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«HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR PART II - ENGLISH Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman TAMILNADU TEXTBOOK ...»

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ENGLISH READER

HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR

PART II - ENGLISH

Untouchability is a sin

Untouchability is a crime

Untouchability is inhuman

TAMILNADU

TEXTBOOK CORPORATION

College Road, Chennai – 600 006.

© Government of Tamilnadu

First Edition - 2004

Chairperson

Reprient - 2006 Dr. S. SWAMINATHA PILLAI Former Director School of Distance Education Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Overall Reviewer Thiru S.GOMATHINATHAN Special Officer, ELT / Reader, D.T.E.R.T. (Retired), W – 5 (Old 302), 19th Street, Annanagar Western Extension, Chennai - 600 101.

Reviewers :

Dr. V. Saraswathi Dr. Noor Jehan Kother Adam Former Professor of English Reader in English University of Madras, Chennai. Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai.

Authors :

Ms. Priscilla Josephine Sarah S.

Researcher in ELT W-5 (Old 302), 19th Street, Anna Nagar Western Extension, Chennai.

Dr. A. Joseph Dorairaj Thiru. S. Muthukrishnan Reader in English Principal Gandhigram Rural University Jaigopal Garodia Vivekananda Vidyalaya Gandhigram Matriculation Higher Secondary School Dindugul District. Annanagar, Chennai.

Ms. Nirmala Jairaj Thiru. K.V. Renganathan Language Consultant Former Principal 5/36, 13th Avenue, Harrington Rd. Govt. Muslim Teachers’Training Institute Chetpet, Chennai. Triplicane, Chennai.

Price : Rs. 18.00 This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu.

This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M. paper.

Printed by Offset at :

SENTHIL OFFSET PERINTERS, SIVAKASI - 626 123.

THE NATIONAL ANTHEM

FULL VERSION

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.

Punjaba-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha- Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchhala-jaladhi-taranga Tava Subha name jage, Tava Subha asisa mage, Gahe tava jaya-gatha.

Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.

SHORT VERSION

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.

AUTHENTIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF

THE NATIONAL ANTHEM

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.

Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal.

It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.

They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise The saving of all people waits in Thy hand, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.

Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee.

iii

THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION PLEDGE

“I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and integrity of the nation.” “I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional means.”

INVOCATION TO GODDESS TAMIL

Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas;

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant ‘Tilak’ is the blessed Dravidian land.

Like the fragrance of that ‘Tilak’ plunging the world in joy supreme reigns Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide.

Praise unto ‘You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires awe and ecstasy.

iv

PREFACE

In your hands is the new English book prepared in accordance with the latest syllabus as part of the competency-based curriculum for school education introduced in the year 2003-2004. The two-year higher secondary education is crucial in the educational system in vogue in Tamilnadu, if not in India. From the more-or-less terminal educational programme of secondary education (upto Standard X) this spell of two years (Stds. XI and XII) is intended to prepare the secondary school leavers both for general and professional higher education.

Further, this interlocking subsystem overlaps four different state systems such as State Board, Matriculation, Anglo-Indian and Oriental schools and two different central systems such as Central Board and all-India Secondary Schools. The outcomes of these six systems have their confluence in the higher secondary education in Tamilnadu. However the two central systems have their own spell of two years for Stds. XI and XII in which a few outputs of the State systems may also join. Envisaging these eventualities of secondary education, the new higher secondary education curriculum is designed and developed to cater to such diverse entries to follow a joint regulated path towards coaxial development of the most vulnerable and placid stage of adolescent children of the age-group 16+ to 18+ years.





This book taking its thread from Std. X aims at developing communicative competence rather than achieving simple and straight objectives. Not merely achievement but more importantly proficiency in English is the focus of all the lessons and tasks provided in this book. High scores in the examination in the subject should in effect correspond with independent ability to use English for academic, occupational and even social purposes. Gradually moving away from the traditional evaluation tied to the textual information this book guides the learners to apply the linguistic competence developed through this book in communicative contexts in real life, academic or professional.

The following approach is adopted in this book:

I. Cognitive competence A. Language 1. Vocabulary elements 2. Grammar II. Psychomotor competence B. Language 3. Listening skills 4. Speaking

–  –  –

A LISTENING: Listening to rhythmic pattern in English sentences B SPEAKING: Participating in dialogues at school Conversing at the doctor’s C READING: Skimming Reading aloud meaningfully D VOCABULARY: Using words related to computers, media, business, sports and games, and weather Identifying words in their extensive reading and relating them meaningfully E STUDY SKILLS: Using the dictionary independently to identify the whole gamut of a word including usage Editing/drafting.

F GRAMMAR: Using tenses in relevant contexts Differentiating between tenses of the same time Using different tenses for a specific time aspect G WRITING: Writing a paragraph Writing catchy slogans for advertisements H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Preparing a report I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Expressing beliefs on language learning

–  –  –

5

c) Patient : I have a tooth........, doctor.

Doctor : Open your mouth. Your gums are bleeding.

Patient : I don’t use gum. I only use a glue-stick.

Doctor : ?!

d) Patient : I have a very bad cold and........... I’ve been........... a lot too.

Doctor : And I see you have a.......... nose.

Patient : Yes, I hope nobody catches it!

e) Patient : Doctor, I fell down and.......... my knees.

Doctor : Where is she?

f) Doctor : (taking the thermometer from the patient’s mouth) You’re................. a high..............

Patient : No. I’m running in the 400 m relay.

C. Reading Pre-reading questions Twinkle, twinkle little star, How I wonder what you are!

Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky!

Have you ever gazed at twinkling stars and wondered what they are?

How often have you wondered what is beyond the wide, blue canopy of the sky? Have you ever wanted to reach out to the moon? Have you ever wanted to touch the fluffy clouds? Ever wanted to pay a friendly visit to our neighbouring planets? Well, here’s wishing bon voyage to all those who want to!

BON VOYAGE ‘The heights by great men reached and kept Were not attained by sudden flight, But they, while their companions slept, Were toiling upward in the night.’

- H W Longfellow “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”, said Neil Armstrong, stepping on to the moon’s surface on 21st July 1969.

6 Well, when she stepped into space, not once but twice, it proved to be a real leap for womankind, especially for the Indian woman. It was a leap bridging the gap between the impossible and the possible. ‘You can’t cross a great chasm in two short steps; it needs one big leap’. That’s exactly what she did.

Having slept under a canopy of stars in Karnal, Haryana, a sleepy little town in Northern India, where she was born, ‘A strong desire to travel beyond the blue yonder, to fly into the heavens and touch the stars some day.......’, was all that Kalpana Chawla dreamt of even as a child. Maybe she was rightly named Kalpana – ‘imagination’.

Even as a young girl she preferred to sketch and paint airplanes than dress up her Barbie dolls. A close friend remembers that Chawla often spoke about travelling to Mars as being her greatest ambition. Not only did she dare to dream but she also went the distance to fulfil her motto, ‘Follow your dreams’. She went on to clock an incredible 760 hours in space, travelling 10.4 million km, as many as 252 times around the earth! In realisation of her dream, she was to say one day, “I could then see my reflection in the window and in the retina of my eye the whole earth and sky could be seen reflected........ so I called all the crew members one by one and they all saw it and everybody said, ‘Oh, wow!’” Kalpana Chawla was born on the 1st of July 1961, into a middle-class family, the youngest of four siblings. She maintained a brilliant academic record throughout school. She took part in almost everything, from athletics to dance and science modelling.

She graduated from Tagore school, Karnal, in 1976. She went on to pursue her Bachelor of Science Degree in Aeronautical engineering through Punjab Engineering College. She happened to be the only girl in the aeronautics branch. Though her family initially resisted her decision to pursue a career in aeronautics, they finally relented, knowing her determined nature. This led on to a Master of Science degree in Aerospace engineering from Texas University in 1984, again after having to fight it out with her father who was very reluctant.

Finally a mere five days before the last date for admissions closed, he relented on condition that her brother, Sanjay, accompany her to the States. Then followed her Doctorate of philosophy in Aerospace engineering from Colorado University in 1988.

7 Chawla enjoyed flying, hiking, backpacking and reading. Her passion for flying began very early in life. Even when she was in school, she drew airplanes in drawing competitions and made models of the universe and constellations for geography projects. Her friends remember how she incessantly talked about designing and flying planes, “It was obvious that she wanted to do something special and she would achieve it”. While she was pursuing her engineering, her brother Sanjay had enrolled himself in the Karnal flying school. During a break from studies, Chawla accompanied her brother to the flight school, but the authorities wanted a written consent from her guardian before they would let her fly. Her father refused. It was then that Chawla got some valuable advice from her brother that she remembered all through her life: ‘Everyone fights their (his) own battles’.

It was this advice which encouraged her, to later earn her pilot’s licenses for airplanes and gliders. She enjoyed flying aerobatics and tail-wheel airplanes. In fact, her inspiration to take up flying was JRD Tata, who flew the first mail flights in India.

As a first-year student at Punjab Engineering College, she had surprised everyone by presenting a paper on time lapse in space. As secretary of the aero-astro club of the same college, she had arranged for a screening of the movie: ‘Those magnificent men in their flying machines’. Her path to the ‘Milky Way’ was laid then.

She had a single-minded determination to be an astronaut. Where did this grit come from? Surely from the steely resolve of her father, Banarsi Dass Chawla who had to flee Pakistan during Partition. He had tried his hand at odd jobs, and having practically no money to invest he had succeeded in building a thriving tyre business from scratch.

Rakesh Sharma, the first Indian to go into space, in the guest column of a cover story in ‘The Week’, featuring Kalpana Chawla, said, “Often I have been asked if, as a child, I had ever dreamt of going into space. I answered truthfully in the negative, explaining that India never had a manned space programme, and so dreaming about it would have been futile. Kalpana, on the other hand, was a small-town girl who dreamt big and had the self-belief to chase that dream. She chased it half way across the globe, caught up with it and then, lived it. That was the difference between us.” 8 Don Wilson, her thesis guide at the University of Texas, Arlington, recalls her as a “quiet and shy girl who was intimidated by her surroundings”. But this was not for long. She adapted well, showing a burning desire to be an astronaut.

“She just refused to take ‘no’ for an answer. And she was also an amazingly good student,” he was to say later.

In 1988, Kalpana Chawla started work at NASA Ames Research Center.

Meanwhile she married Jean-Pierre Harrison, a flight instructor, drawn towards him probably because of her fascination for flying. In 1993, she joined Overset Methods Inc., Los Altos, California, as Vice President and Research Scientist.

In December 1994, she was selected by NASA out of 2962 applicants as an astronaut candidate in the 15th group of astronauts. According to NASA, her academic accomplishments, intense physical fitness and experience as a pilot made her a natural choice. She reported to the Johnson Space Center in March



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