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«finalreport Project code: W.LIV.0397 Prepared by: Paul Troja Felix Domus Pty Ltd Meateng Pty Ltd G & B Stainless Pty Ltd Date published: October 2013 ...»

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Project code: W.LIV.0397

Prepared by: Paul Troja

Felix Domus Pty Ltd

Meateng Pty Ltd

G & B Stainless Pty Ltd

Date published: October 2013

ISBN: 9781741919721


Meat & Livestock Australia Limited

Locked Bag 991


Improving Standing Stun

Restraint in Indonesia

ublished by

Meat & Livestock Australia acknowledges the matching funds provided by the Australian Government to support the research and development detailed in this publication.

This publication is published by Meat & Livestock Australia Limited ABN 39 081 678 364 (MLA). Care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication. However MLA cannot accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information or opinions contained in the publication. You should make your own enquiries before making decisions concerning your interests. Reproduction in whole or in part of this publication is prohibited without prior written consent of MLA.

Improving Standing Stun Restraint in Indonesia Abstract Meat and Livestock Australia (MLA) has over many years invested time and money to assist the Indonesian meat and livestock industry improves its handling and eventual processing of Australian cattle. Specifically MLA had developed and installed several different types of manually and later mechanically operated restraining boxes to assist the abattoir operator in humanely restraining the animal, thus allowing for the appropriate Halal ritual slaughter, which is an essential part of the Islamic religion. Whilst it has been recognised that the Mark 1 restraining box did improve the handling of livestock prior to slaughter compared to the traditional methods, it still had the potential if used incorrectly, to not comply with international animal welfare guidelines. To address this issue and to provide support to the Indonesian meat and livestock industry, a design upgrade or retrofit of the Mark 1 restraining box was undertaken so that the already installed Mark 1 boxes could be refitted to comply with the recently developed DAFF guidance on meeting OIE code animal welfare outcomes for the slaughter of cattle with stunning.

–  –  –

Executive Summary The task of retro fitting the Mark 1 restraining box came about as a result of real concerns expressed by the Australian cattle industry in relation to the supply chain issues and humane slaughter of Australian cattle in Indonesia. The specific issue of concern related to the improper use of the Mark 1 restraining box.

The original purpose of this project was to develop, install, and validate to OIE standards;

modifications to the existing Mark 1 restraining box to allow it to be used for either stun or stick of bovine animals in the upright position. This objective was modified after the project commenced so as to align with the Australian industries preferred option of stunning livestock prior to slaughter. Whilst slaughter without stunning is condoned in the OIE guidelines it is the view of the Australian industry that stunning prior to slaughter represents a more humane and more efficient method of slaughter.

The functionality issues of the restraining box design described in this report, and how they impacted on the operation and time constraints associated with slaughter, are issues that needed to be addressed in the design. There are six elements of functionality that are considered

essential to proper execution of the restraint and stunning box design and operation namely:

1. That the animal’s head be presented in a manner that allows the operator to accurately apply the stunning device and achieve a near perfect and effective stun every time.

2. That the process allows for the efficient removal of the unconscious animal from the restraining box apparatus.

3. That the animal be consistently presented for immediate slaughter.

4. That the restraining box be manually operated.

5. That the animal be slaughtered as quickly as possible and within the OIE guidelines.

6. Operator safety.

Prior to installation in an Indonesian abattoir, the restraining box prototype was trialled in Australia over an eight week period testing the various elements of the design to ensure that the strict criteria as per the OIE guidelines were met. It must be appreciated that the trials were conducted as a capture and release operation, as there was no opportunity to fully test the functionality in terms of a capture and stun.

Following testing, the installation of the restraining box at in Indonesia was successfully completed by the G&B team. There were no major issues experienced in the installation process which took two days to complete.

It was clear from the very outset that the restraining box application would meet the expectations of the user groups in Indonesia. More particularly the time lapse from head restraint, release, and stick was well within the OIE and AQIS guidelines. The animals release from the head bale and restraining box were, as predicted, with a half roll onto the dry landing platform 300 mm above the floor presenting the animal for the Halal slaughter technique.

The restraining box and associated supply chain have been independently audited and approved by AQIS. At the time of writing this report the design was undergoing further independent animal welfare assessment.

The application of this restraining box to the Indonesian domestic environment will encourage the use of stunning and more acceptable animal welfare practices which is the ultimate aim of the Australian meat and livestock industry. The process is better than most of the existing techniques of stunning and or slaughtering of animals and whilst it does not fulfil the non-stun

–  –  –

stick application, it certainly competes with the non-stun stick in terms of cost of operation and efficiency.

The head bale restraining box is a humane method of capturing and restraining an animal and is preferable to the non-stun stick application that persists in Indonesia and other countries of the world. The restraining box has multiple applications in all markets that buy Australian cattle given its manual operation and compliance with DAFF guidelines on meeting OIE outcomes for the slaughter of cattle.

–  –  –

1 Glossary of Terms

2 Background

3 Project Objectives

4 Results and Discussion

5 Conclusions

6 Success in Achieving Objectives

Impact on the meat and livestock industry – now and in 5 years’ time

8 Recommendations

9 Bibliography

10 Appendices

–  –  –

1 Glossary of Terms OIE Office Internationale des Epizooities, World Organisation for Animal Health.

AQIS Australian Quarantine Inspection Service.

MLA Meat and Livestock Australia.

–  –  –

2 Background The Australian meat and livestock industry has over many years developed and grown the live export trade based on a strong commercial business case that paid particular respect to the receiving countries cultural and religious beliefs as well as animal welfare practices as expressed in the international codes of practice articulated through the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) through appropriate live export licensing standards.

The Indonesian live export market has in a short period of time grown to be Australia’s largest market driven by a consumer preference for beef protein and a growing Indonesian economy with GDP stable at 6% plus per year. The demand for imported cattle is also supported by the Indonesian government’s desire to develop its own domestic agricultural capacity using imported cattle, cheap labour, and feedstuffs available within the country.

In June of 2011 the live cattle export trade from Australia to Indonesia was suspended by the Australian Government because of concerns over the standard of humane slaughter of Australian cattle in Indonesia.

The Australian government reopened the trade to Indonesia under what is now referred to as the Exporters Supply Chain Assurance System (ESCAS). This new regulatory framework requires the exporter to maintain responsibility of Australian cattle whilst in the Indonesian supply chain in accordance with OIE animal welfare guidelines.

Following closure of the Indonesian live export trade there was clearly a need to provide exporters with a safe, reliable and humane form of restraint which allowed for cattle to be stunned and slaughtered in accordance with the ESCAS and OIE guidelines.

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3 Project Objectives During the early stages of the project the objectives changed due to the Australian industries concern over the live stick application which allows the animal’s throat to be severed whilst the animal is fully conscious. Whilst this slaughter application of a live stick is condoned in the OIE guidelines it is the view of the Australian industry that this practice of killing a live animal in a conscious state not be perpetuated by this project.

To that end the project objectives became:

1. Design, build and test a retrofit to the existing Mark 1 cattle restraining box to allow it to be used for stunning of bovine animals in an upright position.

2. Reference to and compliance with OIE animal welfare guidelines as described in Chapter 7.5 of slaughter of animals,

3. Documentation, including design fabrication drawings to retrofit components to existing Mark 1 restraining boxes,

4. Use of a full range of stunning equipment including: pneumatic stunning equipment, and hand held non penetrating devices,

5. A manually operated head restraint to allow for a full range of animals and conditions.

The program of work was to include:

1. Reconfirm the principles of humane slaughter through past and existing designs,

2. Develop concept and detailed design drawings for the Mark 1 restraining box retrofit modifications and these be reviewed and approved by MLA and industry representatives from LiveCorp,

3. Fabrication drawings completed and a prototype manufactured in Australia displayed and tested,

4. Ship to Indonesia,

5. Install the retrofit Mark 1 restraining box in a location nominated by MLA,

6. Make modifications to the selected Mark 1 restraining box and raceway,

7. In collaboration with MLA staff conduct a stunning trial and make video and photographic records,

8. Make refinements and re-trial if necessary,

9. In a coordinated manner with MLA provide video footage for Temple Grandin’s review,

10. Update fabrication drawings to reflect the final working version,

11. Provide a final report written description of the operation, drawings and photographs.

Page 8 of 19 Improving Standing Stun Restraint in Indonesia 4 Results and Discussion The approach taken by the team was to firstly define the essential criteria under which the retro fitted Mark 1 restraining box would operate. The criteria definition and categories under which each element of the process was assessed is documented in full in Appendix 1 ‘Essential criteria for MLA Restraining Box ‘supplied to Indonesia and quite clearly separates design from operational and site specific issues.

Also as part of the review process the Meateng technical team reviewed the recent history of the Kosher and Halal ritual slaughter restraining boxes around the world to identify various elements of design that could be incorporated into this Indonesian retro fit of the Mark 1 restraining box.

The review document concludes that it would be very difficult to do anything with the Mark 1 application as it is basically a catching pen and does little to actually restrain the animal.

However the review does develop an alternative to the Mark 1 box which is depicted as an isometric drawing or sketch of a rotating box arrangement that would allow for a stun and or nonstun stick with the animal in the upright position (Figure 1 and 2). Please see Appendix 2 Development of Restraining Boxes and Halal Slaughter’.

The design of the Mark 1 restraining box was not conducive to easy modification; in fact the only elements of the structure that could be used in fulfilling the above mentioned functionality was the elevated concrete slab and the steel posts that held the back rails and gates in place. Based on these physical parameters a series of preliminary drawings were developed using a conventional head bale mechanism as the primary device to secure the head and animal within a conventional rectangular box arrangement.

To reduce the cost and to ensure minimal delays in installation it was decided to build a complete restraining box as a prototype (drop in concept) that could later be used to copy and or to modify an existing Mark 1 restraining box using local manufacturing services.

It is quite conceivable that individual operators may choose to use the existing structure of the Mark 1 restraining box and insert a similar head bale arrangement thus achieving the desired outcomes of an accurate and compliant stun. However, it should be noted that the Mark 1 restraining box is by design too wide and too long and will present some operational issues in securing the animal in a timely manner and with minimal stress. It is therefore recommended that whilst it may be cost effective to use the existing Mark 1 infrastructure, consideration should be given to reducing the overall size of the box.

The drawings provided in this report (Appendix 3) give the operator the option to completely retro fit the existing box structure or install a purpose built restraining box that can easily be fitted to the existing concrete slab, cattle raceway, and gate.

The other factor to consider is that there are many Mark 1 restraining boxes which are copy-cat versions. This means that the dimensions and materials used are variable as are the abattoir sites, therefore some flexibility would be required to retro fit each particular Mark 1 restraining box.

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