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«Quality Assurance Guidance Document 2.12 Monitoring PM2.5 in Ambient Air Using Designated Reference or Class I Equivalent Methods Page Intentionally ...»

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Quality Assurance Guidance

Document 2.12

Monitoring PM2.5 in Ambient Air

Using Designated Reference or

Class I Equivalent Methods

Page Intentionally Left Blank


January 2016

Quality Assurance Guidance Document 2.12

Monitoring PM2.5 in Ambient Air Using Designated Reference

or Class I Equivalent Methods

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards

Air Quality Assessment Division

RTP, NC 27711

January 2016


The statements in this document, with the exception of referenced requirements, are intended solely as guidance. This document is not intended, nor can it be relied upon, to create any rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States. EPA may decide to follow the guidance provided in this document, or to act at variance with the guidance based on its analysis of the specific facts presented. This guidance may be revised without public notice to reflect changes in EPA’s approach to implementing 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L and 40 CFR Part 58, Appendices A and B.

Mention of commercial products or trade names should not be interpreted as endorsement. Some types of instruments currently in use may be described in text or in example figures or tables.

Sometimes these products are given as a typical and perhaps well-known example of the general class of instruments. Other instruments in the class are available and may be fully acceptable.

2.12. Table of Contents January 2016 Page ii Table of Contents Section Page Disclaimer

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

1.0 Scope and Applicability

1.1 Overview and Purpose

1.2 Applicability

1.3 Conventions

1.4 Format and Structure

1.5 Overview of Reference and Equivalent Methods for PM2.5

1.5.1 Reference Methods

1.5.2 Equivalent Methods

1.6 Limitations of PM2.5 Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods

2.0 Prerequisites

2.1 Overview and Definitions

2.2 Personnel Qualifications

2.2.1 Laboratory Personnel Qualifications

2.2.2 Field Personnel Qualifications

2.2.3 Training for Laboratory and Field Personnel

2.3 Health and Safety Warnings

2.4 Cautions

3.0 Summary

3.1 Overview

3.2 Illustrations of Sampler Inlet Components and Sample Flow Paths

3.3 Summary of Field and Laboratory QC Checks

3.4 Summary of Sampling Procedures for PM2.5

4.0 Procurement of Equipment and Supplies

4.1 Overview

4.2 Procurement Prerequisites—Field Operations

4.2.1 Reference or Equivalent Method Sampler

4.2.2 Calibration Equipment

4.2.3 Flow Verification Check Device

4.2.4 Audit Equipment

4.3 Procurement Prerequisites—Laboratory Operations

4.3.1 Filter Media

4.3.2 Filter Support Cassettes

4.3.3 Filter Cassette Protective Containers

–  –  –

4.3.4 Insulated Shipping Container

4.3.5 Filter Handling Containers

4.3.6 Analytical Microbalance

4.3.7 Calibration Reference Standards

4.3.8 Temperature and Relative Humidity Logger

4.3.9 Audit Equipment

5.0 Field Installation

5.1 Siting Requirements

5.1.1 Spatial and Temporal Scales of Site

5.1.2 Sampler Location

5.1.3 Safety

5.1.4 Electrical Considerations

5.1.5 Security

5.2 Sampler Installation Procedures

5.2.1 Receipt of Sampler

5.2.2 Initial Evaluation of Samplers

5.2.3 Setup at Sampling Site

5.2.4 Field Evaluation

6.0 Calibration Procedures

6.1 Overview

6.2 General Aspects of Flow Rate Measurement and PM2.5 Sampler Calibration

6.3 Calibration of the Sampler Flow Rate Measurement System

6.3.1 General Requirements and Guidance

6.3.2 Flow Rate Calibration Standards

6.3.3 NIST Traceability and Certification of Flow Rate Standards..............8 6.3.4 Outline of Generic Flow Rate Calibration Procedure

6.4 Calibration of Sampler Temperature Sensors

6.4.1 General Requirements and Guidance

6.4.2 Temperature Calibration Standards

6.4.3 NIST Traceability and Certification of Temperature Standards........12 6.4.4 Outline of Generic Temperature Calibration Procedure

6.5 Calibration of Sampler Barometric Pressure Sensor

6.5.1 General Requirements

6.5.2 Outline of Generic BP Calibration Procedures Digital Pressure Indicator Fortin-Type Barometer Readings Aneroid-Type Barometer

6.6 Leak Checks

6.7 Verification/Calibration Frequency

–  –  –

7.0 Field Operation

7.1 Overview

7.2 Activities to Perform Each Site Visit

7.2.1 Beginning a Run

7.2.2 Ending a Run

7.2.3 Sample Validation

7.2.4. Sample Handling Handling a Valid Sample Handling a Questionable Sample

7.3 Activities to Perform Every Five Operating Days

7.3.1 Impactor Well Cleaning

7.4 Activities to Perform Every Four Weeks

7.4.1 VSCC™ Cleaning

7.4.2 Field Quality Control Equipment and Standards

7.4.3 External Check.

7.4.4 Internal Filter Bypass Leak Check.

7.4.5 Procedure for Temperature Verification Check.

7.4.6 Procedure for Barometric Pressure Verification Check

7.4.7 Procedure for Field Flow Rate Verification Check

8.0 Sampler Maintenance

8.1 Overview

8.2 Five-Day Maintenance Procedures

8.2.1 Water Collector

8.2.2 WINS Impactor Well

8.3 Monthly Maintenance Procedures

8.3.1 Inlet

8.3.2 WINS Impactor Housing and Well

8.3.3 Cleaning of VSCC™ Type PM2.5 Separators

8.3.4 Other

8.4 Quarterly Maintenance

8.4.1 Downtube

8.4.2 Impactor

8.4.3 Other

8.5 Other Periodic Maintenance

8.6 Refurbishing PM2.5 Samplers

9.0 Gravimetric Laboratory Design and Setup

9.1 Overview

9.2 Weighing Room

9.3 Microbalance

9.4 Logging System

–  –  –

9.5 Data Management System

9.6 Static Neutralization

9.7 Mass Reference Standards

9.7.1 Certification Procedures-Primary Standard

9.7.2 Certification Procedures- Working Standard

10.0 Filter Preparation and Analysis

10.1 Overview

10.2 Filter Handling

10.3 Filter Integrity Check

10.4 Filter Conditioning

10.5 Quality Control Blanks

10.6 Pre-Sampling Filter Weighing (Tare Weight)

10.7 Post-Sampling Documentation and Inspection

10.8 Post-Sampling Filter Weighing (Gross Weight)

10.9 Calculation of Net Mass Filter Loading

10.10 Internal Quality Control

10.11 Filter Archive Requirements

11.0 Performance Evaluation Procedures

11.1 Overview

11.2 Performance Evaluations

11.2.1 Sampler Flow Rate Audit Flow Rate Audit Data Calculations

11.2.2 Temperature Audit Procedure

11.2.3 Barometric Pressure Audit Procedures

11.2.4 Time Audit

11.2.5 Assessment of Precision Using Collocated Measurements Procedure for Collocated Measurements

11.2.6 Federal Reference Method Performance Evaluation

11.2.7 Balance Accuracy Assessment

11.2.8 Temperature and Relative Humidity Logger Audit Procedure............9

11.3 Systems Audits

12.0 Calculations, Validations, and Reporting of PM2.5 Monitoring Data

12.1 Overview

12.2 Calculations

12.2.1 Sample Volume Calculations

12.2.2 Net PM2.5 Mass Calculation

12.2.3 PM2.5 Concentration Calculation

12.3 Verification of Manual Calculations and Data Entry

12.3.1 Verification of Manual Calculations

–  –  –

12.3.2 Verification of Manual Data Entry

12.4 Validation..................................................... 4 12.4.1 Data Validation

12.4.2 Validation of Software Used to Process PM2.5 Data

12.5 Data Reporting

12.5.1 Rounding

12.5.2 Rounding Rules for Comparison with NAAQS

13.0 Data and Records Management

13.1 Overview

13.2 Methodology for Data and Records Management

13.3 PM2.5 Records to Create and Retain

13.3.1 Sampler Siting and Maintenance Records

13.3.2 Analytical Laboratory Installation Records

13.3.3 Field Sampling Operation Records

13.3.4 Weighing Laboratory Operation Records

13.3.5 Quality Assurance Records

13.4 Data Reporting Requirements

14.0 Assessment of Measurement Uncertainty for Monitoring Data................. 1 of 6

14.1 Overview

14.2 Flow Rate Audits

14.3 Bias Assessment

14.4 Precision

14.4.1 Overview

14.4.2 Number of Collocated Samplers Required

14.4.3 Location of Collocated Samplers

14.4.4 Schedule of Operation of Collocated Samplers

15.0 References

Appendix A—Measuring Alkalinity of Filters

–  –  –

3.1 PM2.5 inlet head

3.2 Air flow through the PM2.5 impactor well and filter holder

3.3 Example of a very sharp cut cyclone

4.1 Example procurement log

4.2 Example Equipment for transporting filter cassettes

6.1 Example Calibration Work Sheet

7.1 Example of a PM2.5 field data sheet

7.2 Example of a filter chain-of-custody

7.3 PM2.5 field QC and maintenance form

8.1 Cross-sectional view of a PM10 sampler inlet head

8.2 Cross-sectional view of design of a PM2.5 impactor well and filter holder

9.1 Grounding screw on microbalance

9.2 Example of environmental logging software displaying both summary statistics and a time series graph

9.3 Second example of environmental logging software display

9.4 210-Po anti-static strips and gooseneck holder

9.5 U-electrode (ionizer)

9.6 Example calibration certificate for a mass reference standard

10.1 Filters equilibrating on conditioning trays

10.2 Relative humidity scenarios

10.3 Laboratory relative humidity conditions during a quarter

10.4 Lab blank control chart

10.5 Example laboratory data form

10.6 Filter sample holding time decision flowchart

11.1 PM2.5 Sample audit data sheet

11.2 Temperature and humidity verification form

11.3 PM2.5 Auditing checklist

–  –  –

2-1 Definitions of Key Terms

4-1 Acceptance Checks and Limits for Procurement of Equipment and Supplies............ 3 of 10 4-2 Tolerance Specifications for Mass Reference Standards

6-1 Calibration and Verification Check Intervals

7-1 Sampling Procedure Checks

8-1 Summary of PM2.5 Sampler Maintenance Items

9-1 Filter Preparation and Analysis Checks

11-1 Systems and Performance Evaluation Components for Manual Method PM2.5 Samplers

12-1 Formulas for Calculations Associated with PM2.5 Monitoring

13-1 Summary of Information to be Provided by Sampler

14-1 Example of Collocated Sampler Requirements

14-2 Summary of PM2.5 Number and Type of Collocation

–  –  –

This document is intended to provide additional guidance to assist personnel using reference methods or Class I equivalent methods to monitor ambient air for particles with an aerodynamic diameter nominally equal to or less than 2.5 micrometers ( m), known as PM2.5. The formal specifications for PM2.5 reference method samplers and reference method measurements are set forth in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring regulations – 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 50, Appendix L (EPA 1997a).* The regulations governing the sampling and analytical methods must be followed. This document reviews those formal requirements and provides clarifications and supplemental information in greater detail than can be provided in the formal regulatory requirements. Because this supplemental information is intended for method users, it emphasizes the operational aspects of the method, rather than the design and performance specifications for the sampler. This document also provides recommended quality assurance (QA) procedures and guidance to help monitoring agencies reliably achieve the data quality objectives (DQOs) established for PM2.5 monitoring. The goal for acceptable measurement uncertainty has been defined as 10 percent coefficient of variation (CV) for total precision and ±10 percent for total bias (Papp et al., 1998). The information provided here, together with instruction manuals and technical bulletins provided by the manufacturer of the selected PM2.5 sampler, should be used by each monitoring organization to develop its own agency-specific quality assurance project plan (QAPP) and standard operating procedures (SOP) to govern its individual PM2.5 monitoring activity.

1.2 Applicability

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