«Study of love in Masnavi of Jamal and Jalal Nourmohammadi, R Doctorate student of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Southern ...»
International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences
© 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com
ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 5 (1): 29-43
Science Explorer Publications
Study of love in Masnavi of Jamal and Jalal
Doctorate student of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Southern Tehran Branch,
Tehran, Iran, Member of Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj Branch, Yasouj, Iran
Corresponding author: Nourmohammadi, R
ABSTRACT: One of the Persian love versified stories, is has been left unconsidered by many scholars, is Masnavi of Jamal and Jalal, written by Mohammad Nazlabadi (ninth century AH). This versified story is unique in terms of having several motifs, especially its love story, among its likes.
This study can contribute to the course of love affair, and its stories in Persian literature in ninth century (AH). In this paper, we first tried to properly introduce the poet and his work, and then, we address the relation between the lover, and the beloved in very compact way, and by maintaining the general structure of the work. The story has five main parts, birth of Jalal in the beginning of love (Jalal falling in love with Jamal), arriving in the territory of the beloved, meeting the beloved, and the end.
Keywords: Jamal and Jalal, Mohammad Nazlabadi, love, Beloved, lover and beloved relationship Introduction If we are to tell the history of love, we should say that from the eternity to date, love is formed between
two parties because of beauty of something. As Hafez said:
Her ray of goodness in the eternity Love emerged and set fire on the entire world (Hafez, 1996).
Concept of love as in Quran Love is not used even for one time in Quran, the heavenly book of Muslims. However, such terms as like, friendship, joy, etc. are frequently used in Quran.
Concept of Love in Psychology In psychology, love is considered as a human mental status, and characterizes a degree of control of individual emotions and feelings. In psychology, the term love is defined as: apart from its sexual aspects, love is dependence on somebody or something, such as love of a mother for her child, love of a believer for god, who martyrs for him (Rene, 1997).
Psychologists deem the love as the cause of formation of human personality. In their belief, the lover finds his image in existence of the beloved, and in fact, he so discovers his personality. “Love is projection of the personality which looks for his ray in the mirror of existence of the other; sensual, mental or spiritual ray; if human could not see his image on the surface of water, or the surface of metal sheet, and if he would not project his psych on the other, he would not feel it” (Palmer, 2004).
Types of human love In earthly loves, the relation between the lover and the beloved takes four forms: 1- love of a man for another man, 2- love of a woman for another woman, 3- lover of a woman for a man, and 4- love of a man for a woman.
Love of a man for another man:
For love of a man for another man, one can refer to relationship between Sultan Mahmoud Qaznavi and one of his slaves named Ayaz, which is mentioned in Sa’di’s Boustan.
One criticized the king of Qaznein That Ayaz has no good point, it is so strange That someone is loved by the nightingale, who Has neither good shape nor good scent When Mahmoud was told this story by someone He could not help thinking over it again and again That the love of someone like me is for his temper Rather than his lovely shape Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 5 (1), 29-43, 2013 (Saadi, 2005)
The love of a woman for another woman:
We all know that woman is a fine, beautiful, and lovely creature, however, there is no example for love of a woman for another woman in religious and literary culture of Muslims. But, we can find examples in western culture, for example, in a book of love experiences, the feminist existentialist, Simone de Beauvoir speaks of her love for a woman named Zaza (Soroush, 1999).
The love of a woman for a man Among examples of the love of a woman for man in Quran is suraYusof, which is called as the best of stories.
Love of a man for a woman The most common and natural type of love is the love relationship between a woman and a man, because woman is the embodiment of beauty. The story of Vis and Ramin, Vameq and Azra, Khosro and Shirin, Leyli and Majnun, Salaman and Absal, and Jalal and Jamal.
Introduction of Poet Editor of the book has said that this Masnavi is written by an infamous poet named Mohammad Nazlabadi (ninth century AH), and has not given any further information about him. However, the poet
introduced himself at the end of the story as follows:
Hereinafter I mention my name So that masters of this field know it I am an AsefSokhandan (eloquent describer) From Beihaq, Khorasan Although I am from a noble family My name is Asef, and I am an honest man My ancestors all were emirs All were kings, emirs, and viziers I am from Beihaq, Sabzevar, Dinabad My motherland is the pure land of Nazlabad My nickname is certainly Mohammad This is a very good name I am a follower of the tradition of Prophet Mohammad My heart is aware of the secret of knowledge (Soroush, 1999).
From the nom de plume of the poet, which is Amini, as mentioned in Masnavi, one can find out the full identity of the poet. The poet is Amir Al-Din Nazlabad, and as evidenced by the dated contained at the end of Manavi, he was a Timurid period poet, whose biography is contained in Tazkarah Al-Shuara (biography of poets) by Dowlatshah Samarqandi.
“Various virtues and nobilities were annexed with his being Sayyid (the descendant of Prophet Mohammad), Nazlabadi was from Beihaq, and Amir Amin Al-Din was an elegant and good-natured man. As a poet, he debated with Molana Katebi, and Khajeh Ali Shahab. It is said that as number of poets and scholars were praising Molana Katebi’s elegy titled “Camel of Chamber”, Amir Amin Al-Din improvised the following
If a writer occasionally slips in writing He will not be blamed by anybody But if “camel of chamber” is a good work of his He has many bad works as well And Amir Amin Al-Din was very talented in writing Masnavi, and wrote several Masnavi books, such as “candle and butterfly”, which he titled “the light of hearts”, and “story of reason and love”, which he titled “Salwah Al-Talibin (conform of students)” (Samarkandi, 2003).
Dowlatshah, as seen, failed to mention two Masnavi of the poet, which are “Jamal and Jalal”, and “Bahram Goladma”, where the poet used nom de plume of Amin, as he wrote at the end of Masnavi:
Amin, go beyond the void of yourself Beware! How longer are you to work hard? (Khazanehdar, 1996).
By knowing the identity of the poet, we can know the object of his praise, that is, Amir Fakh Al-Din. He, whom is mentioned by Dowlatshah prior to Amin Al-Din Nazlabadi, is Khajeh Fakhr Al-Din Owhad Mostowfi, who is described as follows: “he was a virtuous wise Hakim, who mastered techniques and sciences, especially in astronomy, and Ahkam, in the latter of which Amir Al-Din not only addressed philosophical and Gnostic theories, but also addressed scientific philosophy, that is, ethics, and presented verses maxims in the course of
events of his stories. Some examples of such verses are as follows:
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 5 (1), 29-43, 2013
This is a good piece of words by the wise man Listen to them and keep them in your mind as you keep ear rings on your ears “Everybody who plant the seed of badness” “He will harvest the product of the seed of badness” “Do not make trouble, or you will be put in trouble” “Do not do evil, or you will be subject of evil deeds (Zolfaghari, 2005).
Introduction of the versified story Masnavi of Jamal and Jalal of Mohammad Nazlabadi, is the story of Prince Jalal for fairy Jamal, which falls in the category of the love a man for a woman. It is an allegoric love story, with mystic theme. This versified story was published under by Qobadi S., in Tehran, in 2003 (Iran University Press). Apparently, only one copy of this work is available in Uppsala University, Sweden, and the present text is also edited and published from the same copy. According to one of the verses of Masnavi, this copy was completed in 808 AH (1405 AD), by
It was the 808 years Since Rasul left Mecca That this book was completed And I found this complicated words as satisfactory (Zolfaghari, 2005).
And the poet speaks of a thief who has stolen the meanings of the book:
The poet who steals this fine book And plagiarizes its meaning in a wise manner May god make such deviated thief unfortunate in both worlds Because this exclusive work is mine It is the jewel produced by my infinite magic art The versified story starts with verses describing the object of praise (Asef) Masnavi, and lacks usual introductions of Masnavi writers, including: monotheism, epithet and acknowledgement, praise, cause of authorization, etc. however, and is composed of the same themes, etc. The versified story has other omissions to make it incomplete. Also, as all literary men know, various plagiarisms were common in ninth century AH, as described in history of Iranian literature.
The summary of the story A king named Lohras rules a city as beautiful as Garden of Eram. However, as he has no child, he lives
a sad life:
He had no child So that the king could have successors He spent day and night in sorrow His back were bent under the burden of these sorrows This condition continues until Hakims inform him through astrolabe that his wife, Mehrafrouz will give birth to his child. On night, Lohras dreamt that he was holding bud in his hand; he woke up, and shared his dream with his five viziers named Dindar, Mehrarai, Jahangostar, Modabber, and Monhei. They unanimously believed that king would have a child. Their prediction came true, and the child is born, who is named Jalal.
Jalal masters all sciences and techniques. Then, Lohras orders a skilled architect to build a palace named Jahannama for Jalal.
It ceiling was sliver-made, and its carpet golden Its jewels kept shining It was very high rise It was as plain, clear, and pure as a mirror Now, let’s describe the beauty of the fairy queen, named Mehrarai, who lived in Qaf Summit. It seems that it was common practice in fairy city to choose the most beautiful fairy as the king of fairies. Jamal is the king of island, and his father is his servant. Having heard the attributes of daughter of fairy queen, falls in love with her. He tells his father about his love, and his father first opposes him, but later agrees with his departure for city of fairies. One day when Jalal was chasing a fawn, following the fawn, he goes away from the troops and reaches a garden, where he notices a parrot, with parrot and fawn both being “Jamal”. However, she suddenly disappears, and then, Jalal returns to the camp. Midway, he arrives at Qazang Zangi Castle, which is the only way to pass Qaf, and Qazang doesn’t give her right of way. Jalal finds the way into the castle with the help of a wakeful imposter, called Philosopher, and battles Zangi people. However, the main difficulty faced by conquest of the castle is the flamingo. One night, Jamal flies to meet Jalal, and finds him tired, and worried, talking with his vizier about the flamingo. Jamal destroys the flamingo using a huge stone, and finally, the castle is conquered. Following, Jalal passes the desert, and a white city with green gardens and well-developed houses appears in a distant. A beautiful woman gives him a diamond-like sky, where there are colorful slates. It
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is written on one of these slates that there is there is a Jamal, upon union with whom, you will reach perfection,
and the way to join her is for you to get out of the body:
There is a Jamal beyond the Qaf of heart Union with whom leads to perfection If you get rid of your body You will unite with an inherently beautiful Jamal And it is written on another slate that Jalal, Ekhtiar, and Philosopher will be captured by demons, and are imprisoned in a well, which writing realizes. This condition continues until Jamal foreknows this, and writes a prayer on a silk fabric, and asks Jalal to read it in the well. Suddenly, a dragon appears, bearing flaming jewelbox in its mouth. Three lights are up in that jewel-box without oil and wick. He turns off the three of them, and, the spells of demons is counteracted. Then, Jalal finds himself in a way where there are no white city, and demons. He notices a green and vivid meadow, where there are many beautiful girls. One of them, who is fosterer of Jamal, and is the lady of the city, introduce herself as “Sahighad”, and tells Jalal that Jamal is aware of his secret and is waiting for him. Jalal stays six days with Sahighad, and asks her where the way to Qaf is, and Sahighad tells him about the two-year lasting problems of that day. Jalal departs on day seven. Midway, Jamal appears to him in form of one of such birds as parrot, dove, peacock, osprey, etc. at a time, and debates with him. Then, he reaches a castle, wherein the magician Yamaneh lives. As Jalal finds that he is unable to kill her, he, upon advice of Ekhtiar, makes friend with him, to tame her, so that he could ask for her help when necessary. As Jamal sees Jalal making love with Yamaneh, she places a letter in hands of Jalal by some spells. The letter gives the instructions on how to take Yamaneh to sleep, and how to cut the head of the magic, and drink her blood, so to become enchanted like her. Jalal asks philosopher to do this to become enchanted like him. Then, he frees four demons named Mashhahshang, Shamkhas, Tamouj, and Mashanid, who are imprisoned by the magician woman, and makes them his subordinates. After one month, he reaches a garden, where the philosopher, who is enchanted, disguises himself to a bird, and sits on a tree. He sees a pretty girl who says to a pretty fairy, “Jamal is going to ask for union with Jamal, and I am to shed his blood”. Philosopher promptly informs Jalal of the matter. Jalal goes to the garden, where, upon seeing Jamal, fairy falls in love with