«BUSHY PARK MANAGEMENT PLAN The Royal Parks DRAFT 2014 - 2024 Bushy Park Management Plan DRAFT Prepared by The Royal Parks March 2014 Consultation ...»
The Royal Parks
2014 - 2024
by The Royal Parks
The Royal Parks
London W2 2UH
Tel: 020 7298 2000
Fax: 020 7402 3298
PART 1: CONTEXT AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Aims of the Bushy Park Management Plan
Structure of the Plan
Note on the Heritage Lottery Projects
The Management Plan
The Conservation Statement
2.0 General and Management Context
Existing TRP Management Framework
Management Structure of Bushy Park
Database and Archive
Management Issues: Public Access
Main Leases, Licenses and Warrants
Management Issues: Leases, Licences, Warrants and Neighbours
Other Background Information
3.0 Strategic Framework
Management Issue: Local Planning Policy and Designations
4.0 Historical Context
Significance of Historic Context
5.0 Physical Description
Geology, Topography and Soils
Views and Vistas
Hydrology and drainage
PART 2: DESCRIPTION, USE AND CHARACTER
6.0 Natural Fabric
Ecology and Wildlife
i Trees and Woodland
Unimproved acid grasslands
Wetlands and Aquatic Habitats
7.0 Buildings and Hard Landscape Fabric
Buildings and Main Structures
Buildings within the historic extent of the Park and which are not Managed by TRP........... 114 Monuments and Main Artefacts
Boundary Wall, Fencing, Gates and Entrances
Park Furniture and Signage
8.0 Public Use
Management Issues: Events
Organised Sports and Facilities
Management Issues: Organised Sport and Facilities
Formal and Informal Activities
Educational and Community Activities
Management Issues: Educational Activities
Management Issues: Community Activities
9.0 Landscape Character
Management Issues: Views
Area 1: Chestnut Avenue
Area 2. Hare Warren
Area 3: Middle Park South
Area 4: Middle Park North
Area 5: Old Park
ii Area 6: Brewhouse Meadows and Stockyard Fields
Area 7: The Woodland Gardens
Area A: Bushy House
Area B: The Royal Paddocks
Area C: King’s Field
PART 3: LANDSCAPE STRATEGY
The Statement of Significance
Summary of Key Significance
History and Culture
11.0 Key Management Issues
Buildings and hard landscape fabric
PART 4: MANAGEMENT POLICIES
12.0 Guiding Policies for Management
Park Management Policy PM1
Physical Context Policy PHY1-2
Management Guidelines: Water PHY2
Natural Fabric Policy N1-10
Buildings And Hard Landscape Fabric Policy BUILD1-9
Archaeology and Cultural Landscape Policies BUILD6-8
Public Use Policy PUB1-7
Landscape Character Policy CHA1
Specific Character Areas CHA 2-9
PART 5: IMPLEMENTATION
13.0 Monitoring and Review
The Operations Plan
Consultation and Adoption of the Plan
14.0 Next Steps – the Project Register
The Education Facilities
FIGURES Figure 1.1 Structure of the Management Plan
Figure 2.1 Management Responsibilities Plan
Figure 2.2 Location of Bushy Park
Figure 2.3 Photo Sheet
Figure 3.1 Richmond Borough Conservation Areas
Figure 3.2 Photo Sheet
Figure 4.1 Historic Context – Archaeology (Based on Tom Greaves Survey).
........... 46 Figure 4.2 Historic Context – Archaeology (Mediaeval Open Field)
Figure 4.3 Historic Context – Survey Plan of c.
1709 showing Avenues (Gough)....... 49 Figure 4.4 Historic Context – Plan c.1714 showing Water Gardens 50 Figure 4.5 Historic Context – Plan of Bushy Park Estate, Warren 1823
Figure 4.6 Historic Context – Tree Cover Origins
Figure 6.1 Veteran Tree Locations 77 Figure 6.
2: U4b variants and their relationship to other NVC communities............... 86 Figure 6.3 Map of Main Grassland Communities
Figure 7.1 Road and Path Network
Figure 8.1 Photo Sheet
Figure 9.1 Views
Figure 9.2 Bushy Park Character Areas Plan
Figure 9.3 Boundary screening, plantings (2014) and remaining target areas.
Appendix 2: Extract from The National Heritage List for England Appendix 3: Bibliography Appendix 4: Consultee List Appendix 5: List of Relevant Royal Parks Documents Appendix 6: Table of Ecological Data Sources for Bushy Park (1992 to 2012) GLOSSARY BAP – Biodiversity Action Plan BARS- Biodiversity Action Reporting System BSI - British Standards Institute DCMS -Department of Culture Media and Sport DEFRA – Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs DPD – Development Plan Document FBHP – Friends of Bushy & Home Parks FSC – Field Studies Council GiGL - Greenspace Information for Greater London GIS – Geographical Information Systems HAP – Habitat Action Plan HLF – Heritage Lottery Fund KPI - Key Performance Indicators LBAP – Local Biodiversity Action Plan LBRuT – London Borough of Richmond-upon-Thames LDF – Local Development Framework LM – Landscape Maintenance MPS – Metropolitan Police Service NERC- National Environments and Rural Communities NNR – National Nature Reserve NPL – National Physical Laboratory NPPF – National Planning Policy Framework NVC – National Vegetation Classification OPAL - Open Air Laboratories Project PPG - Planning Policy Guidance Notes PPS - Planning Policy Statements PSA – Public Service Agreement RCHME - Royal Commission on Historic Monuments in England RSPB – Royal Society for the Protection of Birds RO OCU – The Royal Parks Operational Command Unit (Metropolitan Police) SAC – Special Area for Conservation SAM – Scheduled Ancient Monument SHAEF – Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force SMI – Site of Metropolitan Importance
1.1 Bushy Park covers some 450 ha and is the second largest Royal Park in London. Lying within a loop of the River Thames, directly to the north of Hampton Court Palace, the history of the Park is inextricably linked to the Palace. The Park was originally enclosed during the ﬁfteenth and sixteenth centuries as part of a large medieval deer park which, with Home Park, surrounded the Palace, and its landscape reveals the inﬂuence of successive monarchs who resided at the Palace. Up until 1989 Bushy Park was managed with Hampton Court when the management responsibility was split to the Royal Parks Agency (Bushy Park) and the Royal Palaces Agency (Hampton Court).
1.2 The landscape of Bushy Park is a unique historical resource. Its emparkment preserved the underlying medieval landscape of common arable farmland and today the large baulks and ridge and furrow can still be identiﬁed within the parkland. They are considered to represent a ‘classic’ medieval open ﬁeld system which provide a very important archaeological resource in Greater London. Overlying the medieval farmland and parkland landscapes are the formal avenues and watercourses of the seventeenth and eighteenth century designed landscape, with the centrepiece being the Diana Fountain and the magniﬁcent Chestnut Avenue. These elements make Bushy Park a nationally signiﬁcant historic landscape, which is reﬂected in its listing at Grade 1 on English Heritage’s Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest.
1.3 Bushy is also important within the context of London for its nature conservation interest, with its long established acid grassland, parkland trees, woodland and waterways. It is a Greater London Authority designated Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation (M084). SMIs are of the highest priority for protection, and contain the best examples of London’s habitats, sites with particularly rare species, rare assemblages of species or important populations of species, or sites of particular significance within otherwise heavily built-up areas of London. The identification and protection of Metropolitan Sites is necessary, not only to support a significant proportion of London’s wildlife, but also to provide opportunities for people to have contact with the natural environment 1. Bushy Park is also a proposed Site of Special Scientific Interest and notification by Natural England is pending.
1.4 The park is a particularly valued resource for local people, for the wide open spaces of the deer park and the attractions of the Woodland Gardens and ponds circuit, while the Stockyard is host to a range of education and community uses.
1.5 The essential character of Bushy Park remains as a deer park, of extensive scale and high quality, enriched by the formal avenues but still fundamentally a landscape that feels rural and apart from its modern surroundings.
Valuing Greenness: Green spaces, house prices and Londoners’ priorities, Greater London Authority, June 2003 ISBN 1 85261 494 3
Aims of the Bushy Park Management Plan
1.7 The Management Plan provides the mechanism to conserve and enhance the essential and varied character of Bushy Park. It provides the long term framework and context for its future management to take the park forward for the next 100 years. It develops a more detailed short term plan of priorities and actions to be implemented over the next ten years; and it uses the subdivision of character areas as a management tool in recognising the relative complexities of historical layering and locally distinctive character of different areas within the Park.
1.8 It is prepared within the framework of the Bushy Park Strategic Management Plan (LUC,1999) and the Historic Survey and Landscape Management Plan (LUC, 2001) and has been informed by the Royal Parks Review Group (1996), and by Stakeholder Workshops held in November 1999 and July 2002 as well as a continuing programme of ecological surveys.
Bushy Park Management Plan 2
1.9 The plan also acknowledges the ‘Biodiversity Duty’ defined in Section 40 of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act (2006). “Every public authority must, in exercising its functions, have regard, so far as is consistent with the proper exercise of those functions, to the purpose of conserving biodiversity” This replaced and extended S74 of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (which put a duty on government only).
1.10 The Management Plan describes and evaluates the resource, defines management aims and objectives and develops a suite of policies to guide long-term management. It is primarily intended as a tool to be used by the park management team, but will also serve other functions, such as informing the public and raising awareness.
1.11 It is intended that the plan is strategic in nature, setting out the vision for the Park and broad objectives to guide management. This can then be used to prepare detailed specifications for management, and allow budget preparation, allocation and work programming as outlined in the operational plan.
1.12 The special historical, architectural, natural or ecological interest of the landscapes, buildings, structures and archaeology has been based on detailed analysis of the Park
- the origins and development of the topographic framework;
- the character and hierarchy of places and landscape quality;
- the contribution made by trees, planting and other natural or cultivated elements to the character and ecology of the area;
- the prevailing (or former) uses within the area and their historic patronage;
- the importance and sensitivity of known archaeology and wildlife in the area and the potential for discovery of other significant concealed features;
- climate change and its impact on the built and natural environment.
1.13 The Royal Parks has an obligation to conserve biodiversity under the Natural Environment & Rural Communities Act 2006 and constantly aims for the highest standards of conservation. The Royal Parks will ensure that all contributing to the
Note on the Heritage Lottery Projects
1.15 In 2005, The Royal Parks secured £7.1m of funding and support through HLF for detailed design and procurement of some 67 projects and associated educational, volunteer and outreach activities. The majority of these projects were completed at the end of 2009. A summary of the changes arising from this and other developments is given in Appendix 6.
The Management Plan
1.16 The emphasis of this current Management Plan has accordingly shifted significantly when compared with the previous (2003) edition and as a result of these changes and investments through the HLF project. Whereas the 2003 Plan identified a Park which was suffering from a lack of investment, the current plan is in the context of having caught up much (but not all) of this backlog and delivering new facilities, some robustness and other enhancements. The plan accordingly now shifts to one of sustaining and locally enhancing from this positive base.