«HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION -WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS - Serious and potentially fatal cardiovascular thrombotic events, These ...»
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION -----------------------WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS -----------------------
Serious and potentially fatal cardiovascular thrombotic events,
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use
PENNSAID safely and effectively. See full prescribing myocardial infarction, and stroke can occur with NSAID treatment.
information for PENNSAID. Use the lowest effective dose of PENNSAID in patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. (5.1) PENNSAID (diclofenac sodium topical solution) 1.5% w/w is for NSAIDs can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events topical use only. including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation.
Initial U.S. Approval: 1988 Prescribe PENNSAID with caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. (5.2)
WARNING: CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL RISK Elevation of one or more liver tests may occur during therapy with See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
NSAIDs. Discontinue PENNSAID immediately if abnormal liver Cardiovascular Risk tests persist or worsen. (5.3) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause an Hypertension can occur with NSAID treatment. Monitor blood increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, pressure closely with PENNSAID treatment. (5.4) myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. Patients Use PENNSAID with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular failure. (5.5) disease may be at greater risk. (5.1) Long-term administration of NSAIDs c
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
WARNING: CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL RISKCardiovascular Risk Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal.
This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
PENNSAID is contraindicated in the perioperative setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Contraindications (4)].
Gastrointestinal Risk NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal.
These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
2.1 General Instructions For the relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee(s), the recommended dose is 40 drops per knee, 4 times a day.
Apply PENNSAID to clean, dry skin.
Reference ID: 3393456 To avoid spillage, dispense PENNSAID 10 drops at a time either directly onto the knee or first into the hand and then onto the knee. Spread PENNSAID evenly around front, back and sides of the knee.
Repeat this procedure until 40 drops have been applied and the knee is completely covered with solution.
To treat the other knee, if symptomatic, repeat the procedure.
Application of PENNSAID in an amount exceeding or less than the recommended dose has not been studied and is therefore not recommended.
PENNSAID is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to diclofenac sodium or any other component of PENNSAID.
PENNSAID is contraindicated in patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.10)].
PENNSAID is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
5.1 Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events Clinical trials of several oral COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, including PENNSAID and COX-2 selective and nonselective orally administered NSAIDs, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV Reference ID: 3393456 event in patients treated with an NSAID, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Inform patients about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of an orally administered COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke [see Contraindications (4)].
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and NSAIDs, such as diclofenac, does increase the risk of serious GI events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
5.2 Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2 to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
Prescribe NSAIDs, including PENNSAID, with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, use special care when treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration. Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during diclofenac therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. For high-risk patients, consider alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs.
5.3 Hepatic Effects Borderline elevations (less than 3 times the upper limit of the normal [ULN] range) or greater elevations of transaminases occurred in about 15% of oral diclofenac-treated patients in clinical trials of indications other than acute pain. Of the markers of hepatic function, ALT (SGPT) is recommended for the monitoring of liver injury.
In clinical trials of an oral diclofenac-misoprostol combination product, meaningful elevations (i.e., more than 3 times the ULN) of AST (SGOT) occurred in about 2% of approximately 5,700 patients at some time during diclofenac treatment (ALT was not measured in all studies).
In an open-label, controlled trial of 3,700 patients treated for 2 to 6 months, patients with oral diclofenac were monitored first at 8 weeks and 1,200 patients were monitored again at 24 weeks.
Reference ID: 3393456 Meaningful elevations of ALT and/or AST occurred in about 4% of the 3,700 patients and included marked elevations (8 times the ULN) in about 1% of the 3,700 patients. In this open-label study, a higher incidence of borderline (less than 3 times the ULN), moderate (3 to 8 times the ULN), and marked (8 times the ULN) elevations of ALT or AST was observed in patients receiving diclofenac when compared to other NSAIDs. Elevations in transaminases were seen more frequently in patients with osteoarthritis than in those with rheumatoid arthritis. Almost all meaningful elevations in transaminases were detected before patients became symptomatic.
Abnormal tests occurred during the first 2 months of therapy with oral diclofenac in 42 of the 51 patients in all trials who developed marked transaminase elevations. In postmarketing reports, cases of drug-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the first month, and in some cases, the first 2 months of NSAID therapy.
Postmarketing surveillance has reported cases of severe hepatic reactions, including liver necrosis, jaundice, fulminant hepatitis with and without jaundice, and liver failure. Some of these reported cases resulted in fatalities or liver transplantation.
In a European retrospective population-based, case-controlled study, 10 cases of oral diclofenac associated drug-induced liver injury with current use compared with non-use of diclofenac were associated with a statistically significant 4-fold adjusted odds ratio of liver injury. In this particular study, based on an overall number of 10 cases of liver injury associated with diclofenac, the adjusted odds ratio increased further with female gender, doses of 150 mg or more, and duration of use for more than 90 days.
Measure transaminases (ALT and AST) periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy with diclofenac, because severe hepatotoxicity may develop without a prodrome of distinguishing symptoms. The optimum times for making the first and subsequent transaminase measurements are not known. Based on clinical trial data and postmarketing experiences, monitor transaminases within 4 to 8 weeks after initiating treatment with diclofenac. However, severe hepatic reactions can occur at any time during treatment with diclofenac. If abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, if clinical signs and/or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dark urine, etc.), discontinue PENNSAID immediately.
To minimize the possibility that hepatic injury will become severe between transaminase measurements, inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms), and the appropriate action to take if these signs and symptoms appear.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse liver-related event in patients treated with PENNSAID, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Exercise caution when prescribing PENNSAID with concomitant drugs that are known to be potentially hepatotoxic (e.g., acetaminophen, certain antibiotics, antiepileptics). Caution patients to avoid taking unprescribed acetaminophen while using PENNSAID.
5.4 Hypertension NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can lead to new onset or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Use NSAIDs, including PENNSAID, with caution in patients with hypertension. Monitor blood pressure (BP) closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Reference ID: 3393456 Patients taking ACE-inhibitors, thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs.
5.5 Congestive Heart Failure and Edema Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs, including PENNSAID. Use PENNSAID with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.
5.6 Renal Effects Use caution when initiating treatment with PENNSAID in patients with considerable dehydration.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.
Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE-inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of PENNSAID in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with PENNSAID is not recommended in patients with advanced renal disease. If PENNSAID therapy is initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable.
5.7 Anaphylactoid Reactions As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without prior exposure to PENNSAID. Do not prescribe PENNSAID to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]. Seek emergency help in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.
5.8 Skin Reactions Do not apply PENNSAID to open skin wounds, infections, inflammations, or exfoliative dermatitis, as it may affect absorption and tolerability of the drug.