglian to Devensian age. River terraces occur at several levels in most of the major valleys in the county flanking the present floodplain, particularly associated with the River Thames and the major tributaries thereof. The older terraces are higher above the present course of the river and are generally dry in their upper parts. Younger terraces can be saturated at their bases. The deposits comprise sequences of sands and gravels with sheet-like morphology, sub-horizontal upper surfaces, and thicknesses of up to a few metres. The younger deposits are more laterally continuous since they have been cut down less by subsequent river erosion.

River terrace deposits represent an important resource in the county since they are generally clay-poor. They are being worked extensively throughout the Thames Valley and its tributaries.

These deposits, particularly above Oxford, are largely derived from the Jurassic limestones of the Cotswolds.

2.2 GLACIOFLUVIAL DEPOSITS In Oxfordshire there are several areas where fast-moving, high-volume rivers derived from glacial meltwater laid down gravelly deposits in pre-Anglian to Anglian times. These earlier deposits are here named ‘glaciofluvial’ deposits, and are described below. Previously some of these deposits have been mapped as glacial deposits or head gravel.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

Similar works:

«1 ACADEMIC CATALOG 20152016 DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Contact: Professor O. Roger Anderson Email: tcmst@tc.columbia.edu Phone: (212) 6783405 Fax: (212) 6788129 Address: 321 Thompson Hall Box: 19 PROGRAMS COMMUNICATION, MEDIA AND LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES • DESIGN including: Communication o Computing in Education o Instructional Technology and Media o Media Technology Specialist o MATHEMATICS EDUCATION • SCIENCE EDUCATION • Teachers College, Columbia...»

«Polyaniline and its derivatives doped with Lewis acids synthesis and spectroscopic properites. Krzysztof Bienkowski To cite this version: Krzysztof Bienkowski. Polyaniline and its derivatives doped with Lewis acids synthesis and spectroscopic properites. Other. Universit´ Joseph-Fourier Grenoble I; Warsaw University e of Technology, 2006. English. tel-00084184 HAL Id: tel-00084184 https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00084184 Submitted on 5 Jul 2006 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access...»

«RECOMMENDED FOR FULL-TEXT PUBLICATION Pursuant to Sixth Circuit Rule 206 File Name: 09a0082p.06 UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT _ X SHERRY DELISLE, Plaintiff-Appellee, No. 08-1142 v., Defendant-Appellant. SUN LIFE ASSURANCE CO. OF CANADA, N Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan at Detroit. No. 06-11761—Lawrence P. Zatkoff, District Judge. Argued: October 31, 2008 Decided and Filed: March 4, 2009 Before: MARTIN, BATCHELDER, and...»

«1 © AWSNA WHSRP, 2003 WHSRP Planning Group: Andy Dill, Douglas Gerwin, David Mitchell, Leonore Russell, Betty Staley Research is valued and needed in Waldorf education. The Waldorf High School Research Project has provided financial support for twentyfive research projects over the past five years. We have receivedmany comments of gratitude from those who have become inspired by these projects. As we enter into a new phase of soliciting research we have put together this booklet as a guide for...»

«European Aviation Safety Agency Safety Analysis and Research Department Executive Directorate Annual Safety Recommendations review Executive DirectorateSafety Analysis and Research Page 1/48 © European Aviation Safety Agency, 2008. All rights reserved. Proprietary document. Printed copies are not controlled. Confirm revision status through the EASA-Internet/Intranet. European Aviation Safety Agency Annual Safety Recommendations review 2008 SAR-002-2009 Annual Safety Recommendations review...»

«[The Company of Wolves] One beast and only one howls in the woods by night. The wolf is carnivore incarnate and he's as cunning as he is ferocious; once he's had a taste of flesh then nothing else will do. At night, the eyes of wolves shine like candle flames, yellowish, reddish, but that is because the pupils of their eyes fatten on darkness and catch the light from your lantern to flash it back to youred for danger; if a wolf's eyes reflect only moonlight, then they gleam a cold and unnatural...»

«Notes on reproducible data analysis with R Gabriel Baud-Bovy April 2014 Contents 1 Introduction 3 Literate programming........................... 3 Typesetting systems and markup languages............... 4 Tex................................... 4 HTML and CSS........................... 4 Markdown............................... 5 Pandoc................»

«Serving God s People on the Summit since 1838! ~ ~ Consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Saint Aloysius Catholic Church A parish of the Diocese of AltoonaJohnstown Very Rev. Father John David Byrnes, JCL, JV Pastor 7911 Admiral Peary Highway, Cresson, PA 16630-1515 Rectory / Parish Office 8862235 Community Center 886-2388 Faith Education Center 886-2669 Parish e-mail stals16630@yahoo.com Parish Website www.saintaloysiuscresson.org Parish Secretary Mrs. Mary Ann Earnest Parish Office...»

«Elegance and Simplicity: Jane Austen and Wedgwood y yu :: LINDA SLOTHOUBER Linda Slothouber is a member of the Wedgwood Society of Washington, DC, and a collector of early ceramics. She is the co-coordinator of JASNA’s Washington, DC, Region. 2009    : the two-hundred-fiftieth year of operation for the company started by Josiah Wedgwood in 1759, and two hundred years from the date that Jane Austen...»

«NEWSLETTER 15 26 October 2012 Coming Events: Week 3 Mon 29 Oct Board of Trustees Meeting In-class priority time continues this week. Wed 31 Year 13 Music Performance Evening, 7pm in the Hall Thu 1 Nov Year 9 Assembly & Attitude Presentation Period 1 Pasifika Parents Evening, 6pm in the Staffroom Last day for Year 13 – Final Assembly, issue reports and Fri 2 exam entry slips, Year 13 then released Last day for Year 12 – Final Assembly, issue reports Week 4 Mon 5 and exam entry slips, Year 12...»

«The Light Crust Doughboys Are on the Air Celebrating Seventy Years of Texas Music by John Mark Dempsey Foreword by Art Greenhaw Number Two in the Evelyn Oppenheimer Series University of North Texas Press Denton, Texas ©2002 John Mark Dempsey Foreword © Art Greenhaw All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Permissions: University of North Texas Press P.O. Box 311336 Denton, TX 76203-1336 The paper used in this book meets the minimum requirements of the...»

«Archbishop Wood High School Parents’ Newsletter Volume XVI, Number 1 Summer 2015 From THE PRESIDENT, Mr. Gary V. Zimmaro: Dear Viking Parents and Guardians: I hope that everyone is having a relaxing and enjoyable summer. As we move through the summer, I look forward to the return of our students to begin the 2015/2016 school year. There are many changes taking place such as Smart Tuition, so please do not hesitate to call either Smart Tuition or school if you have any questions. We are here...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.