«SYAZANA BASYIRAH BINTI MOHAMMAD ZAKI UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 2015 DESIGN OF 10 GHz NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DIELECTRIC RESONATOR OSCILLATOR by SYAZANA ...»
DESIGN OF 10 GHz NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DIELECTRIC RESONATOR
SYAZANA BASYIRAH BINTI MOHAMMAD ZAKI
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA
DESIGN OF 10 GHz NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DIELECTRIC
SYAZANA BASYIRAH BINTI MOHAMMAD ZAKIThesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science January 2015
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIn the name of ALLAH, Most Generous and Most Merciful It is with the deepest sense of gratitude of the Almighty ALLAH who gives strength and ability to complete this project. All good aspirations, devotions and prayers are due to His blessing.
First and foremost, I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my supportive supervisor,Associate Professor Dr. Mohd. Fadzil bin Ain who was instrumental in providing guidance and supervision throughout conducting this project. His willingness to assist in my comprehension and application of oscillator concepts is invaluable and will not be forgotten.
The completion of this dissertation would not also be the possible without a help from Mr.
Zulhaimi whom provided me with the guidance and much-needed assistance on the design and measurement of this project every single step of the way.
This dissertation is also dedicated to all staffs at PPKEE‟s Laboratory, for giving me chances to use test and measurement equipment at the laboratory. Not forgetting, Mr. Latip, Mdm. Zamira, Mr.Elias and also Mr. Zubir who had offered me continuous guidance and cooperation during the course of this project.
Special appreciations are dedicated to all lecturers at PPKEE especially Dr.
Aftanasar bin Md. Shaharas my internal examiner for giving guidanceduring my viva. I would also like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia for Research University (RU) grant number RUT 854004, which supported this project. A lot of thanks to my husband, Muhamad Akmal Rasheeq and family members especially my beloved father and mother for their lovesand supports. Finally,a lot of appreciationsto my friend, Khairul Anuar and for those who had been involved in this project directly and indirectly.
TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF SYMBOLS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.2 Problem Statement
1.4 Scope of Research
1.5 Dissertation Organization
CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Overview
2.2 Theoretical Background
2.2.1 Microwave Oscillator
2.2.2 Characteristics of an Oscillator
2.2.3 High Frequency Oscillator Design
18.104.22.168 Negative Resistance Oscillator
2.2.4 Requirement for Oscillator Design
2.3 Dielectric Resonator
2.3.1 Types of Resonator
22.214.171.124 Electric and Magnetic Field Patterns
126.96.36.199 Resonant Frequency
188.8.131.52 Mode of Operation
184.108.40.206 Coupling Method
220.127.116.11 Coupling Coefficient
18.104.22.168 Quality Factor
22.214.171.124 Tuning Method
2.3.3 Configurations of Dielectric Resonator
2.4 Dielectric Resonator Oscillator
2.4.1 Characteristics of Dielectric Resonator Oscillator
2.4.2 Configuration of Dielectric Resonator Oscillator
2.4.3 Limitations of Dielectric Resonator Oscillator
126.96.36.199 Phase Noise
188.8.131.52 Other Sources of Phase Noise
2.4.4 Design Consideration of a Low Phase Noise DRO
2.4.5 Choice of Active Device
2.4.6 Characteristic of Dielectric Material for Dielectric Resonator
2.5 Theoretical Background of Series Feedback DRO
2.6 Literature Review of Series Feedback DRO
2.6.1 Design of a 5.305 GHz DRO with Simulation and Optimization
2.6.2 The Design of the Ku band DRO
2.6.3 Design of 5.8 GHz DRO Applied in Electronic Toll Collection
2.6.4 DRO Design and Realization at 4.25 GHz
2.7 Theoretical Background of Push-Push Oscillator
2.8 Literature Review of Push-Push DRO
2.8.1 K-Band Push-Push Oscillator Using DR
2.8.2 Design of a K-Band Push-Push DRO
iv 2.8.3 17.4 GHz Push-Push DRO
2.8.4 K-Band Harmonic DRO Using Parallel Feedback Structure
2.8.5 Push-Push DRO Substrate Integrated Waveguide Power Combiner
2.9 The Differences between Dual Transistors Negative Resistance and Push-Push DRO..63
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN METHODOLOGY3.1 Overview
3.2 Flow Chart
3.3 Negative Resistance DRO Design
3.4 Simulation and Result
3.5 Modeling of Dielectric Resonator Oscillator Circuit
3.5.2 Active Devices
3.5.3 Designing an Oscillator
3.6 Modeling of Dielectric Resonator
3.6.1 Parameter of Dielectric Resonator
3.6.2 Modeling of the Dielectric Resonator in ADS
3.6.3 Modeling Dielectric Resonator in CST
3.7 Modeling of Dielectric Resonator Oscillator
3.7.1 Radio Frequency Choke Network
3.7.2 Determination of Output Matching
3.7.3 Power Supply Biasing
3.7.4 Basic Design Schematic of Negative Resistance DRO
3.8 Fabrication, Testing and Measurement
3.8.1 Metal Casing
3.8.2 Oscillation Frequency, Output Power and Phase Noise Measurement
4.2 CST MWS and ADS Simulation Results
4.2.1 Simulation Results of Dielectric Resonator Model in CST MWS
4.2.2 Simulation Results of Dielectric Resonator Model in ADS
4.3 Dielectric Resonator Measurement
4.3.1 Dielectric Resonator Measurement Result
4.4 Analysis of the Single and Dual Transistors Negative Resistance DRO
4.5 Simulation Result of Single Transistor Negative Resistance DRO
4.6 Simulation Result of Dual Transistors Negative Resistance DRO
4.7 Measurement Results
4.7.1 Measurement Result of Single Transistor Negative Resistance DRO
4.7.2 Measurement Result of Dual Transistors Negative Resistance DRO
CHAPTER 5:CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations for Future Work
LIST OF PUBLICATION
APPENDIX A:DATASHEET OF E2000 SERIES DIELECTRIC RESONATORAPPENDIX B: DATASHEET OF ATF-36077
APPENDIX C: ALUMINIUM METAL CASING TECHNICAL DRAWING
APPENDIX D: SMA CONNECTOR, RFI SUPPRESSION FILTER AND SMA
CONNECTOR TECHNICAL DATASHEET
APPENDIX G: STEP OF PHASE NOISE MEASUREMENT
APPENDIX H: WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER
APPENDIX I: STEPS OF MODELING DIELECTRIC RESONATOR OSCILLATOR
APPENDIX J: GAP ANALYSIS
APPENDIX K: MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY PULLING
APPENDIX L: CALCULATION OF RLC VALUE IN DIELECTRIC RESONATOR
Figure 2.1: Circuit for a two-port transistor oscillator
Figure 2.2: General oscillator circuit
Figure 2.3: Geometry of a DR coupled to a microstrip line and the equivalent circuit.
..............26 Figure 2.4: Graph of coupling coefficient against distance from the center of the puck to the center of the microstrip line
Figure 2.5: Equivalent circuit of the DR
Figure 2.6: A mechanical tuning arrangement for DROs
Figure 2.7: Parallel configuration (bandpass) of DR.
Figure 2.8: Series configuration (bandstop) of DR.
Figure 2.9: Graph of S21 (dB) against frequency (Ain, 2006).
Figure 2.10: Series feedback DR oscillator.
Figure 2.11: Parallel feedback DR oscillator.
Figure 2.12: Signal and noise spectrum of an oscillator
Figure 2.13: Nonlinear model for the DRO (Wan, 2008).
Figure 2.14: (a) Design of the DRO, (b) 3D model of DR coupling in CST (Guoguang, 2008).
Figure 2.15: DRO model in ADS (Guoguang, 2008).
Figure 2.16: Magnitude of S11 (upper), magnitude of S22 (middle) and
stability factor (lower) of Agilent-ATF13786 with 145°open stub line (Bing et al., 2009).........48 Figure 2.18: Nonlinear simulation results. (a) Output spectrum (15.7dB at harmonic index1), (b) phase noise (-98.7dBc/Hz @100kHz offset ) (Bing et al., 2009).
Figure 2.19: Magnitudes of S11 an S21 (Ugurlu, 2011)
Figure 2.20: Angles of S11 an S21 (Ugurlu, 2011).
Figure 2.21: Basic concept of push-push oscillator (Tanaka and Aikawa, 2009)
Figure 2.22: Schematic circuit of the push-push oscillator using DR (Tanaka and Aikawa, 2009).
viii Figure 2.23: Combined circuit (Han-li et al., 2012).
Figure 2.24: Circuit configuration of a single series feedback DRO (Qing et al.
, 2010).............57 Figure 2.25: Block diagram of a push-push DRO configuration (Qing et al., 2010)...................58 Figure 2.26: Simulation schematic of push-push DRO (Qing et al., 2010).
Figure 2.27: The coupling structure of DR and two microstrip lines.
(a) Coupling circuit, (b) equivalent circuit (Du et al., 2012).
Figure 2.28: Simplified structure of the harmonic frequency oscillator.
(a) Simplified structure, (b) circuit used lump model (Du et al., 2012).
Figure 2.29: The configuration of push-push DRO (Su et al.
Figure 2.30: The configuration of SIW T-junction power combiner (Su et al.
, 2012).................62 Figure 3.1: Flow Chart.
Figure 3.2: Electrical model of DR.
Figure 3.3: Series feedback type of DR.
Figure 3.4: Simulation result of DR series feedback type.
Figure 3.5: A block diagram of negative resistance DRO.
Figure 3.6: Front page menus of (a) ADS and (b) CST Microwave Studio.
Figure 3.7: A diagram of 3-dimensional microstrip line of DR
Figure 3.8: DR coupled to a microstrip line and the equivalent circuit.
Figure 3.9: (a) Parameters in DR calculator software, Temex Ceramics, (b) the generated value of the RLC components.
Figure 3.10: A diagram of DR coupled model.
(a) Parallel coupled, (b) series coupled..............82 Figure 3.11: The modeling of DR in ADS. (a) Parallel coupled, (b) series coupled.
Figure 3.12: The view of DR design in CST MWS.
(a) Front view, (b) cross-sectional view.....85 Figure 3.13: A 3-dimensional structure of DR design in CST MWS (CST, 2013).
Figure 3.14: Parallel feedback DR in CST MWS with two ports and via holes.
Figure 3.15: Typical microwave oscillator circuit (Ain, 2003).
Figure 3.16: RF choke network model (Mahyuddin and Latif, 2013).
Figure 3.17: Dimension of radial stub.
ix Figure 3.18: Schematic of RF choke network with quarter wavelength in ADS.
Figure 3.19: The stub in DRO schematic designed in ADS.
Figure 3.20: The stability circle of ATF-36077 at 10 GHz.
Figure 3.21: The input and output matching network.
Figure 3.22: Selecting Гin from the Smith Chart.
Figure 3.23: Output matching of negative resistance DRO on the Smith Chart.
Figure 3.24: Single-supply source biasing for pHEMT (Ain and Hassan, 2011).
Figure 3.25: A schematic diagram of a single transistor 10 GHz negative resistance DRO
Figure 3.26: Simulation result of a single transistor 10 GHz negative resistance DRO.
............103 Figure 3.27: The fabricated single transistor negative resistance DRO for testing and measurement process.
Figure 3.28: The E4405B ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzer (Agilent).
Figure 3.29: A measurement construction setup and the image of the hardware during the measurement process.
Figure 3.30: Oscillation frequency, output power and phase noise measurement.
(a) Oscillator spectrum, (b) single-sideband phase noise log plot.
Figure 4.1: S-parameters simulation result for 2-ports DR model in CST MWS.
Figure 4.2: 2-ports S-parameters DR model simulation result in ADS.
Figure 4.3: The image of 2-ports DR measured by using the network analyzer.
Figure 4.4: 2-ports S-parameter measurement result of DR model in ADS.
Figure 4.5: The single transistor schematic design of negative resistance DRO in ADS.
..........115 Figure 4.6: The simulation result of single transistor negative resistance DRO.
Figure 4.7: The phase noise simulation result of single transistor negative resistance DRO.
....116 Figure 4.8: The dual transistors schematic design of negative resistance DRO in ADS............118 Figure 4.9: The simulation result of dual transistors negative resistance DRO.
Oscillation frequency and output power, (b) phase noise.
Figure 4.12: Single transistor negative resistance DRO comparison between simulation and measurement.