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«based on Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.. ...»

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based on Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and

Dissertations, 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.


Nancy L. deClaissé-Walford

McAfee School of Theology

Atlanta, Georgia




1.1 Title Page

1.2 Page Numbering

1.3 Margins

1.4 General Formatting Issues

1.4.1 Font Size

1.4.2 Line Spacing

1.4.3 Indenting Paragraphs

1.4.4 Paragraphs

1.4.5 Indented Quotes

1.4.6 Headings

1.4.7 Tables of Contents

1.5 Quotations

1.6 Quotation Marks

1.7 Bulleted and Numbered Lists

1.8 Ellipses

1.9 Scripture Citations

1.10 Numbers and Dates


2.1 Footnote Citations

2.2 Bibliography Citations

2.3 Sample Footnotes and Bibliography

2.3.1 Number Citations

2.3.2 City and Publisher Names

2.3.3 Sample Footnotes and Bibliography

–  –  –

2.5 Books with More Than One Author

2.6 Books Editions Other Than First

2.7 Books with Editors

2.8 Books with Translators

2.9 Books in Series with General Titles and Editors

2.10 Books in Series with General Title, Editors, and Volume Numbers

2.11 Articles in Books with Editors

2.12 Articles in Books with General Editors and Volume Numbers

2.13 Articles in Books with Series Titles, Editors, and Volume Numbers

2.14 Primary Source Taken from Secondary Source

2.15 Articles in Journals

2.16 Book Reviews in Journals

2.17 Signed Encyclopedia and Dictionary Articles

2.18 Unsigned Encyclopedia and Dictionary Articles

2.19 Articles in Magazines and Newspapers

2.20 Unpublished Interviews

2.21 Theses and Dissertations

2.22 E-Books

2.23 Electronic Sources


–  –  –

3.2 Verbal Tense

3.3 Capitalization

3.4 Commas

3.5 Gender-Neutral Language

3.6 Who, That and Which

3.7 Who and Whom

3.8 Split Infinitives

3.9 Conjunctions

3.10 Active Vs. Passive Voice

3.11 Effect and Affect

3.12 Contractions

3.13 “This” and “These”

3.14 Unnecessary Verbiage


4.1 Location of Mercer Style Guide

–  –  –

1.1 TITLE PAGE Every paper submitted to the faculty of the McAfee School of Theology will include a Title Page

in the proper format (notice the ALL CAPS and the spacing between items):

–  –  –

The Signature Page, Preface, Table of Contents, Introduction, and any other Preliminary Pages will be numbered in the bottom center of their pages with lower case Roman Numerals, beginning with ii (since the title page is page i).

BY The Body of the Paper and the Bibliography will be numbered with successive Arabic Numerals, beginning with 1. On the first page of YOUR NAME page number will appear at the bottom

each chapter, the

center of the page, and on subsequent pages of each chapter, the page number will appear at the upper right hand corner of the page.

–  –  –

The Title Page will have no page number, but it will count as "page i."

If you include a Table of Contents (see 1.4.7), it will be numbered (and printed on the bottom center of the page) as Roman Numeral "ii."

The Body of the Paper and the Bibliography will be numbered with successive Arabic Numerals, beginning with 1.

Page 1 will be numbered at the bottom center of the page; all subsequent pages will be numbered in the upper right hand corner.

–  –  –

Each page of the paper will have a 1" margin on all sides—including the FIRST page of the paper and the Bibliography.

Page Numbers must be placed at the 1" margin.

1.4 GENERAL FORMATTING ISSUES 1.4.1 All papers will be in 12pt type.

1.4.2 All papers will be double-spaced, with no additional space between paragraphs.

1.4.3 Paragraphs will be indented.5 inches from the beginning of the 1" margin.

1.4.4 Paragraphs will contain a minimum of three sentences. The first line of a paragraph should not appear alone at the bottom of a page (a "widow"), and the last line of a paragraph should not appear alone at the top of a page (an "orphan").

1.4.5 Indented quotes (see below, Section 1.5) will be indented.5 inches from the left margin and single spaced, with a double space before and after.

1.4.6 Headings will be in the following formats. Use standard double spacing before and after all headings.

–  –  –

Level Three Level Four. Begin paragraph text.

1.4.7 Tables of Contents If you are writing a long paper with section headings, a Table of Contents is very helpful to your reader.

The format for Tables of Contents is as follows:

Center title 1" from top margin.

First-level Headings on left margin.

Second-level Headings.5" indented.

Third-level Headings 1" indented.

All headings should be typed word-for-word and cap-for-cap as they appear in your paper.

Double space between First-level headings; single space between Second- and Third-level headings.

Add leading dots between heading and page number.

–  –  –

First Level Heading

First Level Heading

Second Level Heading

Second Level Heading

First Level Heading

Second Level Heading

Third level heading

Third level heading

Second Level Heading

First Level Heading


–  –  –

Any quotation of three or more words will be properly footnoted.

Quotations of less than 4 lines will be included in the body of the text and formatted with double quote marks.

Quotations of 4 lines or more will be formatted as Block Quotations:

–  –  –




If you are summarizing or reviewing a book or journal article, you may include the bibliography reference at the top of the first page. Then, use parenthetical references to refer to the work being summarized or reviewed. Thus, for instance, you may use the following in a summary of

John Barton's “Difficulties in the Text”:

–  –  –

Use double quote marks when quoting directly from a cited work WITHIN THE BODY OF YOUR PAPER (See 1.5 for block quotations).

When "quoting within a quote," use single quote marks.

Double or single quote marks may be used when using special terms such as 'practical theology,' or "source theory." JUST BE CONSISTENT WITHIN THE BODY OF THE PAPER.

Quote marks (double or single) and footnote references will always be placed OUTSIDE of Commas and Periods.

–  –  –

What about Question Marks and Exclamation Points? If the Question Mark or Exclamation Point is part of the quote, then it will be placed INSIDE the Quotation Mark. If not, then it will appear OUTSIDE the Quotation Mark.

–  –  –

Bulleted and Numbered lists placed vertically within your text should be off-set from the left margin by.5 inches. Double space between the text and the list, but single space within the list.

If the items in the list are complete sentences, begin each with a capital letter and include appropriate punctuation (most likely periods). If the items are not complete sentences, then begin each with a lower case letter and no punctuation is used.

When the ancient Israelites left Egypt, they

–  –  –

When a numbered list in included in the main body of the paper, the list is preceded by a colon.

Each number is placed in parenthesis. If each item within the list has no punctuation, then place a comma between the items of the list. If any item within the list contains punctuation, then place a semicolon between the items of the list.

When the ancient Israelites left Egypt, they: (1) crossed the Reed Sea, (2) grumbled in the wilderness; (3) met God at Sinai, and (4) mourned the death of Miriam.

When the ancient Israelites left Egypt, they: (1) crossed the Reed, or Red, Sea; (2) grumbled in the wilderness; (3) met God at Sinai, or Horeb; and (4) mourned the death of Miriam.

–  –  –

Any omission of words, phrases, or paragraphs in quoted passages is shown by three period dots.

Each period dot will be preceded by a space.

A space will follow the last period dot if a word follows in the original quotation.

Two spaces will follow the last period dot when the elliptical quotation moves from one sentence to the next. If the quotation ends with one sentence and continues in the middle of a following sentence or if an entire sentence is omitted, then four ellipsis dots are used, with a double space occurring after the first one.

Period dots will always appear INSIDE the Quotation Marks.

The Original Sentences: "They ministered to their patients with knowing acceptance. And the patients appreciated their honest care. But the pain was always with them."

–  –  –

When referring to a biblical book or to a whole chapter in a book in the main text of your paper, spell out the book name. Note that the current convention is to NOT capitalize the word "book."

In the book of Jeremiah, we read that Jeremiah protests the indifference of the people.

• In Jeremiah 26, we read that Jeremiah protest the indifference of the people.

• When referring to a specific passage from a biblical book in the main text of your paper, abbreviate the book name, using the abbreviations listed below—with no period.

In Jer 26:2-3, we read that Jeremiah protests the indifference of the people.

• If, however, the passage being referenced begins the sentence, then spell out the book name (General Rule: Never begin a sentence with an abbreviation).

Jeremiah 26:2-3 tells us that Jeremiah protests the indifference of the people.

• When referring to a chapter or verse(s) of a biblical book in parentheses or in a footnote, always abbreviate the name, again with no period. Spell out the book name, however, when referring to the entire book.

–  –  –

When citing a series of passages from biblical books, whether in the main text of your paper or in parentheses or a footnote, place a "comma" between verse references from the same chapter

and place a "semi-colon" between different chapter or different book citations:

–  –  –


To alert your readers which biblical translation or version you are quoting from, footnote the first occurrence with a note such as "All scripture citations are from the New Revised Standard Version unless otherwise noted."

1.10 NUMBERS AND DATES Spell out all numbers through one hundred and any of the whole numbers followed by hundred, thousand, etc. The general rule is: If you can write the number in two words, then spell it out. If the number appears at the beginning of a sentence, then it always will be spelled out. (But references to chapters in biblical books are never spelled out.) The words 'ben adam' occur in the book of Ezekiel some seventy-three times.

• About three thousand years ago, the land of Canaan entered the Iron Age.

• Of the 150 psalms in the Psalter, over half are attributed to David.

• In Numbers 1, we read that the descendants of Zebulun numbered 57,400.

• One hundred seventy-six verses make up Psalm 119.

• The rule applies to ordinal numbers as well.

In the seventy-second occurrence of the words 'ben adam' in the book of Ezekiel...

• On the 125th (122d, 123d) anniversary of Martin Luther's death...

• First Samuel 24 states...

The accepted designations for the eras of time are as follows:

Prior to "0”— BCE “before the common era” in small caps.

After "0”— CE "common era" in small caps.

For references to centuries and specific dates, use the guidelines for writing numbers given above.

–  –  –

When they are used as nouns, no hyphen is used before the word "century."

• When they are used as adjectives, a hyphen is used before the word "century."

• In the seventh century BCE, the Babylonians conquered the Assyrians.

• The seventh-century BCE Babylonians conquered the Assyrians.

• In the twenty-first century CE, Americans...

• In twenty-first-century America, people...

• AND - In the mid-seventh century BCE, the Babylonians conquered the Assyrians.

• The mid-seventh-century BCE Babylonians conquered the Assyrians.

References to decades will be formatted as follows (with no apostrophe):

In the 1970s, Brevard Childs called for a new approach to reading scripture...

• In the 1380s BCE, Israel was not constituted as a state.

• Percentages are to be written as Arabic numbers with the % sign except at the beginning of a

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