«Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 8 Special Senses Short Answer Figure 8.1 Using Figure 8.1, identify the following: 1) The ...»
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb)
Chapter 8 Special Senses
Using Figure 8.1, identify the following:
1) The auricle (pinna) is indicated by the letter __________.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
2) The tympanic membrane is indicated by letter __________.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
3) The semicircular canals are indicated by letter __________.
Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
4) The cochlea is indicated by letter __________.
Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
5) The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube is indicated by letter __________.
Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
6) The malleus (hammer) is indicated by letter __________.
Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
7) The stapes (stirrup) is indicated by letter __________.
Answer: H Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294-295
Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:
8) __________ glands are located on the lateral end of each eye.
Answer: Lacrimal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282
9) The six muscles attached to the outer surface of the eye that produce gross eye movements and make it possible for the eyes to follow objects are the __________.
Answer: extrinsic muscles Diff: 2 Page Ref: 282
10) The area of sharpest visual acuity that normally contains only cones is the __________.
Answer: fovea centralis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 286
11) Rods and cones are called __________ because they respond to light.
Answer: photoreceptors Diff: 2 Page Ref: 284
12) The lens divides the eye into two segments, the __________ and the __________ segments.
Answer: anterior (aqueous); posterior (vitreous) Diff: 2 Page Ref: 289
13) Aqueous humor is reabsorbed into venous blood at the sclera-cornea conjunction through the __________.
Answer: scleral venous sinus or canal of Schlemm Diff: 3 Page Ref: 289
14) The eye condition resulting from the inability of the aqueous humor to drain from the eye is called __________.
Answer: glaucoma Diff: 2 Page Ref: 289
15) The upside-down image formed on the retina as a result of the light-bending activity of the lens is the __________.
Answer: real image Diff: 3 Page Ref: 290
16) Fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side of the brain at the __________.
Answer: optic chiasma Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291
17) The overlapping of the two visual fields that provides for depth perception (3-D vision) results in __________.
Answer: binocular vision Diff: 3 Page Ref: 291
18) Loss of the same side of the visual field of both eyes from damage to the visual cortex on one side only is called __________.
Answer: hemianopia Diff: 3 Page Ref: 291
19) Earwax is produced by __________.
Answer: ceruminous glands Diff: 2 Page Ref: 294
20) The three subdivisions of the bony labyrinth of the internal ear are __________, __________, and __________.
Answer: cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals Diff: 3 Page Ref: 295
21) The stirrup bone of the internal ear is also known as __________.
Answer: stapes Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295
22) The cochlear nerve transmits impulses to the auditory cortex located in the __________.
Answer: temporal lobe Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
23) A division of the cranial nerve, the __________ transmits information to the cerebellum about equilibrium.
Answer: vestibular nerve Diff: 3 Page Ref: 297
24) Tiny stones made of calcium salts that roll in response to changes in gravitational pull are called __________.
Answer: otoliths Diff: 3 Page Ref: 297
25) The serious inner ear condition that causes nausea, vertigo, and progressive deafness is called __________.
Answer: Meniere's syndrome Diff: 3 Page Ref: 300
26) The receptors for taste and smell are classified as __________.
Answer: chemoreceptors Diff: 1 Page Ref: 301
27) The small, peglike projections of the tongue's surface are called __________.
Answer: papillae Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
29) After age 40 the lens of the eye becomes less elastic; this condition is called __________.
Answer: presbyopia Diff: 2 Page Ref: 304
5) Which cranial nerve is responsible for moving the eye laterally:
A) cranial nerve VI (abducens)
B) cranial nerve III (oculomotor)
C) cranial nerve II (optic)
D) cranial nerve IV (trochlear)
E) cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear) Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 284
6) Inflammation of the conjunctiva involves which of the following:
A) circular band surrounding the pupil
B) delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front of the eyeball
C) glands that produce tears
D) portion of the eye that contains the optic nerve
E) extrinsic eye muscles Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 282
9) The middle coat of the eyeball that contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in
the eyeball is the:
E) sclera Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 283
12) The three sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light
A) red, green, and yellow
B) red, blue, and yellow
C) green, yellow, and purple
D) orange, green, and purple
E) blue, green, and red Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 288
14) The aqueous humor of the eye is reabsorbed into venous blood through the:
A) inferior larimal canal
B) nasolacrimal duct
C) scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)
D) ciliary body
E) pupil Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 289
15) Which one of the following is NOT true of color blindness:
A) it is sex-linked, inherited homeostatic imbalance
B) it results from lack of cones
C) it occurs most often in women
D) it is caused by a defect in genes on the X (female) sex chromosome
E) lack of red or green receptors is the most common type Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 288
19) Eyes suddenly exposed to bright light experience:
B) accommodation pupillary reflex
C) photopupillary reflex
E) hemianopia Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 293
20) Which one of the following correctly lists the order of the parts through which light passes
as it enters the eye:
A) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
B) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor
C) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
D) cornea, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous humor
E) lens, aqueous humor, cornea, vitreous humor Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 288-289
21) Receptors stimulated by the physical forces that cause movement of fluid or vibration within
the body are:
E) gustatory receptors Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 294
24) The pathway of vibrations through the ossicles from the tympanic membrane, or eardrum,
to the oval window is:
A) malleus, incus, stapes
B) incus, malleus, stapes
C) stapes, incus, malleus
D) malleus, stapes, incus
E) stapes, malleus, incus Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 295
32) Sensorineural deafness occurs when there is damage or degeneration of receptor cells of the:
A) semicircular canals
B) spiral organ of Corti
D) spiral organ of Corti or cochlear nerve
E) round window Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 300
33) Gustatory hairs are to taste as olfactory hairs are to:
C) dynamic equilibrium
E) both hearing and dynamic equilibrium Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301-302
36) Which one of the following cranial nerves is NOT involved in either taste or smell:
A) facial nerve (VII)
B) vestibular (VIII)
C) glossopharyngeal (IX)
D) vagus (X)
E) olfactory nerve (I) Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 297
39) The decreased lens elasticity associated with aging that makes it difficult to focus on near
objects is known as:
E) hyperopia Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 304
10) The normal resting eye is generally "set" for distant vision.
Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 290
11) The pinna, also called the auricle, is what most people call the "ear."
Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294
12) The function of the auditory tube is to transmit sound vibrations.
Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 294
13) The "stirrup" is also referred to as the stapes.
Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295
14) The bony labyrinth of the internal ear consists of the cochlea, vestibule, and the semicircular canals.
Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 295
15) In order to hear sound, vibrations pass from the eardrum to the ossicles, and on to the oval window.
Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 298
16) Dynamic equilibrium receptors report the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity when the body is not moving.
Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296-297
17) Deafness is defined as hearing loss ranging from slight to total loss.
Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
18) Unlike the taste sensation, it is NOT necessary to have the chemicals associated with smells dissolved in body fluids.
Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 301-302
19) The olfactory receptors are responsible for the sense of taste.
Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 301-302
20) There are five basic taste sensations that correspond to one of the five major types of taste buds.
Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
5) Explain static and dynamic equilibrium and their interrelationships.
Answer: Static equilibrium is regulated by the maculae of the vestibule. The maculae report on the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity when the body is at rest.
Each macula is a patch of receptor cells embedded in the otolithic membrane. The otolithic membrane contains otoliths which roll in response to changes in the pull of gravity. This movement causes the hair cells of the membrane to bend, sending impulses along the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum, relating information regarding the position of the head in space. Dynamic equilibrium is regulated by the semicircular canals. The crista ampullaris of the membranous semicircular canal consists of a tuft of hair cells and their gelatinous cap called the cupula. Movement of the head causes the cupula to move in the opposite direction, stimulating the hair cells, which then transmit impulses up the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum. Static and dynamic equilibrium work together to provide information to the cerebellum to help control balance.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 296-298
6) Explain the meaning of an "odor snapshot" and its relevance to human beings.
Answer: Olfactory receptor cells transmit impulses to the olfactory cortex of the brain for interpretation. An "odor snapshot" is made, which then becomes part of our longterm memory. The olfactory pathways are closely tied to the limbic system, the emotional-visceral part of the brain. Odors elicit strong emotional responses, both positive and negative. The smell of freshly baked cookies, a certain perfume, or a dentist's office all engender their own unique response.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301-302
7) Discuss the age-related disorders presbyopia and presbycusis. Identify the structures each disorder affects.
Answer: 1. Presbyopia literally means "old vision" and occurs around age 40 and later. As we age, the lens of the eye becomes less elastic. As a result, we have a difficult time focusing on things close to us, such as reading a newspaper, and we essentially become farsighted.
2. Presbycusis is a type of sensorineural deafness that often occurs as we age into our sixties. The deterioration and atrophy of the organ of Corti lead to a loss in the ability to hear high tones and speech sounds. In some cases of presbycusis, the ossicles of the ear fuse leading to difficulty conducting sound in the inner ear.