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«Compiled by: Trisha Lamb Last Revised: April 27, 2006 © 2004 by International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT) International Association of ...»

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Patanjali’s Yoga-Sûtra

Compiled by: Trisha Lamb

Last Revised: April 27, 2006

© 2004 by International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT)

International Association of Yoga Therapists

P.O. Box 2513 • Prescott • AZ 86302 • Phone: 928-541-0004

E-mail: mail@iayt.org • URL: www.iayt.org

The contents of this bibliography do not provide medical advice and should not be so interpreted. Before beginning any

exercise program, see your physician for clearance.

Alix, Paul JJ. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Chapter II. A tutorial. URL:


“The tutorial is on Chapter Two of the Yoga Sutras in which Patanjali describes Kriya Yoga, an action plan for attaining the yogic state of samadhi. On a practical level, the chapter focuses on the causes of personal suffering and how to deal with them. Patanjali also outlines the Eight Limbs of yoga, emphasizing the first five: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara (the other three are dealt with in a later chapter).

“Translated and chanted by Paul JJ Alix, a Sanskrit scholar and founder of Yoga for All, the tutorial is organized into a number of lessons, each one focusing on several individual sutras. A new lesson will be posted about once a week. Each lesson contains written text, translation, interpretation and three sound files: a slow version in which each word or small word group is pronounced slowly and clearly; a moderate version in which the words begin to flow together; and finally a fast version that shows how the sutra sounds at full ‘chant’ speed.

“Studying the Yoga Sutras is important to understanding yoga and creating a deeper practice. The Yoga Sutras are part of an ancient oral tradition, which means you don’t learn it by reading and reasoning alone. You have to chant. The sound files included here will help in that regard.

“In addition to studying and listening to the sutras on your own, you will be able to ask specific questions via email. You will receive an individual response, and all questions and answers will be posted on the site (names will be removed from questions).” Aranya, H. Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1983.

Atmananda, Swami. Raja Yoga of Patanjali or the science of Yoga. In Swami Atmananda, The Four Yogas: The Four Paths to Spiritual Enlightenment (in the Words of Ancient Rishis). 2d ed. Bombay, India: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1991, pp. 109-158.

Baba, Bangali. Yogasutra of Patanjali with the Commentary of Vyasa. Delhi, India:

Motilal Banarsidass, 1976, 2002 (reprint).

Bahm, Archie J. Yoga: Union with the Ultimate. A New Version of the Ancient Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1961.

Bailey, Alice. The Light of the Soul, Its Science and Effects: The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Lucis Publishing, 1998.

Ballantyne, J. R., and Govind Sastrideva. Yogasutra of Patanjali. Calcutta, India: Susil Gupta Pr. Ltd., 1960.

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Basu, B. D., ed. The Yogasutras of Patanjali. Alahabad, India: Panini Office, 1924.

Contains the Yoga-Sutra and Vyasa-Bhashya in Sanskrit, with English translation, along with an English translation of Vachaspati Mishra’s commentary on the Vyasa-Bhashya.

Bennett, Bija. Emotional Yoga: How the Body Can Heal the Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

From a review by Felicia Tomasko, LA Yoga, May/Jun 2003, pp. 26-27: The author “focuses on the tools provided by the whole discipline of yoga through the eight limbs of asthanga or raja yoga describe in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras and relates them to our emotional processes.

“In relating emotions to the limbs of yoga, we can explore the practice in a new way.

These limbs are: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Bija described their associated teachings as: intelligent behaviors, personal attitudes, bodily exercise, conscious breathing, sensory awareness, focusing attention, sustaining attention and increasing wholeness and relates them to the emotional qualities of allowance (yama), allegiance (niyama), will and power (asana), love (pranayama), harmony (pratyahara), knowledge (dharana), wisdom (dhyana) and synergy (samadhi).

..” Bharati, Swami Veda (Pandit Usharbudh Arya). Yoga-Sûtras of Patanjali with the Exposition of Vyâsa: A Translation and Commentary. Volume I: Samâdhi-pâda.

Honesdale, Pa.: The Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosopy, 1986.

___________. Yoga-Sûtras of Patanjali with the exposition of Vyâsa: A Translation and Commentary. Volume II: Sâdhana-Pâda. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2001.

These two volumes contain the most detailed extant commentary to date on the YogaSûtra. Highly recommended.

Bhaskarananda, Swami. Meditation, Mind and Patanjali’s Yoga: A Practical Guide to Spiritual Growth for Everyone. Vedanta Press.

Bouanchaud, Bernard. The Essence of Yoga: Reflections on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Rudra Press, 1997.

An interesting psychological interpretation of the Yoga-Sutra.

Brahmananda Saraswati. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali audiotape.

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Brijendra. Essence of Patanjali: Meditations on Yog Darshan 7-CD set. URL:


From the website: “Each audio CD in this set of seven covers an important topic of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali... These seven talks are accessible to beginners as well as to students more familiar with the science and art of Yoga. Basic Sanskrit terms are explained in the course of the discussions leading to an overall understanding of the subject. The emphasis throughout is on the practice and understanding of meditation.” The seven topics covered include: vrttis, samadhi, samyoga-viyoga, kleshas, AshtangaYoga, the order of manifestation, and kaivalya.

Bryant, Edwin. Samadhipada: Sutras 1 & 2, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Its Commentaries. Namarupa, Spring 2003, pp. 33-38.

___________. Samadhipada: Sutras 3 & 4, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Its Commentaries. Namarupa, Winter 2004, pp. 36-37.

___________. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and Its Commentaries. Oxford World Classics, forthcoming.

C., S. Meditation in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra. Self-Knowledge, Spring 1997, 48(2):63-67.

Carrera, Jaganath. Raja II Course audiotape set (8 tapes). Buckingham, Va.:

Shakticom. See the entry in this bibliography for Swami Karunananda for information on the Raja I Course.

From the publisher: “Through humorous stories and insightful commentary, Rev.

Jaganath explains many of the sutras found in Books III and IV of the Yoga Sutras.

You’ll find this eight-tape set an invaluable aid to your meditation practice and a peaceful, easeful, useful life.” Chapple, C., and E. P. Kelly. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Sri SatGuru Publ., 1990.

Codd, Clara M. Introduction to Patanjali’s Yoga. Theosophical Publishing House, 1966.

Coward, Harold. Yoga and Psychology: Language, Memory, and Mysticism. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 2002.

“Foundational for Hindu, Jaina, and Buddhist thought and spiritual practice, Patanjali’s Yoga-Sûtras, the classical statement of Eastern Yoga, are unique in their emphasis on the nature and importance of psychological processes. Yoga’s influence is explored in the work of both the seminal Indian thinker Bhartrhari (c. 600 C.E.) and among key figures 4 in Western psychology: founders Freud and Jung, as well as contemporary transpersonalists such as Washburn, Tart, and Ornstein. Coward shows how the yogic notion of psychological processes makes Bhartrhari’s philosophy of language and his theology of revelation possible. He goes on to explore how Western psychology has been influenced by incorporating or rejecting Patanjali’s Yoga. The implications of these trends in Western thought for mysticism and memory are examined as well.” Contents: Agama in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali; The Yoga psychology underlying Bhartrhari’s Vakyapadiya; Yoga in the Vairagya-Sataka of Bhartrhari; Freud, Jung, and Yoga on memory; Where Jung draws the line in his acceptance of Patanjali’s Yoga;

Mysticism in Jung and Patanjali’s Yoga; The limits of human nature in Yoga and transpersonal psychology Das, Baba Hari. The Yoga Sutras, Chapter One: A Guide to Samadhi Pada.

Dasgupta, S. N. The Study of Patanjali. Calcutta, India: University of Calcutta, 1920.

Davis, Roy E. Life Surrendered in God: The Kriya Yoga Way of Soul Liberation. 2d ed.

CSA Press, 1995.

With comprehensive commentary on Patanjali’s Yoga-Sutras.

De Michelis, Elizabeth. A History of Modern Yoga: Patanjali and Western Esotericism.

New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

From the publisher: “In recent years yoga and meditation have become mass market pursuits in the West. A History of Modern Yoga traces this phenomenon back to its ideological roots in the esoteric circles of late 18th century Bengal, then follows some of its main developments to date. Fully- fledged Modern Yoga, the author argues, started with the publication of Swami Vivekananda’s seminal Raja Yoga (1896), in which Patañjali’s Yoga Sutras were reconfigured along the lines of a then emerging New Age style of secularized and individualistically oriented religiosity. ” Deshpande, P. Y. The Authentic Yoga: Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras with a New Translation, Notes, and Comments. London: Vintage/Ebury (Random House), 1989.

An interpretation of 55 of the sutras.

Desikachar, T. K. V. Reflections on the Yoga Sutra-s of Patanjali. India:

Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram. URL: http://www.kym.org.

From Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram’s website: “This book comprises the original sutras, their translation and commentary by T. K. V. Desikachar, [and]... presents two unique sections:... One section presents the Yoga Sutra-s with chant notations that will aid recitation and the other [provides] an index of all the words that appear in the text along with the Sutra-s in which they appear for easy reference.”

–  –  –

Dvivedi, M. N. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Madras, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1947. (No commentary.) Eliade, Mircea. Patanjali and Yoga. New York: Schocken Books, 1975. (Original French edition, 1962).

Feuerstein, Georg. The Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali: A New Translation and Commentary.

Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International, 1990.

The most literal of all the translations; holds very closely to the original Sanskrit.

Gitananda Giri, Swami. Answers the question, “Did Patanjali really exist or are the Yoga Sutras simply a collection of verses by a group of pandits with vested interest in propagating Yoga at a future time?” Yoga Life, Jul 2001, 32(7):5.

Govindan, Marshall. Kriya Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Siddhas: Translation, Commentary, and Practice. Kriya Yoga Publications, 2001.

Grinshpon, Yohanan. Silence Unheard: Deathly Otherness in Patanjala-Yoga. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2002.

From the publisher: “Silence Unheard maintains that the reality of Patanjali’s Yogasutra is a profound silence barely and variously audible to the scholars and interpreters who approach it. Even the Yoga sutra itself is an “approach,” a voice articulating an other—a silent, beyond-speech yogin. Author Yohanan Grinshpon presents Patanjali as a Sankhyaphilosopher, who interprets silence in accordance with his own dualist metaphysics and Buddhistic sensibilities. The Yogasutra represents an intellectual’s conceptualization of utter otherness rather than the yogin’s verbalization of silence. Silence Unheard focuses on the yogin’s supra- normal experiences (siddhis) as well as on the classification of silences and the ultimate goal of disintegration through guna balance. The book provides a translation of the Yogasutra divided into two sections: an essential text, concerning the yoga practitioner, and a secondary text, concerning the philosopher. Grinshpon also surveys the encounters of intellectuals, scholars, seekers, devotees, and outsiders with the Yogasutra.” Hansaji. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Ongoing series in each issue of Yoga and Total Health, Mar 2003.

Hariharananda Aranya, Swami. Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali with Bhâsvatî. Trans. by P. N. Mukerji. Rev. by Adinath Chatterjee. Kolkata, India: University of Calcutta, 1977,

2000. Also available from Vedanta Press.

–  –  –

Adinath Chatterjee’s revised and enlarged edition has many additions and improvements, including a thorough revision of the Mukerji’s English translation of the Bhasvati, Swami Hariharananda Aranya’s commentary on Vyasa Bhasya. Like the earlier editions, this edition also contains the Sanskrit text of the Yoga-Sutras and the Vyasa Bhasya, with elucidations by Swamiji.

Chatterjee has also included seven essays by Swamiji on related topics. Most of these Bengali essays are being published for the first time, all rendered into English by himself and various other scholars.

Harvey, Paul. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras (multi-part series). Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga. Begins with the first chapter in the Summer 1981 issue, pp. 18-22.

Part 4 appears in the Winter 1981 issue, pp. 20-25.

___________. Learning from life: Guiding the mind with Yoga Sutra. Yoga & Health, Dec 2004, pp. 8-9.

Houston, Vyaas. The Yoga Sutra Workbook. Available for purchase online:


“Indispensable book for studying the Yoga Sutras. Each sutra on its own 8.5x11 page with plenty of room for notes. Includes Sanskrit text, transliteration, grammar and literal translation. ” Huish, Matt. Break it down: The Yoga Sutras. YOGANorthwest, Jul-Aug 2002, pp. 16Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. YOGANorthwest, Sep/Oct 2002, pp. 12-13.

Iyengar, B. K. S. Yoga immortal. Yoga Rahasya, 1996, 3(4):11-18.

___________. What is citisakti? Yoga Rahasya, 1998, 5(2):27-29.

Discusses the meaning of “citisakti,” with which Patanjali ends the Yoga-Sutra.

___________. Light on the Yoga Sûtras of Patanjali. London: Thorsons, 1993/New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

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