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«LIFE-CYCLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN LEED CERTIFIED AND NON-LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS By ROYA MOZAFFARIAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE ...»

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LIFE-CYCLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN LEED CERTIFIED

AND NON-LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS

By

ROYA MOZAFFARIAN

A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING

CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

© 2008 Roya Mozaffarian To my dear parents, Zahra Zahedi and Mohammad Ali Mozaffarian, and my sisters, Rozita and Romina Mozaffarian. This venture would not be possible without their support and love.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who helped me complete my thesis.

First, I would like to thank my committee chairman, Dr. Charles Kibert for his support throughout my course of study and for giving me the opportunity to work in a very interesting area. I would also like to thank my cochairman, Dr. Robert Ries and my committee member, Dr.

Svetlana Olbina for all the encouragement and guidance during this study.

I would like to extend my appreciation to Thomas C. Ladun, Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) coordinator. This study would not be completed without his assistance. I would also like to thank Vince Mcleod in the EH&S department, Troy D. Miles and Mr. Edward Gray Rawls in Architecture and Engineering department of Physical Plant division, David Heather in Facilities Planning and Construction department, Sandy M. Subach in Gerson Hall, and Sallie Schattner in Rinker Hall for their help and support through this study.

I would like to thank my parents, Zahra Zahedi and Mohammad Ali Mozaffarian, and my lovely sisters, Rozita Mozaffarian and Romina Mozaffarian, for their encouragement and complete support throughout my education. They minimized the burden of my study with their support and love. I appreciate my mom for being there for me whenever I needed. She provided a comfortable and lovely environment for me throughout my education period. Her spirit and her positive attitude helped me to complete my thesis. I appreciate my dad for encouraging my education. He has always been an inspiration to me.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Problem Statement

Research Objectives

Significance of the Study

Limitations of the Study

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Quality

Indoor Air Quality in Commercial Buildings

Indoor Air Quality Testing Components

Formaldehyde (CH2O)

Particulate Matter (PM)

Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC)

4- Phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH)

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Temperature and Humidity

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

Indoor Air Quality Testing Guidelines

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (USGBC)

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Existing Buildings

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Commercial Interiors

United States Environmental Protection Agency Standard

Baseline IAQ testing

Independent material testing

American Society Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard.....27 American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.1-1992

American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.2-1999

American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 62-1999

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association Standard.............30 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Standard

Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard

University of Florida Indoor Air Quality Testing Standard

Indoor Air Quality Guidelines Comparison

Indoor Air Quality Sampling Media

Economics of Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Air Quality Problems

Indoor Air Quality Solutions

Summary

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Physical Conditions

Rinker Hall

Gerson Hall

Protocol for Indoor Air Quality Testing

Sampling Location

Classroom

Faculty/student facility

Air Contaminants

Sampling Time

Number of Air Samples

Indoor Air Quality Test Cost

Analytical Methods and Sampling Media

National institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) 2016 method and SGDNPH silica gel tube

Environmental protection agency (EPA) TO-17 method and sorbent tube (carbotrap 300)

Direct reading method and TSI dust track aerosol monitor

Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) 7 method and charcoal tube

Direct reading method and TSI Q-track

Summary

4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS





Introduction

Rinker Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle

Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle

Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Comparison Results

Summary

5 CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX A RINKER HALL LEED CERTIFICATION

B RINKER HALL AND GERSON HALL FLOOR PLANS

C INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST DATA LOGS AND COST PROPOSAL

D INSTRUMENTS’ SPECIFICATIONS

E INITIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST AND T-TEST RESULTS

LIST OF REFERENCES

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

–  –  –

2-1 Maximum concentration of contaminants.

2-2 Maximum indoor air concentration based on USEPA standard

2-3 Concentration averaging of air contaminants

2-4 Minimum ventilation rate and maximum people density.

2-5 Maximum concentration of each contaminants based on UF standard.

2-6 Indoor air quality testing comparison between LEED and others

2-7 Potential annual healthcare savings and productivity gains from improving indoor environments

3-1 Sampling media, method, and price to apply IAQ test

4-1 Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008

4-2 Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED

4-3 Rinker Hall IAQ test results in January 2003

4-4 Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle

4-5 Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008

4-6 Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED

4-7 Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle

4-8 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison on February 5, 2008

4-9 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2003 and 2004

E-1 Rinker Hall initial IAQ commissioning data in January 2003

E-2 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall t-Test results based on 2008 IAQ test results

E-3 Rinker Hall life cycle t-Test results

–  –  –

2-1 Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter

2-2 Summa canister

2-3 Direct sense IAQ monitor

2-4 Handheld particle counters

2-5 Optima Monitor

3-1 Rinker Hall

3-2 Gerson Hall

3-3 Classrooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall

3-4 Faculty offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall

3-5 Conference rooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall

3-6 Graduate student offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall

3-7 Other offices under study in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall

3-8 A BIOS DryCal DC-Lite

3-9 Air sampling pump, SGDNPH treated silica gel tube, and sorbent tube

3-10 Air sampling pump connection to Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300) and SGDNPH treated silica gel tube

3-11 Photo Ionization Detector

3-12 A TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor and an Aerosol sample inlet

3-13 Charcoal tubes

3-14 A TSI Q-Track

4-1 Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart

4-2 Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart

4-3 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2008 based on Box Plot chart.............79 A-1 Rinker Hall LEED certification summary sheet

B-1 Rinker Hall first floor plan

B-2 Rinker Hall second floor plan

B-3 Rinker Hall third floor plan

B-4 Gerson Hall first floor plan

B-5 Gerson Hall second floor plan

B-6 Gerson Hall third floor plan

C-1 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall formaldehyde data logs

C-2 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method..................96 C-3 Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method and Gerson Hall 4-PCH data logs

C-4 Indoor Air Quality test cost proposal from UF EH&S department

D-1 Specification for BIOS DryCal DC-Lite

D-2 Specification for MSA Escort ELF sampling pump

D-3 Photo Ionization Detector (PID) specification

D-4 Specification for TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor

D-5 Specification for TSI Q-Track indoor air quality monitor

–  –  –

Chair: Charles Kibert Cochair: Robert Ries Major: Building Construction Early research on indoor air quality (IAQ) concluded that people spend most of their time indoors and indoor air quality affects the occupant’s health and productivity. In addition, research on IAQ agreed that the high performance green buildings assure a better IAQ for its occupants. This pledge motivates building experts to apply Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) strategies to their practices.

Primary intention of this study was to identify whether an existing LEED certified building has a better IAQ compared to an existing non-LEED certified building with respect to LEED requirements. Secondary goal of this study was to develop a protocol to analyze the IAQ in each building and its life cycle. The IAQ test was examined in both buildings on the same day and at similar physical locations to evaluate the IAQ differences between the two and their IAQ life cycle. Protocol with defined analytical methods was developed to meet the LEED requirements along with budget, time, and research limitations. It was found that there are differences between each building life cycle, and also between the IAQ in an existing LEED certified building and an existing non-LEED certified building based on the protocol used in this study and more research needs to be accomplished to encourage LEED strategies for better IAQ.

–  –  –

Constructing a building is very complex and many factors need to be considered throughout the construction process. For example, finishing the project on time and budget, safety issues, and building maintenance are all important factors. Building owners and managers who are concerned about finishing the project on time and on budget can easily be inattentive to significant elements of building management such as indoor air quality (IAQ). The IAQ approach is the substance of interior air that affects the health and comfort of building occupants.

Indoor air quality is concerned with the effects of air contaminants like carbon monoxide, the performance of the ventilation system, and the materials being used inside the buildings, all of which can cause health problems for building occupants (CDC 2007).

As the construction industry embraces sustainable development, IAQ has become a major concern for building owners and managers. Society is recognizing the importance of healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments. Therefore, the demand for good IAQ is increasing (USEPA 2007).

–  –  –

In 1995, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ranked indoor air pollution as an environmental threat to public health. In respond to this threat, the USEPA, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and many other organizations started to develop standards and guidelines to reduce the IAQ issues in buildings. These efforts will be discussed further in the next Chapter. To investigate the poor IAQ inside buildings, IAQ testing must be done to identify the causes of the problem. Indoor air quality test analysis identifies the high level of air contaminants concentration that derives from poor ventilation systems, building materials, finishing, furniture, poor maintenance, and many other factors. In this study, an IAQ test protocol was suggested for IAQ analysis in existing buildings.

–  –  –

Many involved with the construction industry and green building believe that buildings with LEED certification have better IAQ compared to others (Kibert 2005). The LEED rating system outlines measures to reduce the level of indoor pollutants and a LEED certified building often follows these procedures to establish and maintain acceptable IAQ within the building.

Primary objective of this study is to determine whether a LEED certified building has better IAQ compared to a non-LEED certified building. Null hypothesis of this study is that LEED certified buildings have a better IAQ. Secondary objective is to develop a protocol for comparing IAQ in existing buildings and their life cycle.

–  –  –

There is some research that identifies how IAQ measures covered by LEED can improve IAQ, but there was no comparison study to evaluate the difference between IAQ in a LEED certified and a non-LEED certified building. This research analyzes and studies the difference between two buildings at University of Florida based on an IAQ test protocol developed for this purpose.

–  –  –



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