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«Taylor & Francis Reference Style G Chicago Endnotes Only The Chicago Notes System, developed by the University of Chicago, is widely used by the ...»

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Taylor & Francis Reference Style G

Chicago Endnotes Only

The Chicago Notes System, developed by the University of Chicago, is widely used by the social

sciences and sciences disciplines. Bibliographic citations are provided in notes (in this style,

endnotes). The difficulty of finding a particular note is the main disadvantage of endnotes. For full

information on this style, see The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edn) or


With no bibliography, full details must be given in a note at the first mention of any work cited.

Subsequent citations can then use the short form or a cross-reference. Please take care to follow the correct reference examples in the Chicago manual. You need to choose the examples labelled N (for notes), not the ones labelled T (text) and R (references).

Headline-style capitalization is used. In headline style, the first and last words of title and subtitle and all other major words are capitalized. For details, see the section on Punctuation below.

EndNote for Windows and Macintosh is a valuable all-in-one tool used by researchers, scholarly writers, and students to search online bibliographic databases, organize their references, and create bibliographies instantly. There is now an EndNote output style available if you have access to the software in your library (please visit http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp and look for TF- G Chicago endnotes).

1. How to cite references in your 26. Speech, lecture, talk text

27. Unpublished work

2. Abstract

3. Audiovisual material

4. Bible

5. Book


7. Conference paper, proceedings, poster session

8. Database

9. Dissertation or thesis

10. Electronic source

11. Film

12. Government document

13. Internet

14. Interview

15. Journal article

16. Microfilm, microfiche

17. Newspaper or magazine article

18. News release

19. Pamphlets and reports

20. Parliamentary bill, report, paper, debate

21. Personal communication

22. Preprint

23. Punctuation

24. Reference work

25. Review

1. How to cite references in your text.

Endnotes Bibliographic citations are provided in notes (in this case endnotes)

1. Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 23.

A note number should be placed at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause. The number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes. It follows a closing parenthesis.

“This,” wrote George Templeton Strong, “is what our tailors can do.” (In an earlier book he had said quite the opposite.)2 The bias was apparent in the Shotwell series3—and it must be remembered that Shotwell was a student of Robinson’s.

For a parenthetical phrase within a sentence, it may occasionally be appropriate to place the note number before the closing parenthesis.

Men and their unions, as they entered industrial work, negotiated two things: young women would be laid off once they married (the commonly acknowledged “marriage bar”1), and men would be paid a “family wage.” A note number normally follows a quotation, whether the quotation is run into the text or set off as an extract. For aesthetic reasons, a note number should never appear within or at the end of a chapter or article title or a subhead. A note that applies to an entire chapter or article should be unnumbered and is usually placed at the foot of the first page of the piece, preceding any numbered notes. A note that applies to a section following a subhead should be placed in an appropriate place in the text—perhaps after the first sentence in the section.

A note that applies to more than one location should be cross-referenced; a note number cannot reappear out of sequence. Using more than one note reference at a single location (such as 5, 6) should be rigorously avoided. A single note can contain more than one citation or comment.

18. See note 3 above.

Special needs of endnotes Whereas footnote citations, because they appear so close to the text, can omit certain elements mentioned in the text, omitting them in endnotes risks irritating readers, who have to go back and forth. For example, an author or title mentioned in the text need not be repeated in the footnote citation, though it is often helpful to do so. In an endnote, however, the author (or at least the author’s last name) and title should be repeated, since at least some readers may have forgotten whether the note number was 93 or 94 by the time they find it at the back of the work. It is particularly annoying to arrive at the right place in the endnotes only to find another “ibid.” Such frustration can be prevented by the devices illustrated in the examples below.

34. This and the preceding four quotations are all from Hamlet, act 1, sc. 4.

87. Barbara Wallraff, Word Court: Wherein Verbal Virtue Is Rewarded, Crimes against the Language Are Punished, and Poetic Justice Is Done (New York: Harcourt, 2000), 34. Further citations to this work are given in the text.

Several citations in one note The number of note references in a sentence or a paragraph can sometimes be reduced by grouping several citations in a single note. The citations are separated by semicolons and must appear in the same order as the text material (whether works, quotations, or whatever) to which they pertain. Take care to avoid any ambiguity as to what is documenting what.

Only when we gather the work of several scholars—Walter Sutton’s explications of some of Whitman’s shorter poems; Paul Fussell’s careful study of structure in “Cradle”; S.K. Coffman’s close readings of “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” and “Passage to India”; and the attempts of Thomas I. Rountree and John Lovell, dealing with “Song of Myself” and “Passage to India,” respectively, to elucidate the strategy in “indirection”—do we begin to get a sense of both the extent and the specificity of Whitman’s forms.1

1. Sutton, “The Analysis of Free Verse Form, Illustrated by a Reading of Whitman,” Journal of

Aesthetics and Art Criticism 18 (December 1959): 241–54; Fussell, “Whitman’s Curious Warble:

Reminiscence and Reconciliation,” in The Presence of Whitman, ed. R.W.B. Lewis, 28–51;

Coffman, “‘Crossing Brooklyn Ferry’: Note on the Catalog Technique in Whitman’s Poetry,” Modern Philology 51 (May 1954): 225–32; Coffman, “Form and Meaning in Whitman’s ‘Passage to India,’” PMLA 70 (June 1955): 337–49; Rountree, “Whitman’s Indirect Expression and Its Application to ‘Song of Myself,’” PMLA 73 (December 1958): 549–55; and Lovell, “Appreciating Whitman: ‘Passage to India,’” Modern Language Quarterly 21 (June 1960): 131–41.

In the example above, authors’ given names are omitted in the note because they appear in text.

Several references documenting a single fact in the text are normally separated by semicolons, with the last reference (often preceded by ‘and’) followed by a full stop (period).

The basic short form The most common short form consists of the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited, usually shortened if more than four words, as in examples 4–6 below.

1. Samuel A. Morley, Poverty and Inequality in Latin America: The Impact of Adjustment and Recovery (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 24–5.

2. Regina M. Schwartz, “Nationals and Nationalism: Adultery in the House of David,” Critical Inquiry 19, no. 1 (1992): 131–2.

3. Ernest Kaiser, “The Literature of Harlem,” in Harlem: A Community in Transition, ed. J.H.

Clarke (New York: Citadel Press, 1964).

4. Morley, Poverty and Inequality, 43.

5. Schwartz, “Nationals and Nationalism,” 138.

6. Kaiser, “Literature of Harlem,” 189, 140.

Citations plus commentary When a note contains not only the source of a fact or quotation in the text but related substantive material as well, the source comes first. A full stop (period) usually separates the citation from the commentary. Such comments as “emphasis mine” are usually put in parentheses.

11. Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, act 3, sc. 1. Caesar’s claim of constancy should be taken with a grain of salt.

12. Little, “Norms of Collegiality,” 330 (my italics).

Author’s name Only the last name of the author, or of the editor or translator if given first in the full reference, is needed in the short form. Full names or initials are included only when two or more authors with the same last name have been cited. Such abbreviations as ‘ed.’ or ‘trans.’ following a name in the full reference are omitted in subsequent references. If a work has two or three authors, give the last name of each; for more than three, the last name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ or ‘and others’.

Kathryn Petras and Ross Petras, eds., Very Bad Poetry (Short form) Petras and Petras, Very Bad Poetry Joseph A. Belizzi, H.F. Kruckeberg, J.R. Hamilton, and W.S. Martin, “Consumer Perceptions of National, Private, and Generic Brands” (Short form) Belizzi et al., “Consumer Perceptions” Ibid.

The abbreviation ibid. (from ibidem, “in the same place”) refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It must never be used if the preceding note contains more than one citation. It takes the place of the name(s) of the author(s) or editor(s), the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical, the word ibid. alone is used (as in example 7 below). The word ibid. is set in roman and followed by a full stop (period).

5. Farmwinkle, Humor of the Midwest, 241.

6. Ibid., 258–9.

Ibid. may also be used within one note in successive references to the same work.

8. Morris Birkbeck, “The Illinois Prairies and Settlers,” in Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673–1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, ed. Paul M. Angle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 62. “The soil of the Big-prairie, which is of no great extent notwithstanding its name, is a rich, cool sand; that is to say, one of the most desirable description” (ibid., 63).

Idem When several works by the same person are cited successively in the same note, idem (“the same,” sometimes abbreviated to id.), may be used in place of the author’s name.

Except in legal references, where the abbreviation id. is used in place of ibid., the term is rarely used nowadays. It is safer to repeat the author’s last name.

Op. cit. and loc. cit.

Op. cit. (opere citato, “in the work cited”) and loc. cit. (loco citato, “in the place cited”), used with an author’s last name and standing in place of a previously cited title, are rightly falling into disuse. Since they can refer to works cited many pages or even chapters earlier, they are exceptionally unhelpful. Consider a reader’s frustration on meeting, for example, “Wells, op. cit., 10” in note 95 and having to search back to note 2 for the full source or, worse still, finding that two works by Wells have been cited.

Chicago disallows both op. cit. and loc. cit. and instead uses the short-title form.

Pages In notes or parenthetical citations, where reference is usually to a particular passage in a book or journal, only the page numbers pertaining to that passage are given.

Quotation within a note When a note includes a quotation, the source normally follows the terminal punctuation of the quotation. The entire source need not be put in parentheses, which involves changing existing parentheses to brackets and creating unnecessary clutter.

14. One estimate of the size of the reading public at this time was that of Sydney Smith: “Readers are fourfold in number compared with what they were before the beginning of the French war. … There are four or five hundred thousand readers more than there were thirty years ago, among the lower orders.” Letters, ed. Nowell C. Smith (New York: Oxford University Press, 1953), 1: 341, 343.

Long quotations, which might be set off as extracts in the text, are best run in (enclosed in quotation marks) when they appear in notes, since changes in type size, indention, and vertical space can be awkward to deal with in notes. More than three lines of poetry must be set off.

Title The short title contains the key word or words from the main title. An initial ‘A’ or ‘The’ is omitted. The order of the words should not be changed (for example, Daily Notes of a Trip around the World should be shortened not to World Trip but to Daily Notes or Around the World). Titles of four words or fewer are seldom shortened. The short title is italicized or set in roman according to the way the full title appears.

The War Journal of Major Damon “Rocky” Gause (Short title) War Journal “A Brief Account of the Reconstruction of Aristotle’s Protrepticus” (Short title) “Aristotle’s Protrepticus” Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht, 1940–1945 (Short title) Kriegstagebuch In short titles in languages other than English, no word should be omitted that governs the case ending of a word included in the short title. If in doubt, ask someone who knows the language.

Year In notes, the year of publication appears after the publisher or the journal name.

2. Abstract.



is treated like a journal article, but the word ‘abstract’ must be added.

Morris, Romma Heillig. “Woman as Shaman: Reclaiming the Power to Heal.” Abstract. Women’s Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 24 (September 1995): 573.

In citing a published abstract of an unpublished dissertation, give details of the original as well as of the abstract.

3. Audiovisual material.

Note that the name of the conductor or performer, if the focus of the recording or more relevant to the discussion than that of the composer, may be listed first. The symbol P in a circle means published.

1. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs, vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller, Golden Record A198: 17A–B, 33 rpm.

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