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Questions for discussion
27TH JULY 2010
27TH JULY 2010
Australia’s voting system
develop a deeper
the key features
Related Research Links
27TH JULY 2010
The Arts Key learning Students will detect different genres of music Styles of music and explore a genre in more depth.
Teachers will need to collect a variety of songs from different genres for this activity. YouTube may be a useful resource.
Reflection Further investigations Related Research Links BtN: Episode 19 Transcripts 27/07/10 On this week's Behind the News We remember one of Australia's darkest days - the Battle of Fromelles.
Some oily critters need a soapy wash to save their lives And can music be blamed for violence and crime?
Also today, with all the buzz about cooking shows lately, we'll look inside a kitchen to find out what really goes on.
But first let's catch up with Tash to see what's in the wire.
The Wire The first and what looks like the only debate of this year's federal election was held Sunday night and opinion seems to be divided over who actually won.
Both pollies played it safe as they fielded questions about asylum seekers, taxes and the environment.
Some commentators gave it to Julia Gillard, while others gave it to Tony Abbott.
Most did agree that the result was a very close one and with a reported 43 percent of voters saying they're still making up their mind about who they'll vote for the next few weeks of campaigning could make the difference.
********* And a catamaran made out of plastic bottles sailed into Sydney Harbour on Monday.
The 'Plastiki' is made from 12,500 plastic drink bottles and has sailed about 8,000 nautical miles from San Francisco to Sydney to make a point about the wayplastic is used.
The boat will be on display at the Australian National Maritime Museum for the next month.
Preferential Voting Reporter: Sarah Larsen INTRO: As you know in a few weeks Australia's going to have a federal election.
People will get to vote for the political party they want to be in power and that'll decide who gets to be the prime minister.
But do you know how voting actually works?
There's a bit more to it that just ticking a box.
In Australia we use a system called 'preferential voting'.
Sarah's been finding out how it all works.
SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Ever had to make a really important decision as a group?
MUM: OK guys, what do you want for dinner?
Kid 1: Chinese!
Kid 2: Sushi!
Kid 3: Yeah, Sushi.
Kid 4: Chicken!
Kid 5: Pizza!
MUM: hang on! I'm not driving all around town! You'll have to decide on one thing.
Keeping as many people happy as possible isn't always simple.
REPORTER: Now the obvious thing to do is to put this to the vote but that might not be as simple as it seems.
Let’s count the votes. As you can see, Sushi has the most but that doesn't mean it'll keep the most people happy. Even though two people love sushi three might absolutely hate it so the majority of you would be miserable! So what if we asked for people's preferences?
Mum: OK, if you can't have your first choice, what's your second choice?
KID 1: I kind of like pizza.
KID 2: Yeah, pizza's OK.
KID 3: Pizza's cool.
KID 4: Chicken's alright.
KID 5: Chinese.
Now things are getting a bit easier. Pizza might only be one person's first choice but three more people made it their second choice. That means four people are happy with pizza. Now you might think dinner is a long way from politics but what just happened here is kind of similar to the way Australians vote in elections. It’s called preferential voting.
When people go to the polls they're asked to number each candidate in order of preference: Number one for the pollie they want most, number two for their second choice, number three for their third and so on. Let's pretend three of you are politicians. To win your seat you have to get half of the votes plus one so if there's say, 100 voters you'll need 51 to win. Ready?
The votes are in and after the first count, Hugo has 40 votes, Alison has 38 votes, and Alex has 22 votes. Now the person with the least votes is eliminated. Sorry Alex. But the people who voted for Alex still get a say. Because counters will look at all the votes for Alex and see who people put as their second preference. Those extra votes go to the remaining candidates; nine more for Hugo and thirteen for Allison.
So Allison, who was behind on the first vote, now has 51 votes and is declared the winner!
So you can see that preferences are pretty important. Political parties put a lot of effort into persuading people to make the choice that benefits them the most. That's why they hand out "how to vote" cards.
They show how the party you vote for would like you to order your preferences. It's serious because if it’s close the result of an election can be decided by preferences. And because minor parties are less likely to win, they often do deals with the major parties to give them preferences on how to vote cards. But, of course, it's only a suggestion because at the end of the day how you vote is up to you. And every vote counts even if you don't get exactly what you want!
Fromelles Burial Reporter: Nathan Bazley INTRO: Last week we heard about a huge memorial service in France.
It was for the battle of Fromelles which is said to be one of the bloodiest days in Australia's history.
Many of the soldiers were only in their late teens or early twenties when they were ordered into action.
And many didn't survive.
After the battle a few hundred of the soldiers were buried in mass graves and the area was forgotten.
But now 94 years later, those soldiers have finally been found and laid to rest properly.
NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: Some of these men are the great, great, great grandfathers of kids today.
But they were only a few years older than you when they faced one of the most horrific conflicts our nation has fought.
Their role was to charge from the trenches on the sound of a whistle, into the face of heavy fire from the German Army.
RELATIVE (reading from diary): Nothing could exceed the bravery of those boys. The first wave went down like wheat before the reaper.
When the time came for the second wave to go over, there was not a man left standing from the first, yet not a lad faltered.
It was 1916, a year after the Gallipoli campaign, and World War One was still raging across Europe.
And on the 19th of July, a group of Australian soldiers were sent into the battlefield of Fromelles, in France.
The fight lasted just 24 hours, but in that short time, more than 5,500 Australian soldiers were killed, wounded or taken prisoner.
One of the soldiers that fought that day was Harold Bourke.
Harold was sadly one of hundreds of soldiers killed on that battlefield whose bodies disappeared, never to be found again.
The mystery remained unanswered right up until a few years ago, when a retired school teacher with a passion for history took up the challenge.
LAMBIS ENGLEZOS, AMATEUR HISTORIAN: Clearly they were not at rest and we owed it to them, collectively we owed it to them to recover them and give them their dignity.
During the chaos of battle, bodies of fallen soldiers were often buried by the enemy to stop the spread of disease.
So using old war records and photos, Lambis managed to track down where they were buried all those years ago.
The whole area was then carefully dug up and examined.
And here, underneath these green fields of the French countryside, they found the remains of 250 soldiers that had been lost for nearly a century.
After that amazing discovery, science got involved to help link the lost remains to their living relatives.
In France, DNA was taken from the teeth and bones found.
NATHAN: At the same time in Australia, DNA swabs were taken from relatives alive today, just like this.
The two were matched up, and all of a sudden families had their lost relatives back once again.
JUSTIN BOURKE: I was just lost for words. It's almost as if Harold had suddenly come to life.
Ninety-six soldiers have been identified so far.
Their remains have now been buried and given a special tombstone with their name on it.
And for their relatives at this special ceremony held to honour those found here, the impact of just knowing can't be underestimated.
Oil Rescue Reporter: Sarah Larsen INTRO: There's finally been some good news from that oil disaster in the US.
BP has put a new cap on the well that's been spewing oil since April and for now it's almost stopped the leak.
But the problem is far from over.
Wildlife workers are still working flat out trying to save animals affected by the huge amount of oil that's floating on the water.
So why is oil so deadly to animals?
There's finally been some good news from Louisiana. BP have put a new cap on the well that's been spewing oil into the gulf of Mexico since April and for now it's almost stopped the flow of oil. But the disaster is far from over. Wildlife workers are still working flat out trying to save animals affected by the huge amount of oil that's floating on the water. So why is oil so deadly to animals?
SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Sea turtles don't get an easy start to life. The mother will lay dozens of eggs and once they hatch the tiny babies will have to fend for themselves. Only about 1 percent will make it to adulthood. Except in the oil-strewn Gulf of Mexico the hatchlings would have almost no chance at all.
DIANNE INGRAM, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE BIOLOGIST: The oil floats, gets caught up in the same currents that the hatchlings would be. So they would be, they would end up right where most of the oil is now.
Wildlife rescuers are carefully collecting turtle eggs on the Louisiana coast so when they hatch they can be moved to cleaner waters. It's really delicate work. If the eggs are moved too much or turned upside down, the baby inside will die but conservationists say this is their best chance.
DIANNE INGRAM: “But knowing that whatever would crawl to the water this year likely wouldn't survive at all, we feel any that we could save by taking to the Atlantic is what we need to do."
Turtles are one of the many species threatened by the oil. Anything that lives in or around the ocean is at risk and oil can kill in many different ways. If animals swallow oil it can cause stomach ulcers and damage their internal organs. Fish can mistake the floating oil for food and eat it then if another animal eats too many poisoned fish it can be poisoned too. If it gets into an animal’s eyes it can cause an infection and if they go blind they can't find food. If lots of small animals die it disrupts the food chain meaning bigger animals don't have as much to eat. And for birds even just getting oil on your feathers can be deadly.
REPORTER: Seabirds have special waterproof feathers that help them float and regulate their body temperature but once they're coated in oil they can't swim or fly or keep warm. And once oil's on something it’s really hard to get off. Water does nothing.
To save these animals rescuers have to wash them in soapy water. The soap cuts through the grease but every feather has to be totally oilfree. Oil-covered turtles get a similar treatment and here at a New Orleans zoo kids are learning how to gently scrub an oily shell. These turtles are only plastic but the zoo keepers reckon it’s important to inspire a new generation of animal rescuers.
LAINEY, 9: I think I've learned that taking care of the animals that got hurt by the oil is very important These kids could be seeing the effects of the spill for a long time to come. It could be months or even years until the environment recovers. Until then the clean-up will continue. The oil company responsible has already spent billions of dollars on plugging the leak and mopping up. But it's going to take a whole lot more money and time before the job's done.
Presenter: Ok in that story, Sarah showed us that oil and water don't mix so let's do a bit of a chemistry quiz.
Two liquids that don't mix together are:
immersible immiscible miserable Answer: immiscible Young Chefs INTRO: Well one place you'd want to know how things mix together is in the kitchen!
TV cooking shows have been hugely popular and for Masterchef, ratings have gone through the roof.
Cooking is not all bright TV lights and glamour though being a chef and running a kitchen is a big business.
Tash went to find out what life in the kitchen is really like.
NATASHA THIELE, REPORTER: You've probably helped out in the kitchen before or at least made a big mess!
And it seems more young people are showing an interest in cooking, thanks to shows like Masterchef.
But it's not always as glamorous as what you see on TV, there's actually a lot of hard work involved.
A restaurant needs to be a highly organised operation, so meals are prepared and cooked to perfection.
And to do that you need an Executive Chef.
They're in charge of pretty much everything and there's a special recipe to being one.
The executive chef looks after staff, works out what's on the menu, how much to charge for dishes, places food orders and deals with any complaints from customers.
A chef needs to be pretty creative and come up with new and unique recipes, to keep the dishes interesting and diners happy.
Even though they might not own the restaurant, they're involved in as much of the business side as they are with the actual cooking.
And that involves a bit of maths, especially when it comes to the cost of all the food they sell.
Chefs try to find the top quality produce for the best price.
The general rule is customers should pay around three times more, than the cost of the ingredients.