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«Salih Ben-Nail Abu Sief Submitted to the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment Requirements of the Degree in Master of ...»

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Comparison of Different Facades for High-rise

Buildings in Hot and Cold Climates in terms of

Material Usage

Salih Ben-Nail Abu Sief

Submitted to the

Institute of Graduate Studies and Research

in Partial Fulfillment Requirements of the Degree in

Master of Science

in

Architecture

Eastern Mediterranean University

January 2014

Gazimağusa, North Cyprus

Approval of the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research:

Prof. Dr. Elvan Yilmaz

Director

I certify that this thesis satisfies the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Architecture.

Prof. Dr. Ozgur Dinçyürek Chair, Department of Architecture We certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Architecture.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Halil Zafer Alibaba Supervisor Examining Committee

1. Asst. Prof. Dr. Halil Zafer Alibaba.

2. Asst. Prof. Dr. Ercan Hoskara.

3. Asst. Prof. Dr. Nazife Ozay.

ABSTRACT

Use of “facade” in tall buildings is mainly with materials like glass and aluminum.

Other suitable materials are also being used in construction but are not feasible in all climate conditions. Thus, in this study, I am going to present a detailed comparative analysis of glass and aluminum, estimation of their fixing methods, construction and composition of facade materials in architectures‟ aspect. In this era, tall buildings constructed with facade materials having renewable energy converter to allow “Green Building” effect. Thus, this study will have great contribution and would be helpful in constructing large buildings as it consists on best utilization of different materials.

In addition, it also comprises description and recommendation that will assist to improve healthy environment with facade material. Facade considered as the first aesthetical feature on a building that differentiates one building from another in terms of strength and flexibility.

Keywords: Construction, Material, Climate, Facade, Building Environment and Green Building.

iii ÖZ Yapılara ait cephelerde genel olarak cam ve alüminyum malzemesi kullanılır.

İnşaatta kullanılabilecek diğer malzemeler de vardır; ancak bu malzemeler her mevsime uygun değildir. Bu nedenle, bu çalışma dahilinde; cam ve alüminyum, uygulama yöntemleri, cephe kompozisyonu ve inşaasının dahil olduğu ayrıntılı bir karşılaştırmalı analiz sunacağım. Son dönemlerde, cephe malzemesi ile kaplanmış yüksek yapılar “Çevre Dostu Yapı” etkisi yaratmak için geri dönüştürülebilir enerji konvertörleri ile donatılmaktadırlar. Böylelikle, bu çalışma yüksek yapıların inşaasına büyük bir katkıda bulunacaktır. Çünkü her farklı malzemenin kullanımı sırasında ortaya çıkabilecek avantajlar ve dezavantajlar mevcuttur.

Ayrıca, bu çalışma'da cephe malzemelerinin dahil olduğu daha temiz bir çevre içinbirçok açıklama ve öneri sunmaktadır. Bir yapıyı esneklik ve sağlamlık açısından diğer yapılardan farklı kılan ilk estetik özelliğin cephe olduğu kabul edilmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Yapı Malzemesi, İklim, Cephe, Yapılmış Çevre ve Çevre Dostu Yapı.

–  –  –

First and foremost, I'm heartily tanksful to my supervisor Asst. Prof. Halil Zafer Alibaba for his kind support and encouragement in all the thesis levels that enabled me to understand and accomplish project successfully.

I would like to acknowledge all staff members of the department of Architecture, who contributed in the success of this research and also I am too much grateful to my friends for their cooperation at the time of undertaking this research study.

My ultimate gratitude goes to my parents whose financial support enabled to take opportunity to complete this project effectively. And last but not least, I am entirely indebted to my brother whose concern and encourage become a compelling forces that motivated me to aspire to excellence.

–  –  –

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………...iii ÖZ……………………………………………………………………………….…..iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………………………..vi LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………....iv LIST OF TABELS……………………………………………………………….......v 1INTRODUCTION..………………………………………………………………...1

1.1Background……………………………………………………………………1

1.3 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………..3

1.4 Research Methodology………………………………………………………..3

1.5 Scope and Limitations………………………………………………………...4

1.6 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………....4

1.7 Literature Review……………………………………………………………..4

2 THEORATICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF





FACADE MATERIAL……………………………………………………………....9

2.1 Historical Development of Facade……………………………………………9

2.2 Functions of Facades………………………………………………………...11 2.2.1 Buffer and Regulating Functions……………………………………….12 2.2.2 Visual Functions………………………………………………………..12 2.2.3 Hygienic Function……………………………………………………...14 2.2.4 Acoustic Functions……………………………………………………..15

2.3 Definition of High-Rise Building Facades…………………………………..15

2.4 The Characteristics of High-Rise Buildings………………………………....16

–  –  –

2.6 Material Selection for High-Rise Building Design………………………….18

2.7 Selection of Facade Material for High-rise Building in Hot Climate……….18 2.7.1 Glass Facade Material for Hot Climate………………………………...19 2.7.2 Glass Facade types (PVB, EVA) Material for Hot Climates…………..19 2.7.3 Aluminum Facade Material for Hot Climate…………………………...19 2.7.4 Double Skin Glass Facade Material in Hot Climate…………………....20

2.8 Selection of Facade Material for High-Rise Building in Cold Climate……..21 2.8.1 Aluminum Facade Material for Cold Climate………………………….21 2.8.1.1 Advantages of Aluminum Material for Cold Climate…………….23 2.8.2 Glass Facade Material for Cold Climate……………………………….24 2.8.2.1 Heat-insulating glass……………………………………………....24 2.8.2.2 Reflection glass…………………………………………………....24

2.9 Condensation Problem……...…………...……...…………...……………....24 2.9.1 Condensation Problem of Tall Building in Hot Climate………...……..25 2.9.2 Condensation Problem of High-Rise Building in Cold Climate……….25

2.10 Double Skin Facade Strategies…………………………………………….26 2.10.1 Double Skin Facade Strategies of Cooling by Focusing on Cavities for Cold Climate……………………………………………………………………......26 2.10.2 Double Skin Facade Strategies of Heating by Focusing on Cavity for Hot Climate ……………………………………………………………………………..27

2.11 The Utilized Curtain Wall………………………………………………….27 2.11.1 Curtain Wall Aluminum for both Cold and Hot Climate……………..28 2.11.2 Aluminum Glass on Curtain Wall Systems…………………………..30

–  –  –

2.13 Air Leakage Control………………………………………………………..33

2.14 Rain Penetration Control…………………………………………………...35

2.15 Design of Infill Walls……………………………………………………....36

2.16 Glazing Support Systems…………………………………………………..38 3 ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDIES IN HOT AND COLD CLIMATE…………....39

3.1 Methods of the Study………………………………………………………..39 3.1.1 Data Collection Methods……………………………………………….39 3.1.2 Observation and Interviews…………………………………………….40

3.2 Case Studies…………………………………..………………………………...40 3.2.1 Case Study 1 (Ankara, Turkey) ………………………………………..40 3.2.2 Case Study 2 (Alaska, USA) …………………………………..……....44 3.2.3 Case Study 3 (Oslo, Norway) …………………………………..……...45 3.2.4 Case Study 4 (Kuwait, Kuwait)………………………………………..46

3.3 Results and Discussions……………………………………………………..47 3.3.1 Comparing Construction Materials for Each Case Study……………...48 3.3.1.1 Analysis of Different Facade Material‟s Performance and their Management in Different Country Climates…..……………………………………48 4 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION………………………..…………51

4.1Conclusion…………………………………………………………..………..51

4.2 Recommendation for Future Studies……………………………..……….....53 REFERENCES……………………………………………….…..…………………54

–  –  –

Figure 2.1: History of Facade

Figure 2.2: The simple facade materials

Figure 2.3: Building Facade Location

Figure 2.4: Buffer and Regulating Functions

Figure 2.5: Visual Functions

Figure 2.6: Facade of the Library and Cultural Building

Figure 2.7: Sound Development Inside and Outside Of Building

Figure 2.8: Contribution-to-Energy-Performance

Figure 2.9: Typical Components of Stick Built Curtain Wall System

Figure 2.10: Facade Curtain Wall Posses

Figure 2.11: The Process of Double Skin Facade Installation

Figure 2.12: Drainage Path within a Typical Curtain Wall

Figure 2.13: Typical Structural Silicone Glazing System

Figure 2.14: Air Vapor Barrier Location

Figure 2.15: Fully Glazed Curtain Walling System Used in a Multi-Story Steel.

........ 37 Figure 2.16: Glazing Support System

Figure 3.1: The Next level Toki Tower type of Glass with Aluminum Supporting.

.... 41 Figure 3.2: Steel Facades in the Middle Building

Figure 3.3: Glass Facade with Steel Supporting

Figure 3.4: Aluminum Cover on the Wall

Figure 3.5: Gulf Cooperation Council Countries Procure Aluminum Composite.

....... 46

–  –  –

Table 1: Material versus Country Climate Analysis

Table 2: Material versus Management Analysis

Table 3: Material versus it's Tolerance, Unitization and Environmental Impact Analysis

–  –  –

1.1 Background Facade materials are being used in the construction of tall buildings for decades, especially in well most developed countries like Turkey, Kuwait, Bahrain and America, where the climate situation is always on extreme in all seasons. The most useable construction materials by architectures to construct tall buildings include glass, aluminum and steel, which is handier to provide people more desirable, feasible and well developed living standard within these buildings.

The addition of aluminum material provides more protection in the construction of the building facade. Application of glass in glazing facades brought great change and increased the environmental and aesthetic efficiency and also it is quite economical in price as well. A famous architecture Le Corbusier proved this fact by using glass and steel combine in designing of building facades.

The use of Glass material has been adopted since centuries. It was not just used as transparent material, but also as a hard and resistant material in various projects. On the other hand, aluminum is another type of taller building Facade materials that have a unique specification such as durability, strength and recyclability. In addition,

–  –  –

years.

History revealed that the use of glass and steel materials for soaring building‟s facade is not a new innovation. For illustration, Empire state is one of the remarkable and a famous soaring building situated in New York and was completed about 82 years ago.

This building is integrated with glass and stainless steel materials that emphasize the art Deco style of the building and acknowledged as the tallest building in the world for almost 40 years (Giord, 2007).

Moreover, in the past and even current several problems has been identified with tall buildings in different climates because of material integration of facades. Furthermore, there are various soaring building materials all around the world which is although not favorable in both hot and cold climates whole year due to their efficiency indexes.

High-rise buildings should be capable to maintain and preserve all climatic conditions most importantly in aspects of structural stability and architectural aesthetic. Wrong and unusual usage of material may simply lead to waste of resources or cause harmful environmental effects such as global warming.

Several researchers have found out that climatic issues have been ignored and neglected while planning to construct a tall building facade in some specific region. For example, single skin facade is implemented on building facade, instead of double skin facades in

–  –  –

which is one of the essential functions of material to be complied with.



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