FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

«Enacting European Citizenship edited by Engin F. Isin and Michael Saward cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Enacting European Citizenship

edited by

Engin F. Isin and Michael Saward

cambridge university press

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,

Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City

Cambridge University Press

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press,

New York


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107033962

© Cambridge University Press 2013

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2013 Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by the MPG Books Group A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Enacting European citizenship / edited by Engin F. Isin and Michael Saward.

pages cm ISBN 978-1-107-03396-2 (hardback)

1. Citizenship – Europe. 2. Citizenship – Social aspects – Europe. 3. Group identity – Political aspects – Europe. 4. Nationalism – Europe.

5. Democracy – Europe. 6. Europe – Politics and government.

7. Europe – Social policy. I. Isin, Engin F. (Engin Fahri), 1959– JN40.E65 2013 323.6094–dc23 ISBN 978-1-107-03396-2 Hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

2 Claiming European citizenship Engin F. Isin Introduction Throughout this book we distinguish citizenship of the European Union (EU) from a broader conception of European citizenship. Especially as regards the five themes that guided our research (discussed in Chapter 1), this distinction results from conceiving Europe as an assemblage of multiple and overlapping organisations, institutions, movements, interests, agreements and actors and the European Union as one, significant if not hegemonic, entity among others. Similarly, European citizenship is enacted through not only legal but also cultural, social, economic and symbolic rights, responsibilities and identifications that are irreducible to citizenship of the European Union. As all chapters in the book illustrate, the EU certainly plays a significant role in the constitution of the European citizen.

There is no doubt that the European integration project and specifically the European Union are inventive enterprises that have ushered Europe into a new, arguably post-national or supranational, era (Guild 2004). As an inventive political entity it both attracts and encourages critical engagements, as the ubiquitous term ‘Eurosceptics’ evinces. Arguably, even the most ardent and self-described Eurosceptics engage with the European project in significant ways. Thus, while it is important to insist, as we do, that the EU does not exhaust European citizenship and that the broader ‘European project’ is an important reminder of the limitations and possibilities of the ways in which the European Union has come to define and frame European citizenship, it is equally important to insist, as we also do, that without the inventiveness and the boldness through which the European Union has come to define and institute supranational legal and political norms over the past five decades, it would have been impossible to engage in the struggles over European citizenship that are such vital aspects of European society and politics today.

Yet, the EU authorities – parliamentarians, commissioners, professionals – sometimes frame the radical possibilities opened up by European citizenship in the most confined and limited ways. Admittedly, the tension between 20 Engin F. Isin member states and the EU on matters of citizenship is a delicate matter. This tension is borne out daily in the media, ranging from the decisions of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to the crisis of the euro and debt. Still, there is considerable, if not urgent and necessary, need to tease out the radical possibilities opened up by EU citizenship. This issue can be illustrated by a brief discussion of what the European Commission (EC) calls its first-ever EU citizenship report (EC 2010). The report claims that ‘those who are taking advantage of the European project by extending aspects of their life beyond national borders, through travel, study, work, marriage, retirement, buying or inheriting property, voting, or just shopping online with companies established in other Member States, should fully enjoy their rights under the Treaties’ (EC 2010: 3). The image of European citizenship that this portrays is of legal citizens of the member states of the European Union who may extend their lives beyond their borders and hence enjoy rights that treaties provide. The European project is here narrowed to the European Union and its limited (and derivative) conception of citizenship, understanding and activating the rights that citizens of member states already have outside or across national boundaries. The report addresses ‘a gap [that] still remains between the applicable legal rules and the reality confronting citizens in their daily lives, particularly in cross-border situations’ (EC 2010: 3). This gap indicates that ‘EU citizens may encounter obstacles in the enjoyment of their rights in various roles in their lives: either as private individuals, consumers of goods and services, students and professionals or as political actors’ (EC 2010: 4).

I shall return to this report on EU citizenship at the end of the chapter but there are two apposite points here. Firstly, rather than treating citizenship as claims to articulating rights that citizens currently do not have, it is narrowly focused on the obstacles to the enjoyment of those rights that they already have. This is unfortunate. One of the most promising aspects of citizenship as the linchpin of democratic order is its dynamic quality, enabling subjects as claimants. To be direct, the report conveys, perhaps unwittingly but certainly effectively, a passive image of European citizenship. Given that there is already a tension between member states and the EU, there needs to be a much more emphasis on an active and dynamic idea of European citizenship. Secondly, it also does not address those people and places that have no apparent part in the Union and yet still enact European citizenship by making claims to the arrangements of the broader European project (Balibar 2004; Rancière 1995). This is also unfortunate. For European citizenship becomes most productive precisely when it appears as citizenship-to-come, as enacted by those subjects who constitute themselves as claimants to a Europe-to-come (Derrida 1992). It is this shift from citizenship as arrangements to Claiming European citizenship 21 citizenship as enactments and back to citizenship as arrangements, which the report neglects to emphasise, that provides the core idea of this book and the project it springs from.

This chapter ranges over the key themes raised across the book and the project in order to characterise the key innovations in our understanding of European citizenship as enacted. Through a close reading of all project research papers, it provides the theoretical framework that initially guided the project and then developed throughout its life with empirical studies.

The section ‘Enacting citizenship’ offers a condensed but continuously developing concept of ‘acts of citizenship’ (Isin 2009; Isin and Nielsen 2008). The section ‘Enacting European citizenship’ focuses on project research reports and highlights various acts through which European citizenship is performed and enacted. Then I discuss the analytical and empirical challenges of theorising European citizenship in the section ‘Ambiguities and paradoxes.’ The chapter ends with the section ‘Active and activist European citizens’, which returns to the EC report on citizenship as well as the difference between performativity and enactment, making an important distinction between active and activist citizens. It concludes by urging the European Commission to find ways of taking into account and recognising the rich and deep and yet multi-farious acts of those who make strong claims to European citizenship.

Enacting citizenship The term ‘enacting citizenship’ may sound unfamiliar if not strange. It is not commonly used, if at all, in citizenship studies or European studies. The term enactment is sometimes used in social and political theory but is still not a common concept (see Isin 2008; Law and Urry 2001; Mol 2003;

Saward 2003). The project ‘enacting European citizenship’ was about both studying European citizenship in the broader sense discussed above and developing an innovative way to investigate citizenship as ‘enactment’.

So what does the term ‘enacting citizenship’ mean? When people mobilise for legalising same-sex marriage, rally for public housing, advocate decriminalisation of marijuana or ecstasy for medical uses, wear attire such as headscarves in public spaces, campaign for affirmative action programmes, demand better health-care access and services, demonstrate against austerity measures, seek disability provisions, protest against government or corporate policies and lodge court cases, they do not often imagine let alone express themselves as struggling for the maintenance or expansion of social, cultural or sexual citizenship. Similarly, when Kurds appeal to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), Roma occupy a public park in protest against discrimination and deportation and sex workers submit a manifesto to the 22 Engin F. Isin European Parliament, they do not express themselves as claiming or enacting European citizenship rights. Instead, they are struggling against injustices in ways that are the most practicable, reasonable and feasible for them. They are investing themselves in overcoming whatever injustices seem most important and related to their social lives, and dedicate their time and energy accordingly. That is how it should be; people do not often mobilise and rise for


or universal ideals. Still, what all these actions come to mean collectively and what they tell us about our own social and political lives is also a question that these actions raise.

This book therefore adopts two research principles on the basis of this term ‘enacting citizenship.’ Firstly, recognising that these actions are irreducibly political struggles that arise from people’s social lives, as social and political theorists we interpret them as claims to citizenship. So in that sense ‘acts’ of citizenship do not exist as such but it is we who interpret the struggles and actions as acts. Secondly, while people may not express their struggles in these terms, it is important to acknowledge that when people act, whatever differences may separate them in values, principles and priorities, they are enacting citizenship, even those who are not passportcarrying members of the state or the right state. Our aim is to provide a vocabulary with which to think about these struggles not only for our fellow social and political theorists but also for those who are directly involved in these struggles, those whom we call ‘activist citizens’. What ‘enacting citizenship’ then means in practice is that people perform their right to have rights by asking questions about justice and injustice.

Citizenship is performed in the sense that it involves being and acting with others, negotiating different situations and identities, articulating ourselves as distinct yet similar to others in our everyday lives, asking questions of right and wrong and acting as citizens. Through these social struggles, we develop a sense of our rights as others’ obligations and of others’ rights as our obligations. People may interpret or understand their domains of engagement separately from each other in enacting their social lives, but occasionally an event reminds us that we are performing citizenship. That event may happen when we are deprived of our citizenship, or when we we discover that we do not have the right we thought we did or we are not the subjects we thought we were. It is in this performative sense that citizenship is both a social and political enactment.

The reader who is familiar with contemporary social and political theory may recognize that our approach not only shares some common ground with ‘enactment’ but also with an approach that came to be known as ‘performativity’ associated with Austin, Derrida and Butler as well as Badiou, Rancière and Laclau, albeit in quite different ways. I will make references to their work as we proceed but this chapter is not about Claiming European citizenship 23 elaborating the theoretical trajectories of ‘performing’ or ‘enacting’ citizenship (see Isin 2012). Instead, it provides an outline and illustration using research papers from the ‘Enacting European citizenship’ project.

Studying citizenship as enactment starts with four propositions. These propositions are discussed elsewhere but we will briefly state them here before proceeding with examples from the project (Bassel and Lloyd 2011; Isin 2009, 2012; Isin and Lefebvre 2005; Isin and Nielsen 2008;

˘ Isin and Üstündag 2008; McNevin 2011; Nyers 2006; Schaap 2010).

The first proposition about enactment is that it involves understanding how acts produce subjects. The phrase ‘acts produce subjects’ indicates that events such as demonstrations, appeals, claims and so on create possibilities of acting in certain ways that otherwise would not be possible.

This is different from assuming that subjects already exist before they act.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

Similar works:

«REGULAMENTO BRASILEIRO DA AVIAÇÃO CIVIL RBAC nº 01 º EMENDA nº 02 º Título: DEFINIÇÕES, REGRAS DE REDAÇÃO E UNIDADES DE MEDIDA PARA USO NOS RBAC Aprovação: Resolução ANAC nº 200, de 13 de setembro de 2011, Origem: publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 177, de 14 de SSO/SAR/SIA setembro de 2011, Seção 1, p. 1-2. SUMÁRIO 01.1 Definições 01.2 Abreviaturas e símbolos 01.3 Regras de construção 01.3-I Unidades de medida 01.3-II Disposições finais Data da emissão: 14 de...»

«Grey Photoreactive Resin for Form 1, Form 1+, Form 2 SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared: 08/24/2015 Revised: 02/10/2016 GHS/CLP Labelling Hazard pictograms: Signal word: Warning GHS FORMAT 1. Chemical Product and Company Identification Product Identification: Photoreactive Resin Product Class: Mixture of methacrylic acid esters, photoinitiators, proprietary pigment and additive package Product Use: For use in Formlabs printer Form 1, Form 1+, Form 2 Company: Formlabs, Inc. 35 Medford Street, Suite #201...»

«GREATER DES MOINES SISTER CITIES COMMISSION 400 Robert D. Ray Drive Des Moines, Iowa 50309-1891 Phone: (515) 283-4141 FAX: (515) 237-1300 NEXT MEETING MAY 12, 2015, AT 5:00 P.M. KOFU CONFERENCE ROOM, DES MOINES CITY HALL MINUTES April 14, 2105 Members Present: Heather Carman, Pat Civitate, Mark Daly, Roger Nowadzky, Ginny Renda, Sam Reno (via conference phone), Vidal Spaine, Tim Woods Members Absent: Dave Bair, Tom Becker, Darlene Blake, Kevin Geiken Guest Present: Kathie Watts, Friends of...»

«Green Cloaks Core Rules Version 2.5 Released March 2015 2 Contents Introduction Welcome to Green Cloaks 6 Using This Book 7 What is LARP? 8 The Green Cloaks timeline 9 Part 1 – Playing the Game Chapter 1: Glossary of Game Terms 14 Chapter 2: Out-of-character Game Calls 16 Chapter 3: Safety 17 Combat Safety 17 Non-combatants 17 Alcohol 18 Young Players 18 Chapter 4: Acceptable Behaviour 19 Respect for Other Players and Honour 19 Character Death 19 In-game Theft 19 In-character and...»

«American Ambulance Service, Inc. One American Way, Norwich, Connecticut 06360 860.886.1463 www.americanamb.com Observer Packet & Information Training Program Affiliation: American Professional Educational Services Other:_ American Ambulance Service, Inc. One American Way, Norwich, Connecticut 06360 Observer Requirements Individuals that ride/observe with American Ambulance Service, Inc. must have obtained authorization from the Director of Operations before they observe. Requirements Observers...»


«Submit Form Important Notice Changes 12/2015 Please read below Please do not use the “Submit Form” button at the top of the application. If you submit the application using this button, your application will not be received. The application should be filled out and saved in a location that is easy to locate. Once a Quick Quote has been filled out and you are ready to submit for processing, you can attach the application and (2) photos to the quote. A payment can be made once the Quick Quote...»

«NORTHHOLLAND The Past and Future of Constructive Technology Assessment J O H A N S C H O T and A R I E RIP ABSTRACT Constructive technology assessment (C-f A) is a member of the family of technology assessment approaches, developed in particular in the Netherlands and Denmark. CTA shifts the focus away from assessing impacts of new technologies to broadening design, development, and implementation processes. Explicit CTA has concentrated on dialogue among and early interaction with new actors....»

«DOCUMENT RESUME PS 029 597 ED 454 971 Gadsden, Vivian L.AUTHOR The Absence of Father: Effects on Children's Development and TITLE Family Functioning. Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia. National Center on Fathers INSTITUTION and Families. Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.SPONS AGENCY 1995-08-00 PUB DATE NOTE 26p. National Center on Fathers and Families, University of AVAILABLE FROM Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Education, 3700 Walnut Street, Box 58, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6216. Tel:...»

«HUMAN “Like We Are Not Nepali” RIGHTS Protest and Police Crackdown in the Terai Region of Nepal WATCH “Like We Are Not Nepali” Protest and Police Crackdown in the Terai Region of Nepal Copyright © 2015 Human Rights Watch All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-6231-32897 Cover design by Rafael Jimenez Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people worldwide. We scrupulously investigate abuses, expose the facts widely, and pressure those with power to...»

«L’ É c h o Montfortain N° 522 – English Edition – June 2005 COMMITMENT OF THE SUPERIOR GENERAL AND HIS COUNCIL During the closing celebration of the General Chapter, on 20 May 2005, Fr. Santino Brembilla, the new Superior General, and his assistants together articulated their commitment in the terms which follow. The confreres will recognize in them the principal lines of the chapter document which was unanimously approved by the capitulants. The final edition of the document will be...»

«SASKATCHEWAN ASSOCIATION Medication Management for RNs: A Patient Centred Decision-making Framework September 2015 Acknowledgement The Saskatchewan Registered Nurses’ Association (SRNA) would like to acknowledge and credit, The Nurses Association of New Brunswick (NANB) for granting us permission to quote and adapt their publication entitled “Practice Standard: Medication Administration” (2013), in the development of this SRNA Medication Management for Registered Nurses: A Patient Centred...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.