«HEALTH EDUCATION 1 Credit Health/Physical Education v.1.07 Michigan State Board of Education Kathleen N. Straus, President Bloomﬁeld Township John ...»
1 Credit Health/Physical Education v.1.07
Michigan State Board of Education
Kathleen N. Straus, President
John C. Austin, Vice President
Carolyn L. Curtin, Secretary
Marianne Yared McGuire, Treasurer
Nancy Danhof, NASBE Delegate
Elizabeth W. Bauer
Reginald M. Turner
Casandra E. Ulbrich
Governor Jennifer M. Granholm Ex Ofﬁcio Michael P. Flanagan, Chairman Superintendent of Public Instruction Ex Ofﬁcio MDE Staff Carol Wolenberg Deputy Superintendent Mary Ann Chartrand Director of Grants Coordination and School Support Welcome This guide was developed to assist teachers in successfully implementing the Michigan Merit Curriculum. The identiﬁed content expectations and guidelines provide a useful framework for designing curriculum, assessments, and relevant learning experiences for students. Through the collaborative efforts of Governor Jennifer M. Granholm, the State Board of Education, and the State Legislature, these landmark state graduation requirements are being implemented to give Michigan students the knowledge and skills to succeed in the 21st Century and drive Michigan’s economic success in the global economy. Working together, teachers can explore varied pathways to help students demonstrate proﬁciency in meeting the guidelines. This guide may be used in conjunction with the Michigan Model for Health,® the model curriculum developed by the State of Michigan.
How must schools organize courses to provide “one credit in health and physical education” ?
Schools have ﬂexibility in how they meet the requirement to provide “one credit in health and physical education.” The following guidelines will assist districts in determining how to be ﬂexible while remaining
within the law. Districts must ensure that:
• The guidelines for both health education and physical education are addressed in the required content; and
• Those teaching health education have a teaching endorsement that qualiﬁes them to teach health (MA, MX, or KH); and those teaching physical education have a teaching endorsement that qualiﬁes them to teach physical education (MB, MX, or SP).
Many districts will ﬁnd that the simplest solution is to offer a semester of health and a semester of physical education to meet the requirement.
Districts may, of course, exceed the requirement.
MICHIGAN MERIT CURRICULUM CREDIT GUIDELINES v.1.07 1 Critical Health Content Areas The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identiﬁed the risk behavior areas that have the greatest effect on the short-term and long-term health of young people. Patterns of unhealthy eating, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are often established in childhood and adolescence, and are by far the leading causes of death among adults.
Injury and violence, including suicide and alcohol-related trafﬁc crashes, are the leading causes of death among youth. Each year approximately three million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur among teenagers, and one in four Michigan high school students report having consumed ﬁ ve or more drinks in a row during the previous month.
The CDC recommends that the following critical behavioral areas be
emphasized in an effective health education program for high school:
healthy eating, physical activity, tobacco prevention, alcohol and other drug prevention, injury and violence prevention, and the prevention of sexual behaviors leading to HIV, STIs, and pregnancy.
In its Policy on Comprehensive School Health Education, the State Board addresses these risks by recommending that
Michigan schools do the following:
• Provide at least 50 hours of health at each grade, Prekindergarten through Grade Twelve, to give students adequate time to learn and practice health habits and skills for a lifetime.
• Focus on helping young people develop and practice personal and social skills, such as communication and decision making, in order to deal effectively with health-risk situations.
• Address social and media inﬂuences on student behaviors and help students identify healthy alternatives to speciﬁc high-risk behaviors.
• Emphasize critical knowledge and skills that students need in order to obtain, understand, and use basic health information and services in ways that enhance healthy living.
• Focus on behaviors that have the greatest effect on health, especially those related to nutrition; physical activity; violence and injury; alcohol and other drug use; tobacco use; and sexual behaviors that lead to HIV, STIs, or unintended pregnancy, as developmentally appropriate.
• Build functional knowledge and skills, from year to year, that are developmentally appropriate.
• Include accurate and up-to-date information, and be appropriate to students’ developmental levels, personal behaviors, and cultural backgrounds.
2 v.1.07 MICHIGAN MERIT CURRICULUM CREDIT GUIDELINES The Credit Guidelines for Health Education are intended to help schools address these recommendations. Critical health content
areas are organized in the Guidelines by strand, as follows:
Strand 1: Nutrition and Physical Activity Strand 2: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Strand 3: Safety Strand 4: Social and Emotional Health Strand 5: Personal Health and Wellness Strand 6: HIV Prevention Strand 7: Sexuality Education Content Standards Through health education, students learn to obtain, interpret, and apply health information and services in ways that protect and promote personal, family, and community health. All students will show
competence in the following eight health education content standards:
Standard 1: Core Concepts Apply health promotion and disease prevention concepts and principles to personal, family, and community health issues.
Standard 2: Access Information Access valid health information and appropriate health promoting products and services.
Standard 3: Health Behaviors Practice health enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks.
Standard 4: Inﬂuences Analyze the inﬂuence of cultural beliefs, media, and technology on health.
Standard 5: Goal Setting Use goal setting skills to enhance health.
Standard 6: Decision Making Use decision-making skills to enhance health.
Standard 7: Social Skills Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication and other social skills which enhance health.
Standard 8: Advocacy Demonstrate advocacy skills for enhanced personal, family, and community health.
Please note that, while all the Content Standards are addressed in the Credit Guidelines for Health Education as a whole, not all standards will be addressed in each strand.
MICHIGAN MERIT CURRICULUM CREDIT GUIDELINES v.1.07 3 Curriculum Unit Design One of the ultimate goals of teaching health education is for students to acquire health knowledge and skills that can be transferred to personal health behavior. To accomplish this, learning needs to result in a deep understanding of content and mastery level of skills that can lead to health behavior change. As educational designers, teachers must use both the art and the science of teaching. In planning coherent, rigorous instructional units of study, it is best to begin with the end in mind.
Engaging and effective units include:
• appropriate content expectations.
• students setting goals and monitoring own progress.
• a focus on big ideas that have great transfer value.
• focus and essential questions that stimulate inquiry and connections.
• identiﬁed valid and relevant skills and processes.
• purposeful real-world applications.
• relevant and worthy learning experiences.
• varied ﬂexible instruction for diverse learners.
• research-based instructional strategies.
• explicit and systematic instruction.
• adequate teacher modeling and guided practice.
• substantial time to review or apply new knowledge.
• opportunities for revision of work based on feedback.
• student evaluation of the unit.
Relevance Instruction that is clearly relevant to today’s rapidly changing world is essential to student learning. Content knowledge alone cannot change the health behaviors that support or interfere with academic achievement. Classes and projects that spark student interest and provide a rationale for why the content is worth learning, enable students to make connections between what they learn in school, their lives, and their futures. Asking students to analyze data about the prevalence of youth risk behavior, using problem-solving scenarios that are relevant to real life situations, and engaging students in developing personal goals and plans for improved health are examples of developing relevance in a health education curriculum.
4 v.1.07 MICHIGAN MERIT CURRICULUM CREDIT GUIDELINES Student Assessment The assessment process can be a powerful tool for learning when students are actively involved in the process. Both assessment of learning and assessment for learning are essential. Reliable formative and summative assessments provide teachers with information they need to make informed instructional decisions that are more responsive to students’ needs. Engagement empowers students to take ownership of their learning and builds conﬁdence over time.
• align with learning goals.
• vary in type and format.
• use authentic performance tasks.
• use criteria scoring tools such as rubrics, checklists, or exemplars.
• allow teachers and students to track growth over time.
• validate the acquisition of transferable knowledge.
• give insight into students’ thinking processes.
• cause students to use higher level thinking skills.
• address guiding questions and identiﬁed skills and processes.
• provide informative feedback for teachers and students.
• ask students to reﬂect on their learning.
Several tools to assist teachers and districts with assessment in health education have been made available by the Michigan Department of Education. The Michigan Model for Health® includes curriculum-embedded assessments in revised lessons.
Assessment resources have also been developed by Michigan and other member states of the Health Education Assessment Project (HEAP) of the State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS), a project of the Council of Chief State School Ofﬁcers (CCSSO). These resources have been distributed in assessment trainings statewide to help districts meet the requirements of the Revised School Code (Section 380.1507) to assess student knowledge and skills in sexuality education.
These tools include assessment items that address all of the critical health content areas and health education standards. To learn more about tools for health education assessment, contact your regional Comprehensive School Health Coordinator.
MICHIGAN MERIT CURRICULUM CREDIT GUIDELINES v.1.07 5
CREDIT GUIDELINES FOR HEALTH EDUCATION
STRAND 1: NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYStandard 1: Core Concepts
1.1 Distinguish between unhealthy and healthy ways to manage weight.
Standard 2: Access Information
1.2 Locate resources in one’s community and on the Internet for nutrition information, nutrition services, and help with weight management or unhealthy eating patterns; and assess the validity of the resources.
Standard 3: Health Behaviors
1.3 Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.
1.4 Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.
Standard 5: Goal Setting
1.5 Assess one’s personal nutrition needs and level of physical activity according to the federal dietary guidelines.
1.6 Assess one’s personal preferences regarding healthy eating and physical activity.
1.7 Assess personal barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and develop practical solutions to remove these barriers.
1.8 Develop a personal plan for improving one’s nutrition, incorporating physical activity into daily routines, and maintaining a healthy weight.
Standard 6: Decision Making
1.9 Predict the health beneﬁts of eating healthy and being physically active; and the potential health consequences of not doing so.
Standard 8: Advocacy
1.10 Advocate for nutritional food choices and physical activity at school.
6 v.1.07 MICHIGAN MERIT CURRICULUM CREDIT GUIDELINES
Standard 1: Core Concepts
1.11 Distinguish between facts and myths regarding nutrition practices, products, and physical performance.
1.12 Describe nutrition practices that are important for the health of a pregnant woman and her baby.
Standard 3: Health Behaviors
1.13 Demonstrate proper use of safety gear during physical activity.
1.14 Demonstrate strategies for protection from cold, heat, and sun during physical activity.
STRAND 2: ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, AND OTHER DRUGS Standard 1: Core Concepts
2.1 Describe the short-term and long-term health consequences of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.
2.2 Clarify myths regarding the scope of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among adolescents.
Standard 2: Access Information
2.3 Locate resources in one’s community and on the Internet for information and services regarding alcohol and tobacco use prevention and cessation; and assess the validity of these resources.
2.4 Apply strategies to access and get help for self or others.
Standard 3: Health Behaviors