FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 15 |


-- [ Page 1 ] --



Eline Berghuis- van Westering

May 2012




Master thesis Conflicts, Territories and Identities Author: Eline Berghuis- van Westering Student number: 4075897 Supervisor: Dr. W.M. Verkoren Second supervisor: Prof. Dr. H.J. van Houtum University of Nijmegen 29 May 2012

Photos on the title page:

1. A man holding a sign which reads: ‘We don’t want into EU’, during a protest against Serbia’s EU integration on 11 October 2011. A few days before the European Commission announced they would postpone the decision of whether Serbia would be granted candidacy, conditioning Serbia first to make more progress in the dialogue with Kosovo.

2. Former Serbian President Boris Tadic together with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barosso at a press conference after talks in Brussels on 28 February 2012. A few days later Serbia received the news they were granted EU candidacy.

-2E. BERGHUIS- VAN WESTERING Preface This thesis has been written as part of the master specialisation programme ‘Conflicts, Territories, and Identities’ of Human Geography at the Radboud University of Nijmegen.

The first exploratory phase of my thesis took place in Belgrade, where I conducted a three month internship from April till July 2011 at the Netherlands Embassy. Through this internship and the people I met here, I was able to get familiar with Serbia and learn a lot about the dynamics in this country. I thank the Embassy staff, and in particular my supervisors Tsjeard Hoekstra and Laurent Stokvis, for the instructive and wonderful time I was able to have here.

Back in the Netherlands, the actual writing started, which was not always an easy task. I thank my friends who supported me in this process through their listening, encouragement and sometimes just a simple coffee- or lunch break. I also thank my supervisor Willemijn Verkoren, without whom I would not have been able to deliver such a consistent research. Thank you for your clear and constructive comments and rapid responses.

The finishing of my thesis also marks the end of my period as a student. I am thankful for having had the opportunity to study and develop myself inside and outside the university. I thank my parents who have always supported me in this – not only with financial means. Above all, I thank Dion, who even became my husband during the writing of this thesis. You have witnessed my ups and downs through all of this and I know you must be almost as relieved as I am, that I finished this thesis today. Thank you for your patience, advice and encouragement.

Eline Berghuis- van Westering Utrecht, 29 May 2012

–  –  –

Table of contents List of abbreviations

Chapter 3: Serbian nationalism

List of abbreviations DS Democratic Party DSS Democratic Party of Serbia EC European Community EU European Union ICTY International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia IMF International Monetary Fund KFOR Kosovo Force KLA Kosovo Liberation Army LDP Liberal Democratic Party NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NGO Non-governmental organization OSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe SAA Stabilization and Association Agreement SAP Stabilization and Association Process SEIO Serbian European Integration Office SNS Serbian Progressive Party SPC Serbian Orthodox Church SPS Socialist Party of Serbia SRS Serbian Radical Party UN United Nations UNSC United Nations Security Council US United States of America

–  –  –

Executive summary The EU is at the centre of attention currently. While there are debates about the future of Europe and the dismissal of countries out of the Eurozone, there are also countries on their way to becoming a new member of the EU. Serbia is one of these countries. Little more than a decade ago this country was still caught in a disastrous conflict which resulted in an isolated position within the international community. In 2000 the nationalistic rule of Milošević came to an end and the new government immediately initiated a restoration of Serbia in Europe. Serbia was granted the official candidate status in March this year.

In literature we find that there is problematic relation between nationalism and a positive public opinion on European integration. First, a strong position of nationalism in the country does not allow people to identify with anything other than their nation, thus also not with Europe. Second, nationalism wants to protect the sovereignty of a country and does not approve the transfer of authority to another level, such as the EU. Given the history of Serbia with nationalism I wanted to test these theories with the case of Serbia’s EU integration, by a) assessing the importance of nationalism in Serbia nowadays and b) by studying the effect nationalism had on the politics and public opinion with regard to European integration.

The case study shows that there are factors in the Serbian society which have slowed down the integration process. The conditions that are set by the EU, especially with regard to Kosovo and cooperation with the ICTY, have faced opposition in the country. The proEuropean government therefore had to find strategies to balance between the conservative forces in the country and the demands of the EU. They adopted a strategy in which they have separated the affective and utilitarian dimension of becoming European. They have downplayed the first and emphasized the second. Among the public we see the same division being made. A large part of the population dislikes and distrusts the EU because they feel treated unjustly by them. On the other hand, people want Serbia to become a member of the EU because they expect that this will be beneficiary for their country as a whole and will improve their personal economic situation.

I conclude that the nationalistic sentiments that are present in Serbia at the moment, do influence the process of EU integration. I have not found evidence that the reason for this is the impossibility to develop a European identity due to a strong attachment to the national identity. In Serbia it is influenced mostly by the threat they perceive to national sovereignty and territorial integrity, especially with regard to Kosovo. On the other hand we have observed that utilitarian arguments have a strong influence on people’s public opinion on European integration.

–  –  –

Chapter 1: Introduction Serbia is in the phase of a transition. After the wars following the breakup of Yugoslavia and the fall of the Milošević regime, the country is now making steps on the road towards EU accession. Since 2000 the country has been pursuing EU membership, but only recently it was recognized as an official candidate country. The recognition of Serbia as a candidate state will not self-evidently mean accession, as we have seen with Turkey, for example. Farreaching reforms must be undergone by candidate countries to become stable democracies and prosperous market economies. The EU views enlargement as an opportunity, and one of its most powerful policy tools, to help in the transformation of the countries involved, extending peace, stability, prosperity, democracy, human rights and the rule of law throughout Europe (European Commission; 2008). Such an extensive process requires a substantial amount of support and commitment of the political elite as well as the general public in a country.

The transformative process in Serbia, which influences political, social, economical and legislative aspects, was and is not supported by everyone in the country. Compared to neighboring country Croatia, Serbia is making slow progress. Still part of the society voices a strong nationalistic attitude. The fight to retain Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia is the most visible aspect of the nationalistic attitude that is still present. Now that Serbia has transferred all of its suspected war criminals to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague, normalization of the relation between Serbia and Kosovo is the most important criterion for the EU member states. In the governmental and presidential elections in Serbia, which were held in May 2012, Kosovo was an important topic. During the campaigns, Tadic had to defend the strategy his government has followed the last years, which was characterized by the slogan ‘both Kosovo and Europe’. It took careful balancing for them the last years to satisfy both the EU by having a constructive attitude towards Kosovo, as well as the population by insuring them that they will not give up Kosovo. Tadic’ party, the DS, remained the biggest in the governmental elections but Nikolic, of the SNS, has won the presidential elections.

The polls conducted amongst the population give an indication of the popular support for EU integration. In the last year these polls show that approximately half of the population supports EU membership of Serbia, while one-third would vote against it and the rest would abstain (Barlovac, 2011b; SEIO, 2012). In June 2011 the lowest level of support since 2000 was measured. In the public debate in Serbia several reasons have been mentioned for this. Milica Delevic, director of the European Integration Office, blames it on the difficult economic situation both Serbia and the EU are currently in (Delevic, 2011). Others have argued that people are getting tired ‘of the promises ‘about the European future’ and the unfulfilled expectations. They feel that even though Serbia has fulfilled all demands, it keeps being faced with new conditions every time (Simic, 2011). A third reason for the low support which is put forward, is the negative attitude of the population towards NATO. This is induced by the NATO bombings of Belgrade in 1999, and the connection the population makes between the EU and NATO (Simic, 2011). A last mentioned reason for the latest drop

-8E. BERGHUIS- VAN WESTERING of support is the unrest in northern Kosovo, where since July tensions have been high.

Kosovo Serbs have been manning barricades in protest against the deployment of Kosovo officials on the border with Serbia. This led to clashes between Serbs, Albanians and KFOR peacekeepers. People are afraid that the European road means giving up Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia. Although this is not the demand of the EU, the political elite is not able to alter this view (Barlovac, 2011b). The EU support in Serbia thus seems not only related with practical and instrumental considerations, but also with historical memories and nationalist sentiments: In this research I will study this relationship. Why does Serbia relate to the EU the way it does and what role does nationalism play in this?

1.1 Research goal and questions

This research has the aim to further develop the theory on the relation between nationalism, public opinion and European integration. In order to do so I have conducted a case study on Serbia’s process of EU integration. I will deal with the choice for this specific case later on.

First I will discuss the research goal and question. I have formulated the goal of this research

as following:

Improve the knowledge of the relationship between public opinion on European integration and nationalism; a) by providing an overview of the existing theory regarding the influence of nationalism on the public opinion on European integration, and b) by further developing this theory by studying the case of Serbia’s process towards EU integration.

Following the central goal of this research, I formulated the main research question: What is the influence of nationalism on public opinion on EU integration? And how does nationalism affect Serbia’s process towards EU integration?

This research question will be answered with the help of the following sub questions:

o What is the meaning and importance of nationalism for people?

o What factors play a role in public opinion on European integration?

o How can we characterize Serbian nationalism?

o What is the general opinion on European integration in Serbia?

o Which determinants are relevant in the explanation of the public opinion on European integration in Serbia?

o What is the role of domestic politics in the formation of the public opinion on European integration in Serbia?

o What role does nationalism play in the European integration process and in the public opinion on European integration in Serbia?

–  –  –

1.2 Relevance Societal relevance The idea of a European project came into being after the Second World War. European integration and cooperation was seen as the only possible solution to put an end to the competitive nationalism that led to two wars. ‘According to Europe's founding myth, a new commonality, beginning with a European common market, respect for democratic institutions, human rights, and the rule of law, would define the European project (Motha, 2010).’ Currently the European project is under threat. The economic crisis caused uncertainty and doubts about the feasibility of a stable common European market. The trust in Europe declines and people are starting to show more nationalistic attitudes. The populist sentiments that were voiced in reaction to the Greek Emergency Liquidity Assistance characterized these attitudes. Many people feel that the Greek should solve their own problems or step out of the Eurozone, the money of the ordinary tax payer should not be used to help them. In the Netherlands, 63% of the population was against European support for Greece (Novum, 2011).

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 15 |

Similar works:

«QUARTO DE EMPREGADA Texto de Roberto Freire 2 PERSONAGENS ROSA Preta de cinqüenta anos, cozinheira. Espécie remanescente das velhas escravas. Mulher simplória e boa, mas de linguagem dura e de grande experiência. SUELY Moça branca, de uns vinte anos. Copeira. Típica mocinha do interior, adaptada à condição de doméstica. Guarda ainda uma certa pureza de província, mesclada ao cinismo de contágio das marginalizadas nas grandes cidades. Levemente avoada e bonita. 3 CENÁRIO Cubículo...»

«International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA) Vol.7, No.6, November 2015 A MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH TO ANOMALY-BASED DETECTION ON ANDROID PLATFORMS Joshua Abah1, Waziri O.V2, Abdullahi M.B3, Arthur U.M4 and Adewale O.S5 1,3,4,5 Departement of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. 2 Departement of Cyber Security Science, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. ABSTRACT The emergence of mobile platforms with increased storage and...»

«Sociology and Library Research LEIGH ESTABROOK To ANYONE FAMILIAR with them both, the relevance of sociological theory and methodology to research in librarianship may seem selfevident. For example, community analysis and user studies examine social and demographic factors that are assumed to affect attitudes toward and use of libraries; the seemingly endless debate about the cxtent to which librarianship is a profession is based on the belief that one can examine an occupational group as a...»

«Tanzania Growth Diagnostic Partnership for Growth (2011) A Joint Analysis for the Governments of the United Republic of Tanzania and the United States of America We have a long and difficult way to go before achieving the kind of development that we desire. It is important that we give due attention to the question of promoting economic growth in our countries and bringing about development to our people.President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, Address to the African Union, February 3, 2009 To...»

«2015 NORTHERN NEVADA ENERGY CODE AMENDMENTS 2012 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE Published by the Northern Nevada Chapter of the International Code Council: November 2, 2015 ABC AGC BANN 240 S Rock Blvd. 5400 Mill Street 5484 Corporate Dr. Suite121 Reno, NV 89502 Suite 100 Reno, NV 89502 Reno, NV 89511 Carson City City of Fernley City of Reno 108 E Proctor Street 595 Silver Lace Blvd. 1 E First Street Carson City, NV 89701 Fernley, NV 89408 Reno, NV 89501 City of Sparks Lyon County...»

«Threat Modeling and the Internet of Things featuring Allen Householder and Art Manion as Interviewed by Suzanne Miller Suzanne Miller: Welcome to the SEI Podcast Series, a production of the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. The SEI is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon University. A transcript of today’s podcast is posted on the SEI website at sei.cmu.edu/podcasts. My name is...»

«Why You Should Be Using Intermittent Mist By Dwayne Haskell http://mistkits.com You are allowed to give this report away free on your website as long as the report is not altered in any way, including leaving all links active. ©Mistkits.com all rights reserved 1 Why You Should Be Using Intermittent Mist By Dwayne Haskell http://mistkits.com As I have written before in my article The Magic of Misting, an intermittent mist system is essential to be consistently successful with rooting cuttings....»

«PUATraining.com About This Guide This is a guide for text messaging game, itʼs a summary of various recent posts on the issue. I would like to give credit to all those who have contributed with posts on the forum, PMʼs and text msgs, all were very helpful and much appreciated. Since the follow up between day one and day two, depends so much on which direction the initial interaction went, I have broken it down between comfort based game and sexually direct game. It is essential that the...»

«Spatial disintegration and arable land security in Egypt: A study of smalland moderate-sized urban areas Jeffrey S. Robsona, Hany M. Ayadb, Rania Wasfic, and Ahmed M. El-Geneidy*d a Masters Student, School of Urban Planning, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 2K6 b Associate professor, Architectural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, Egypt c PhD Student, Department of Geography, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 2K6...»

«IHP/2012/IHP-VIII/1 Rev. Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO) Programa Hidrológico Internacional (PHI) OCTAVA FASE “SEGURIDAD HÍDRICA: RESPUESTAS A LOS DESAFÍOS LOCALES, REGIONALES, Y MUNDIALES” PLAN ESTRATÉGICO PHI-VIII 2014-2021 La traducción de este documento es cortesía del Comité Nacional del PHI de México y el Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua (IMTA). 1 CAPÍTULO 1: INTRODUCCIÓN CAPÍTULO 2: E TAPA PRESENTE Y...»

«Filed 11/26/12 IN THE SUPREME COURT OF CALIFORNIA SARGON ENTERPRISES, INC., ) ) Plaintiff and Appellant, ) ) S191550 v. ) ) Ct.App. 2/1 B202789, B205034 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN ) CALIFORNIA et al., ) ) Los Angeles County Defendants and Appellants. ) Super. Ct. No. BC209992 ) A small dental implant company that had net profits of $101,000 in 1998 has sued a university for breach of a contract for the university to clinically test a new implant the company had patented. The company seeks damages...»

«MINUTES OF THE REGULAR MEETING OF THE WYTHEVILLE TOWN COUNCIL HELD IN THE COUNCIL CHAMBERS ON MONDAY, JANUARY 25, 2016, AT 7:00 P.M. Members present: Trenton G. Crewe, Jr., Jacqueline K. King, H. Judson Lambert, William B. Weisiger, Thomas F. Hundley Others present: Town Manager C. Wayne Sutherland, Jr., Town Clerk Sharon G. Corvin, Tim Reeves, Debbie Reeves, Danny Gordon with WYVE-AM/WXBXFM/WLOY-AM, Police Officer Jeff Hall RE: CALL TO ORDER, QUORUM, PLEDGE Mayor Crewe called the meeting to...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.