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«Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Investigation of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives Using the Science of Tribology to Explain Improvements ...»

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Investigation of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives

Using the Science of Tribology to Explain

Improvements in Mixture Compaction

Sebastian Puchalski

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

Master of Science

Advisor:

Professor Hussain U. Bahia

Defense Committee:

Professor Hussain U. Bahia

Professor Tuncer B. Edil

Professor William J. Likos December, 2012 Copyright © 2012 Sebastian Puchalski All Rights Reserved “Lubricant is a substance capable of altering the nature of surface interactions between two contacting solids”

-Ernest Rabinowicz Acknowledgements I am extending my dearest gratitude for the continuous support to my parents, brother and friends who always give me their time me and provide me with inspiration to work.

I would also like to deeply thank Prof. Bahia for guiding me through the graduate work at the university and for helping me shape this thesis.

Special gratitude goes to the defense committee members: Prof. Tuncer B. Edil and Prof. William J.

Likos.

Finishing the thesis would not be possible without the tremendous help of Dan Swiertz. I would also like to thank Andrew Hanz, Nima Roohi Sefidmazgi and Pouya Teymourpour for sharing their research data.

Finally I would like to thank all colleagues at the Modified Asphalt Research Center for help, support and good time spent through my graduate study.

I Contents Acknowledgements

Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Equations

Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Problem Statement

1.2 Hypothesis

1.3 Objectives

1.4 Thesis Outline

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture Design

2.2 Asphalt Mixture Compaction

2.2.1 Asphalt Mixture Compaction - Overview

2.2.2 Asphalt Mixture Compaction – Modeling

2.2.3 Asphalt Mixture Compaction – Binder Properties

2.2.4 Asphalt Mixture Compaction – Aggregate Structure

2.2.5 Asphalt Mixture Compaction – Aggregate Structure Formation, Mastic Significance....... 19

2.3 Warm Mix Asphalt Compaction

2.3.1 Warm Mix Asphalt Compaction – Concept of Warm Mix Asphalt

2.3.2 Warm Mix Asphalt Compaction – Available Technologies

2.3.3 Warm Mix Asphalt Compaction – Accounting for WMA in Superpave guidelines........... 21 2.3.4 Warm Mix Asphalt Compaction – Technology Categories

2.4 Chemical Additives in WMA Compaction

2.4.1 Chemical Additives in WMA Compaction - Products Overview

2.4.2 Chemical Additives in WMA Compaction - Case Studies

2.3.4 Chemical Additives in WMA Compaction - Concepts of Lubrication

2.4 Summary of Literature Review

Chapter 3: Tribology

3.1 Tribology – Introduction

3.2 Tribology - Relevance to Asphalt Mixes

3.3 Tribology - Fluid film lubrication

3.7 Tribology - Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants

3.7.1 Tribology – Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants – Surfactants

3.7.2 Tribology - Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants –Extreme Pressure (EP) additives and Friction Modifiers (FM)

Chapter 4: Materials and Methods

4.1 Materials and Methods - Materials

4.1.1 Materials and Methods – Materials - Binder

4.1.2 Materials and Methods – Materials - Mixture

Materials and Methods – Methods

4.2 3.2.1 Materials and Methods – Methods - Asphalt Lubricity Test

4.2.2 Materials and Methods – Methods - Asphalt Lubricity Test using Anton Paar Measuring Cell

4.2.3 Materials and Methods – Methods - Stribeck Curve Test

4.2.3 Materials and Methods – Methods - Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test

Chapter 5: Preliminary Results

5.1 Preliminary Results - Asphalt Lubricity Test

5.2.1 Preliminary Results - Asphalt Lubricity Test – Comment on the WMA additive performance

5.2.1 Preliminary Results - Stribeck Curve Test (Anton Paar Tribology Cell) - Test Objective 1

5.2.2 Preliminary Results - Stribeck Curve Test (Anton Paar Tribology Cell) - Test Objective 2

Chapter 6: Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test

6.1 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Introduction

6.2 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Design and Manufacture of the Apparatus

6.3 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Test Procedure

6.4 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Results

6.5 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Statistical Analysis

6.5.1 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Statistical Analysis - Statistical Model

5.5.2 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Statistical Analysis – Data Analysis

6.5.3 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Statistical Analysis – Comments

6.6 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Mixture Comparison

6.6.1 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Mixture Comparison - Boundary Coefficient of Friction- Air Voids Ranking

6.6.2 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication Test - Mixture Comparison - Mastic Viscosity Model....... 71

7. Conclusions and Recommendations





7.1 Conclusions and Recommendations - Conclusions

III

7.2 Conclusions and Recommendations - Recommendations

8. References

8. Appendix

8.1 Asphalt Boundary Lubrication test results

8.2 Detailed drawings of Asphalt Boundary Lubrication cell

List of Figures

FIGURE 1 CROSS-SECTION OF A FINISHER FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS INSTALLATION OF TWO

ASPHALT LAYERS WITH DIFFERENT COMPOSITION OVER THE ENTIRE INSTALLATION WIDTH.

M1, M2 – TWO MIXTURE BUCKETS, F1 - LOWER LAYER CONVEYOR BELT, F2 - UPPER LAYER CONVEYOR BELT, RV - FRAME EXTENSION, VS1, VS2 – TWO MATERIAL SPREADER SCREWS, A –

SCREED PLATE FOR CORRECT FOR CORRECT THICKNESS OF THE FIRST ASPHALT COURSE

(AS1), AS2 – SECOND ASPHALT COURSE, VD – TAMPING BEAM FOR PRE-COMPACTION OF TWO

ASPHALT LAYERS, HZ – HYDRAULIC PULLING SYSTEM FOR CHANGING THE WEIGHT OF THE

STRUT H. (RICHTER 2003)

FIGURE 2 CROSS-SECTION OF A STEEL-DRUM VIBRATORY COMPACTOR. (LUDOVIC 1999)................ 8

FIGURE 3 CROSS-SECTION OF PNEUMATIC TIRES USED IN VIBRATORY PNEUMATIC TIRE ROLLER.

VISIBLE IN THE ILLUSTRATION ARE COMPARTMENTS USED TO ADJUST TIRE PRESSURE AS

WELL AS VIBRATORY MECHANISM USED TO CREATE VIBRATING ACTION ON THE PAVEMENT.

(MITSUI AND GUARD 1998)

FIGURE 4 DENSITY AND MEASURED MAT TEMPERATURE VS. TIME (CHADBOURN, ET AL. 1998)..... 9 FIGURE 5 MOHR-COULOMB RELATIONSHIP

FIGURE 6 ADDITIONAL COMPACTION INDICATORS.

FIGURE 7 EXAMPLE OF STRIBECK CURVE (BHUSHAN 2002).

FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC SHOWING TWO SOLIDS LUBRICATED THROUGH HYDRODYNAMIC REGIME.

(BHUSHAN 2002)

FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC SHOWING TWO SOLIDS LUBRICATED THROUGH ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC

REGIME. (BHUSHAN 2002)

FIGURE 10 SCHEMATIC SHOWING TWO SOLIDS LUBRICATED THROUGH MIXED REGIME.

(BHUSHAN 2002)

FIGURE 11 SCHEMATIC SHOWING TWO SOLIDS LUBRICATED THROUGH BOUNDARY REGIME.

(BHUSHAN 2002)

FIGURE 12 LUBRICANT FILM PARAMETER IN RELATIONSHIP WITH DIFFERENT LUBRICATION

REGIMES. (BHUSHAN 2002)

FIGURE 13 ILLUSTRATION OF SURFACTANTS IN LIPOPHILIC SOLVENT AND FORMING MICELLES.

(BIRESAW 2009)

FIGURE 14 ILLUSTRATION OF SURFACTANTS FORMING PHYSISORBED LAYER AROUND A PARTICLE

(BIRESAW 2009).

FIGURE 15 GRADATION CHART FOR ALL MIXES USED IN THIS THESIS.

FIGURE 16 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF TANGENTIAL FORCE AND NORMAL LOAD USED TO MEASURE

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION BETWEEN TWO BODIES.

FIGURE 17 ASPHALT LUBRICITY TEST APPARATUS. (HANZ, QUANTIFYING THE IMPACTS OF

WARM MIX ASPHALT ON CONSTRUCTABILITY AND PERFORMANCE 2012)

FIGURE 19 THE ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY MEASURING CELL WITH THE MEASURING SYSTEM (

ANTON PAAR GERMANY GMBH 2009)

FIGURE 20 ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY MEASURING CELL – PHOTOGRAPH OF CHROMED STEEL

BALL ATTACHED TO MEASURING SYSTEM SHAFT AND HOLDER FOR BASE PLATES. THE

WHOLE ASSEMBLY IS READY FOR SAMPLE PLACEMENT.

FIGURE 21 ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY MEASURING CELL – PHOTOGRAPH OF HOLDER FOR BASE

PLATES. THE HOLDER IN THE PHOTOGRAPH HAS METAL SURFACE PLATES INSTALLED IN THE

THREE HOLDING SPOTS. THE METAL PLATES CAN BE EASILY REPLACED WITH TEFLON

PLATES USING ALLEN WRENCH.

FIGURE 22 ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY MEASURING CELL – THE WHOLE ASSEMBLY WITH ASPHALT

BINDER SAMPLE PLACED INSIDE.

FIGURE 23 EXAMPLE OF STRIBECK CURVE TEST FOR UNSPECIFIED LUBRICANT. (ANTON PAAR

GERMANY GMBH N.D.)

FIGURE 24 SCATTERED PLOT OF COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION MEASURED BY ASPHALT LUBRICITY

TEST VS. % AIR VOIDS AT N DESIGN FOR CORRESPONDING MIXTURES.

FIGURE 25 SCHEMATIC OF A STRIBECK CURVE.

FIGURE 26 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION MEASUREMENTS FROM ASPHALT LUBRICITY TEST (HANZ

2012).

FIGURE 27. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION MEASUREMENTS FROM ASPHALT LUBRICITY TEST (HANZ

2012).

FIGURE 28 STRIBECK CURVES GENERATED AT DIFFERENT TESTING TEMPERATURES.

FIGURE 29 STRIBECK CURVES GENERATED USING ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY CELL AT 85°C........... 52 FIGURE 30 STRIBECK CURVES GENERATED USING ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY CELL AT 115°C......... 52 FIGURE 31 STRIBECK CURVES GENERATED USING ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY CELL AT 145°C......... 53

FIGURE 32 RESULTS OF THE ASPHALT LUBRICITY TEST USING ANTON PAAR TRIBOLOGY CELL.

NOTE THAT EACH VALUE IN THE FIGURE BELOW IS AN AVERAGE OF THREE MEASUREMENTS

AND THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR NEITHER OF THE REPORTED AVERAGES EXCEEDED

0.001. TEFLON-TEFLON TESTS FOR 3.5% FPE WERE NOT CONDUCTED DUE TO LIMITED CELL

AVAILABILITY. ERROR BARS REPRESENT ONE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE AVERAGES

PRESENTED.

FIGURE 33 PIN-ON-FLAT TESTING GEOMETRY. (RABINOWICZ 1995)

FIGURE 34 ASPHALT BOUNDARY LUBRICATION TEST APPARATUS FOR TA AR-2000 DYNAMIC SHEAR

RHEOMETER. SKETCHUP MODEL.

FIGURE 35 EXCHANGEABLE AGGREGATE-PIN ARRANGEMENTS (FROM LEFT: LIMESTONE,

GRANITE, ALUMINUM).

FIGURE 36 ASPHALT BOUNDARY LUBRICATION TEST APPARATUS WITH BINDER SAMPLE PRESENT.

FIGURE 37 DETERMINATION OF LUBRICATING REGION FOR THE TEST (BHUSHAN 2002)................ 60 FIGURE 38 NORMAL FORCE AND TORQUE APPARATUS OUTPUT.

FIGURE 39 500 KPA GRANITE - PG64-22 NUSTAR (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD DEVIATION).

FIGURE 40 PG64-22 NUSTAR BOUNDARY COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION DATA AT 500 KPA GRANITE

FOR GRANITE AND LIMESTONE SUBSTRATES (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD

DEVIATION).

FIGURE 41 % AIR VOIDS AT NDES VS. COMPACTION TEMPERATURE (°C) FOR NUSTAR MIXES........ 70 FIGURE 42 AIR VOIDS AT NDES VS. COMPACTION TEMPERATURE (°C) FOR FLINT HILLS MIXES..... 71 FIGURE 43 % AIR VOIDS AT N DESIGN VS. MASTIC LOW SHEAR VISCOSITY (PA.S) AT (0.01 SEC^-1).. 72 FIGURE 44 MASTIC VISCOSITY –VS. BOUNDARY COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (1 MPA)

FIGURE 45 MEASURED VS. PREDICTED MASTIC VISCOSITY.

FIGURE 46 100 KPA GRANITE - PG64-22 NUSTAR (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD DEVIATION).

FIGURE 47 1 MPA GRANITE - PG64-22 NUSTAR (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD DEVIATION).

V FIGURE 48 100 KPA LIMESTONE - PG64-22 NUSTAR (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD DEVIATION).

FIGURE 49 500 KPA LIMESTONE - PG64-22 NUSTAR (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD DEVIATION).

FIGURE 50 1 MPA LIMESTONE - PG64-22 NUSTAR (ERROR BARS REPRESENT 1 STANDARD DEVIATION).

FIGURE 51 100 KPA GRANITE - PG64-22 FLINT HILLS

FIGURE 52 500 KPA GRANITE - PG64-22 FLINT HILLS

FIGURE 53 1 MPA GRANITE - PG64-22 FLINT HILLS

FIGURE 54 SWING PIN PLATFORM - DETAILED DRAWING 1

FIGURE 55 SWING PIN PLATFORM - DETAILED DRAWING 2

FIGURE 56 CRADLE - DETAILED DRAWING 1

FIGURE 57 CRADLE - DETAILED DRAWING 2

FIGURE 58 SWING PIECE - DETAILED DRAWING

List of Tables

TABLE 1. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPACTION ACCORDING TO (WANG, ZHANG, ET AL.

2007)........ 6

TABLE 2 SUMMARY OF WMA PROCESSES IDENTIFIED DURING NCHRP PROJECT 9-43 (BONAQUIST

2011).

TABLE 3. MIXTURE COMPACTION DATA FOR MIXES USED IN THE STUDY.

TABLE 4 RANKING OF NUSTAR PG64-22 BINDERS TESTED USING GRANITE AGGREGATE-PIN

ARRANGEMENT.

TABLE 5 RANKING OF FLINT HILLS PG64-22 BINDERS TESTED USING GRANITE AGGREGATE-PIN

ARRANGEMENT

TABLE 6 RANKING OF NUSTAR PG64-22 BINDERS TESTED USING LIMESTONE AGGREGATE-PIN

ARRANGEMENT

TABLE 7 2-WAY ANOVA WITH 3 REPLICATES. FACTORS: ADDITIVE, TEMPERATURE.

TABLE 8 2-WAY ANOVA WITH 3 REPLICATES. FACTORS: ADDITIVE, STRESS LEVEL.

TABLE 9 BOUNDARY COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION- % AIR VOIDS RANKING – NUSTAR BINDER TYPE.

TABLE 10 BOUNDARY COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION- AIR VOIDS RANKING – FLINT HILLS BINDER

TYPE.

TABLE 11 ATTEMPTS FOR BEST SUBSETS REGRESSION MODEL UTILIZING VARIOUS

COMBINATIONS OF PREDICTORS (BINDER VISCOSITY, BOUNDARY COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION



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