FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 |

«Compiled by: Dick Bronson RR-CirKits, Inc. Installing a signaling system on your layout. Types of ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

RailroadModelingUniversity 2015

Signaling Your Layout

Compiled by: Dick Bronson

RR-CirKits, Inc.

Installing a signaling system on your layout.

www.rr-cirkits.com/clinics/RMU-Signals .pdf

Types of Prototype Systems

Train order signals

Interlocking signals

ABS (Automatic Block System)

APB (Absolute Permissive Block)

CTC – TCS (Centralized Traffic Control – Traffic Control System)

Route indications

Speed indications

 Signal Types Type Variations Unique Roads Prototype Mfgs HO Model Manufacturers Ball Signals Semaphore Upper, lower US&S, GRS Tomar, N J International, (Oregon Rail Quadrant Supply #152 #155 ??) Search light Standard in the US&S, GRS Sunrise Enterprises ??, BLMA, ISS, West Tomar, Oregon Rail Supply Color light Stacked, V (Cat Standard for US&S, GRS, BLMA, ISS, Tomar, Oregon Rail face) modern signals Safetran Supply Position Light Route and Speed Pennsy, N&W US&S, GRS, Tomar, ISS, NJI, Oregon Rail Supply Safetran Color Position B&O Speed B&O, N&W US&S, GRS Tomar, ISS, NJ International, Oregon Light only with 6 post 1959 with Rail Supply optional marker Route lights Dwarf N&W unique US&S, GRS Tomar, Oregon Rail Supply fan shaped CPL Signal Bridges Overland, BLMA, Oregon Rail Supply and Cantilevers Train Order US&S, GRS Tomar Boards Ball Signals Whitefield Junction marks the crossing of the Maine Central Railroad and the Boston and Maine Railroad in Whitefield, NH. According to a plaque that stands near by this is/was the last remaining ball signal still in use in the United States.

Semaphore Signals Upper Quadrant Lower Quadrant SP Extra 6516 West splits the semaphore signals at Winchester, TX Searchlight Signals Prototype Model Color Light Signals Position Light Signal Mapleton, PA is the next set of signals west of Mt Union, about two miles away.

Position light signals were used by the Pennsylvania RR as

–  –  –

Block is the section of track being protected by a signal. It  does not necessarily correspond to the electrical blocks used for power distribution, but it is helpful if it does.

Home Signal indicates the state of the block immediately  ahead of the signal Distant Signal is a second signal (lower on the mast)  showing the aspect of the next signal ahead. This should not be confused with the dual heads of a CTC system where the second head is used to indicate other conditions such as take the siding or a reduced speed. As signals became more complex a third 'approach' aspect was added to give this same information.

Aspect The speed or route indication given by one or more  signal heads or arms.

Indication is what the aspect means. These differ by  railroad and era (hence are very useful for setting your railroad in a time and place). They can convey either route (common in the West) or speed (common in the East) information. Signaled railroads provide an aspect chart in their ETT or rulebook.

Signal Arm or Signal Head indicates each individual  signal unit.

Light The individual lamp in a signal. A light may indicate  multiple aspects if it changes color like in a searchlight signal, or it may take multiple lights to indicate a single aspect, for example in position light signals.

Marker is a signal head or arm that does not change color or  position.

Mast is the assembly that carries one or more signal heads. The  engineer needs to consider that all signal heads on a single mast give a single indication or aspect. E.g. If its not all red, then its not red at all.

Rule refers to the numbered entry in the prototype's publication  governing the operating department. For example: from the 1937 NYCS rule book.

Rule 281: Clear Indication: Proceed

–  –  –

basic ABS or APB signal system called 'vital logic'. The vital  logic resides track side and responds immediately to local  conditions.

The CTC system overlays the vital logic with information from   the dispatchers machine. This information was in the form of  command codes and indication codes.  The dispatcher could only command a direction of traffic and   turnout positions. The local control point (vital logic) was in  charge of actually changing the signals and reported back to  the CTC operator when it had done so.

CTC machine Active Union Switch and Signal CTC machine at Amtrak's  THORN Tower.

Interlocking Plants Interlocking Plants are used to protect crossings or junctions. Prior to the introduction of Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) in the 1920s, interlockings almost always had a manned tower with a towerman who controlled the switches and the signals protecting them with a system of levers and rods. These signals granted authority to enter the interlocking plant and were arranged so they could not display favorable aspects unless all switches were thrown properly, and any routes not selected were blocked. These were called Armstrong systems for a reason. Color coded levers indicated, signals (Red), spare (White), locks (Blue), and points (black). There are two positions, Normal (back), and Reverse (pulled forward), with latches at both ends. Thus ”Signals Normal” means ”Stop”. The horizontal bars behind the levers slide back and forth to block all movement to any disallowed combinations of positions.

Typical CTC siding West Main OS Section Main OS Section East Main

–  –  –

Note the different gaps and detection sections required for these two  signal options. Many mainline CTC sidings are also occupancy  detected.

Model Signals Much of the following information was taken from the   ”Planning for Signals” discussion held by the LDSIG at  the 2009­11 NMRA national conventions. I had the  priviledge of sitting on these panels.

Signals can be an exciting addition to a model railroad, adding color, realism, operating interest and functionality to your modeled scenes.

Early on in your consideration of adding signaling to your  plan or existing layout, you'll need to choose, as you did in planning your layout, whether to model a prototypical scheme, a freelanced but prototype-based scheme, or freelanced signal elements that add some visual and operating interest but don't follow typical prototype engineering.

Real-life railroad signaling is highly road, subdivision, and  era specific. For maximum realism, you should obtain a copy of the rule book and special instructions and track charts, if available, for your division in the era you plan to model, or if freelancing based on a prototype, use the documents for one of the prototype roads you had in mind when you imagineered your railroad.

If you think of planning a layout as telling a story, hardly  anything you can do on your railroad will set it in a particular location and era like the correct signals, so spend some time finding photos and understanding the signaling system.

It's certainly possible to include some more generic  elements in a freelanced scheme, but be warned that you may not find these as rewarding as a more realistic prototype-based system. Read on for more information to help you decide!

Signals also help with operations: they convey authority to  occupy track in interlocking plants, inform crews of train orders and may provide authority to occupy the main. If you are planning an operating layout you should consider how signals will help you with these requirements.

Railroads use signals for four general purposes, although  more than one may be used in any area (interlockings, train order signals, safety overlay (ABS/APB), and traffic control (CTC/TCS). As modelers following a real or imagined prototype, we can use signals for the same purposes.

Functional signals perform more or less as the prototype  signals do, subject to selective compression, whereas cosmetic signals are just there to set the scene and perhaps do some very limited function such as turnout position indication.

In the cosmetic case you might use operating or dummy  signals and light them permanently or under control of a timer, but be sure to put them in right places. While these signals won’t be used operationally, they will make your photo contest entries look great!

Model Interlocking Plants often indicate positions of  turnouts so that operators don’t run them. These can easily be wired to act as simple indicators if you don’t want to provide all of the prototype functions Train Order Signals – The earliest TO signals were ball  signals but typically they were semaphores until well into the early 20th century. Some search lights and other indicators were used later. These signals were always located at a train order office where an operator could transcribe orders from the Dispatcher and physically hand, or hoop them up, to train crews. Check prototype photos as train order signals were iconic and defined the look and era of a station.

Some layouts only use signals cosmetically because the  prototype had them. In this case you just need non functioning models in the right places Cosmetic Signals can be further divided into nonfunctional and semi-functional approaches.

Non-functional are dummy signals properly located at  sidings, etc. (not used as DC block boundaries, for example) Semi-functional are lighted (or movable in the case of  Semaphores), but may not be tied to detailed signaling logic. They may indicate turnout positions, whether adjacent DC blocks are assigned to the same or different cabs, reverse loop polarity, etc.

Semi-functional signals may also provide a basic 

–  –  –

stuff under the hood to make them work. There are several approaches to this ranging from, standardized logic modules, to dedicated controllers, to software systems hosted on a computer. (E.g. JMRI, RR&Co.) In most cases the most difficult part is deciding what you  want the signals to do. The difficulty of implementation depends on how closely you want to replicate the prototypical signal indications. Hardwiring signal logic increases the difficulty of implementation versus a software based system which can be edited or edited and compiled into a module. Many straightforward tools exist to help you implement the signal logic once you have determined what it should be. This is why we stress study of the prototype; your prototype will tell you what to do!

Other Considerations Signals should be aimed so the operators can see them (may not  be at the train) OR have repeaters (which may also help the color-weak operators). While cosmetic signals need only match the photo of the location you are modeling, operational signals must be able to tell your operators what to do, so they have to be able see the aspects displayed! In many cases the prototypical orientation of signals will not permit viewing by the operator at a convenient point. Check each signal location and ensure that the signal will be visible. If it won’t be, you can either modify the orientation so it is aimed at the operator (rather than at the 1/87th engineer) or provide repeaters on the fascia or valence. While repeating, if you are using search light signals on the layout, consider using color-lights on the repeaters as about 15% of males are color blind to some degree.

Electrical infrastructure – Signaling systems depend on knowing  where the trains are. Generally this done with block occupancy detection using current detection – somewhat like prototype track circuits – but optical detectors are sometimes used, especially for point solutions like grade crossing signals. You should map out where your signals are going to be located and what the detected blocks should be before you start power wiring. Track will need to be gapped accordingly.

Be sure to check out our website at http://www.rr-cirkits.com for  detection hardware and signal drivers.

Check clearances (your widest locomotive and longest rolling  stock may overhang more than the NMRA standards gauge which represents Plate C; your modern equipment may be plate F!). Make sure your dwarves, pot signals and signal bases will clear. Western modelers: borrow an SP GS4 and be sure that huge pilot will clear!

If you have equipment that exceeds the NMRA clearance  gauge, check with that: a long wheelbase steam engine and full length passenger cars are a good torture test! Note the inside clearances on long cars with overhang, too. You may need to adjust your track to track spacing by an additional 0.5 inches or more. Signals are often located on curves which may exacerbate the overhang.

Relay sheds, boxes – the signal is just a series of lights with  some kind of support. The track side “vital logic” had to be housed in some kind of enclosure: either the base under the signal or a shanty nearby. These take up space on your right of way and need to clear your equipment. Be sure to include these little details along your right of way. They are an integral part of the signaling scene, and can make or break the impression of realism that we are trying to create. Even those folks that know nothing about signaling systems still have a sense of what looks right or wrong about a scene.

Pole Lines – The signals need power and in the case of CTC, control.

 This was typically provided by the pole line which often carried telegraph or telephone as well. If you choose to model the pole line, it must go along the right of way and out of the way of your trains. Poles lines typically had at least one cross arm and often many more. Check prototype photos! Interestingly CTC systems did not necessarily have more cross arms as a single pair of “code wires” could control up to 80 miles of railroad. In more modern times, the pole lines have been superseded by radio or fiber and the pole lines are abandoned – a seldom modeled feature.

Dispatcher and Operator positions 

–  –  –

routes or eliminating some of the tricky cases.

What % of the total cost of your Railroad are you willing to devote to  signaling? Our (LDSIG) large system example is about 10% of the cost of plastic motive power and rolling stock Since more than half of the cost of your signal system is in the signals, it doesn’t make much sense to skimp on the control logic.

Pages:   || 2 |

Similar works:

«Volume 16, Special Issue Print ISSN: 1096-3685 PDF ISSN: 1528-2635 ACADEMY OF ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL STUDIES JOURNAL Mahmut Yardimcioglu Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Editor The Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal is owned and published by the DreamCatchers Group, LLC. Editorial content is under the control of the Allied Academies, Inc., a non-profit association of scholars, whose purpose is to support and encourage research and the sharing and exchange of ideas and...»

«Article Target Text Contraction in English-into-Korean Translations: A Contradiction of Presumed Translation Universals? Ho-Jeong Cheong Meta : journal des traducteurs / Meta: Translators' Journal, vol. 51, n° 2, 2006, p. 343-367.Pour citer cet article, utiliser l'information suivante : URI: http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/013261ar DOI: 10.7202/013261ar Note : les règles d'écriture des références bibliographiques peuvent varier selon les différents domaines du savoir. Ce document est...»

«138 Trotters Lea Chadds Ford, PA 19317 March 11, 2016 Prepared for: Michelle Tatham This report is the exclusive property of Liberty Inspection Group and the client whose name appears herewith and its use by any unauthorized persons is prohibited. Inspection Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 4 EXTERIOR 6 STRUCTURE & FOUNDATION 7 ROOF SYSTEMS 9 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 11 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 17 COMFORT CONTROL SYSTEMS 19 FIREPLACE OR SOLID FUEL HEATING 22 INTERIOR 23 CLOSING STATEMENTS 27 March 11, 2016...»

«INSTITUTE OF TOWN PLANNERS, INDIA TOWN PLANNING EXAMINATION BOARD ASSOCIATESHIP EXAMINATION ASSIGNMENT: Stage I Year 2016 SUBJECT: C.1.1. Socio-economic Basis for Planning Maximum Marks: 20 Instructions 1. Each answer should be of a maximum length of five pages. 2. The answers should be written in own words and own hand writing on A-4 size paper. Please mention your Name, Roll No. and the Stage properly on front. 3. Out of 100 marks in the subject, assignment will be marked for 20 marks. 4....»

«March 2013 Jessica Seddon Wallack Founder, Managing Director Okapi Research & Advisory 9A Coastal Rd, Chennai, India 600090 www.okapia.co PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE CURRENT AFFILIATIONS Co-Chair, Interdisciplinary and Global Working Group on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants Institute for Advanced Studies in Sustainability, Potsdam, Germany 09/2012 present Head of Knowledge Management, Villgro Innnovations Foundation 8/2012 – present Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Adjunct Professor, School of Public...»

«     A University of Sussex DPhil thesis  Available online via Sussex Research Online:  http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/    This thesis is protected by copyright which belongs to the author.    This thesis cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first  obtaining permission in writing from the Author    The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any ...»

«ETHNONYMS IN THE PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND AND THE BORDER COUNTIES OF ENGLAND Appendix D Ailig Peadar Morgan A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of St Andrews Full metadata for this item is available in Research@StAndrews:FullText at: http://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/ Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4164 This item is protected by original copyright This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License...»

«SUPREME COURT OF CANADA CITATION: Carter v. Canada (Attorney General), 2015 SCC 5 DATE: 20150206 DOCKET: 35591 BETWEEN: Lee Carter, Hollis Johnson, William Shoichet, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association and Gloria Taylor Appellants and Attorney General of Canada Respondent AND BETWEEN: Lee Carter, Hollis Johnson, William Shoichet, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association and Gloria Taylor Appellants and Attorney General of Canada and Attorney General of British Columbia Respondents...»

«Draft Environmental Impact Report, Imperial Valley Solar Company 2 Imperial County, California SECTION 6.0 – REFERENCES Audubon California. 2011 California Statewide Mountain Plover Survey; January 20-24 Survey Protocol. Air Resources Board 2012 http://www.arb.ca.gov/adam/ Bannon, John F. 1974 The Spanish Borderlands Frontier, 1513-1821. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Bean, Lowell J. 1972 Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California. University of California...»

«UK SAGA Northern Melee 2014 SCENARIOS Table Size All 10 Scenarios are played on a 4’ x 3’ table Northern Melee Set Terrain for Scenarios 2-10 (Scenario 1 has a different set terrain) There are 3 pieces of terrain in each of these 9 Scenarios with two “side pieces” and one “middle” piece. The two “side pieces” are always M diameter. One is a Wood and the other is Rocky Ground (see each Scenario’s Deployment Rules to determine which is which). The nature, size and exact position...»

«22 Studies of the Department of African Languages and Cultures, No 45, 2011 ISSN 0860-4649 Isa Yusuf Chamo Bayero University, Kano University of Warsaw Language and identity: Hausa language of youth generation in Northern Nigeria1 Tsakure Wannan ma˚ala ta yi nazari a kan karin harshen matasa a Arewacin Nijeriya tare da bayanin matakai da hanyoyin da suke bi wajen ˚ir˚irar sababbin kalmomi. Sa’an nan ma˚alar ta nuna yadda hakan ya samar wa da matasan wani rukuni na musamman da ba su damar...»

«LASER-ASSISTED CHEMICAL KRISZTIÁN KO RD Á S LIQUID-PHASE DEPOSITION OF METALS FOR MICROAND Department of Electrical Engineering and Infotech Oulu, OPTOELECTRONICS University of Oulu OULU 2002 KRISZTIÁN KORDÁS LASER-ASSISTED CHEMICAL LIQUID-PHASE DEPOSITION OF METALS FOR MICROAND OPTOELECTRONICS Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Kajaaninsali (Auditorium L 6), Linnanmaa, on May 10th, 2002, at 12...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.