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«DECLARATION I ELLEN GYAPONG, The writer of this script do hereby declare that the work presented in this project was done my self, being a student of ...»

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DECLARATION

I ELLEN GYAPONG, The writer of this script do hereby declare that the work presented in this

project was done my self, being a student of the Takoradi Polytechnic department of Fashion

Design and Technology 2011 academic year. Except for references made to other peoples work.

I do hereby declare that this project is the original research work conducted under the

supervision of the undersigned.

SUPERVISOR

NAME: MISS SYLVIA DONKOR

SIGNATURE

DATE

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

NAME: MRS EDNA PHILLIPS

SIGNATURE

DATE

i

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this research was conducted by ELLEN GYAPONG in partial fulfilment for the higher national diploma in the area of fashion design and textiles technology and presented to the department based on the requirement of Takoradi polytechnic.

NAME: ELLEN GYAPONG

SIGNATURE

DATE

ii DEDICATION I will like to thank the almighty God most of all, for he is the fulcrum of my very existence.I dedicate this work first of all to my parents Mr. P. D.Gyapong for their immense contribution in my education and also in writing this project I wouldn’t have made it this far without them.Also to my family, my dearest friends and love ones.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere gratitude goes to my lord Jesus for protecting and guarding me this far.

Secondly to my supervisor Miss Sylvia Donkor for her contribution to the success of this work, I pray the mighty God replenish her abundantly for her time and energy spent on this work.

And to all the lecturers especially Mrs Adams and the teaching entire teaching staff at the department of fashion and textile studies for equipping me with the necessary skills to make this project a possibility. God bless them all.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENT

ITEMS PAGE

DECLARATION I

CERTIFICATION II

DEDICATION III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IV

CHAPTER ONE, INTRODUCTION 1

BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1-2

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 3

OBJECTIVE 3

–  –  –

BACKGROND OF STUDY

Clothing is a covering or garment intended to be worn on the body. Clothing includes all the garment, accessories and ornaments worn by people throughout the world. The primary purpose of clothing according to Wikipedia is functional, as a protection from bad weather conditions.

Clothes also enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes also provide a hygienic barrier, keeping toxins away from the body and limiting the transmission of germs.

Many centuries ago many African textiles or clothing traditionally were not cut and tailored;

\instead they were draped and tied to suit various occasions. With current interest in textiles outside Africa, textiles and hand made fabrics are being fashioned into contemporary clothing.

(www.lampwork-history of Africa.com 20th may 2011).

Clothing is anything worn on the body for protection and adornment. During the ancient times, hair along with fibers from various plants and tress, were used to create bedding, blankets, clothing, wall and window hangings. As textiles became more sophisticated, they were also used as currency for trading; many of the ancient designs and weaving methods are in use today and remain an important part of African lifestyles. ( www.lampwork-history of Africa.com 20th may 2011).

In the olden days Africans wore their locally made fabrics to evening programs. Any time local garments are worn the wearer looks elegant, comfortable and glamorous, in some instances traditional garments have been replaced by western clothing introduced by European colonists.

The influx of these western garments has minimized the patronage of our locally made garments, this is due to the fact that the western garments, especially ladies evening has been made simple and comfortable to wear with enhancements of beads and sequence to make it look glamorous.

Beads have been significant for many cultures for years.They've been used as money and worn as talismans and amulets to bring wisdom and fortune to the wearer. Found dating back 38,000 years, beads have been made from pebbles, shells, teeth, claws, clay, glass and more. Glass became an important material in bead making with its discovery, around 3400 years ago.

The word bead comes from the Anglo Saxon words bidden (to pray) and bede (prayer). Prayer beads are known world-wide, and help the user recite prayers and keep track of the sequence and number of the prayers. Worry beads, also common around the world, help with decision-making, and keep the hands busy. Beads continue to be used as talismans to protect the wearer against evil, and as amulets to bring wisdom and fortune.

These days this the fashion trend is gradually changing since Ghanaians are now beginning to appreciate our locally made garments but more must be done to encourage Ghanaians especially the ladies to patronize locally made African print evening wear garments. This can be achieved by producing evening wear garments with exquisite styles, colours, and adorning it with beads and sequence to meet international standards.





STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

From the research conducted African prints evening wear on the Ghanaian market are mostly imported or foreign made. This raised concerns based on which this research was conducted the

problems identified are as follows:

The dominance of imported evening wear garments and fabrics on the Ghanaian market to the detriment of African textile prints.

Wrong application of fabrics for evening wear garments for the virtually hot climate of Ghana.

Lack of education on the part of fashion designers to promote Ghanaian fashion through trade, fashion shows and the media, which will also encourage ladies to appreciate and African print garments.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study are primarily to:

1. Highlight the economic prospects of African prints in producing ladies evening wear

–  –  –

3. Ghanaian designers must appreciate and encourage their customers to use African prints.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The outcome of this study will encourage Ghanaian ladies to patronize African print evening wear garments, when they patronize these garment it will facilitate the textile industries there by increase production and also generate more money for the economy. Again it will enlighten Ghanaian designers to appreciate and use African prints to produce evening wear garments for their customers. Again it will reduce the influx of foreign evening wear garments.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Several problems were encountered in the course of this study, the main ones being inadequate research materials at the school library, financial constraints an in adequate time on the academic calendar for extensive studies.

DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study was limited to the promotion of African prints and Ghanaian fashion in the case of ladies evening wear garments to meet international standards.

ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY

The study has been organized into four chapters; the first chapter is about the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, significance, limitations and delimitations of the study.

The second chapter highlights the literature review which examines the research that has been conducted at the field of the study.

The third chapter also explains the methodology or procedures, and the tools and equipments used during production.

The fourth and last chapter is also about the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

ADORN: Decorate CONTEMPORARY: Modern or present GLAMOROUS: Attractive and appealing INFLUX: Large entry ANCIENT: Belonging to the very distant past ALLOY: Two or more mixture of metals AESTHETIC: The appreciation of beauty ARTISTRY: Creative skill or ability ANNEAL : Heat metal or glass allowed to cool slowly to remove internal stresses.

AMULET: An ornament or small piece of jewelry worn as protection against evil.

CRAFT: Activity involving skill in making things by hand.

CORKSCREW: It is screw used for pulling corks from bottles.

DISTINCTIVE: Making something different from others PHONENICIAN: Study of speech.

SILHOUTTE: The dark shape and outline of someone or something seen against a lighter background.

SHEATH: A close fitting covering.

FLAMBOYANT: Brightly coloured or highly decoration.

HERITAGE: Property or values have been passed down from previous generations.

GENERIC: Referring to a class or group of things.

DISTINCTIVE: Characteristic of a person or thing, making it different from others.

NOBLES: Belonging to the aristocracy, having high moral qualities.

(Oxford dictionary,2006).

–  –  –

INTRODUCTION

This chapter reviews African prints as common clothing in Africa and the use of beads and

sequence in the production of ladies evening wear garments. It intends reviewing:

Fashion and dressing History of evening Textiles African textiles Types of cloth in Africa Industrial African print Colours in African clothing Beads History of beads Beads symbology Types of beads African wax printed cloth Beads in Africa

FASHION AND DRESSING

FASHION Fashion is a socio-cultural phenomenon in which a preference is shared by a large group of people for a particular style that last for a relatively short period of time and then replace by another. Fashion is style or styles most popular at a given time. The term implies four components; style, change, acceptance and taste. (Fringes S. G. 2008) Style: style is any particular characteristic or look in apparel or accessories. Designers interpret fashion ideas into new styles that make up the dress and offer them to the public. Styles are limited by time and at expiration, fade off from dressing only to be replacing by another often to the former.

Change: what makes fashion interesting is the fact that it is always changing. Change also means, that which is done today might be worthless tomorrow, and has to be accepted because

of vogue. Fashion changes because the following reasons:

1. People get bored with what they have.

–  –  –

3. It reflects change in a person‟s life and current events.

As a result of modern communications, the public is quickly made aware of the existence of new styles. Thus, one of the greatest impacts on fashion is the acceleration of change. (Gini 2008).

Acceptance: acceptance implies that consumers must buy and wear a design to make it fashion.

There is no fashion if nobody buys the design and it is up to the public to decide if a style will become a mode or not. Acceptance connotes purchases by a large number of people, and that endorses a style into fashion. (Gini 2008).

FAD According to the Longman active study dictionary; fad is a fashion that is popular for a short period of time. Gini, F. S. (2008) also states that fads are short-lived fashions. Fads usually affect only a narrow consumer group where it often begins with a lower price ranges and are relatively simple and inexpensive to copy and therefore flood the market in a very short time. Because of market saturation, the public gets tired of them quickly and they die out only to be replaced by another. Fad maniacs come about as a result of the large number of fashion followers; they follow mode blindly and end up as fashion victims. Fashion victims are those people with the illusion that buying into fad make them high class and superior thereby becoming slaves to designer brands. These victims pursue blindly and unthinkably follow a brand without any discernment and without analysis. Fashion needs followers or it will not exist. People end up as

fashion followers because of the following:

–  –  –

3. Seduction from aggressive marking and illusion.

4. Insecurity about values and principles thinking that fashion could aid in covering their handicaps.

HISTORY OF EVENING WEAR

According to www.nexteve.com (8th June 2011), an evening dress is a special type of fashion clothes because people wear evening dresses for special occasions such as cocktail parties, celebrations and banquets. Nobody would wear a casual T shirts or jeans to attend a formal party (Lady Gaga is an exception). In the middle Ages, there was no designed formal dress and when women were going to the theatre or an appointment, they added a train to their long skirts to make their dress graceful and pretty. (www.nexteve.com, 8th June 20II ).

Fig. 1 In the 18th century, mantua became the formal dress but this type of evening dress was less beautiful than gown and people changed it into the elaborate sack-back gown.

(www.nexteve.com, 8th June 20II).

Fig. 2 In 1840 when Queen Victoria held her wedding by wearing a white gown as her wedding gown, this kind of dress became popular. But at that time, there were less gown styles for women. As times rolled by, the silhouette of fashion gowns changes all the time. From the early ankle-length gown to floor-length and the off-the shoulder, people never stopped adding their new ideas into gowns, but there was no professional designer for gowns. The low-necked gowns with low necklines and short sleeves were very popular during the 1860s. During the Edwardian era, the empire silhouette that gowns had been wasp-waist cut became a best choice for women who were pregnant or have fat belly.( www.nexteve.com,8th June 20II).



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