«PUBLISHED BY World's largest Science, Technology & Medicine Open Access book publisher 96,000+ 2750+ 88+ MILLION INTERNATIONAL AUTHORS AND EDITORS ...»
World's largest Science,
Technology & Medicine
Open Access book publisher
2750+ 88+ MILLION
AUTHORS AND EDITORS
OPEN ACCESS BOOKS DOWNLOADS
BOOKS TOP 1% AUTHORS AND EDITORS
MOST CITED SCIENTIST FROM TOP 500 UNIVERSITIES151 COUNTRIES Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI) Chapter from the book Evapotranspiration - An Overview Downloaded from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/evapotranspiration-anoverview Interested in publishing with InTechOpen?
Contact us at email@example.com Chapter 12 Evapotranspiration of Succulent Plant (Sedum aizoonvar.floibundum) A. Al-Busaidi, T. Yamamoto, S. Tanak and S. Moritani Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/53213
1. Introduction Fresh water resources available for agriculture are declining quantitatively and qualitative‐ ly. Therefore, the use of less water or lower-quality supplies will inevitably be practiced for irrigation purposes to maintain economically viable agriculture. Globally arid and semiarid areas are facing salinization of soils along with the acute shortage of water resources. The utilization of marginal waters for agriculture is getting considerable importance in such re‐ gions. In hot and dry climate, one of the most successful ground covers is Sedum. It is per‐ ennial plant, which grows by natural moisture even if there is a little soil . As their common name of stonecrop suggests, they do very well in rocky areas, surviving on little soil and storing water in their thick leaves. While some do well in very sunny areas, others thrive in shade and they all tend to like good drainage. Sedums are suitable plants for rock gardens and flower borders. They are very easy to propagate as almost any tiny leaf or piece of stem that touches the ground will root. Some types become rather invasive but are easy to control since the roots are never very deep .
Sedum is one of the promising plants in dry areas. It has the characteristics of fire preven‐ tion and dry resistance. It has low transpiration value in the daytime compared to other plants. It uses latentheat transmission to control water loss. Generally, succulents, such as Sedum, have been the most studied and used plants for green roofs [2-5]. Greenroofs are in‐ creasingly being used as a source control measure for urban storm water management as they detain and slowly release rainwater. Their implementation is also recognized as having other benefits, including: habitat creation for birds and insects  filtering of aerosols; ener‐ gy conservation by providing thermal insulation [7, 8]; improvement of local microclimate through evaporation; reduction of rooftop temperatures . One of the main reasons Se‐ © 2013 Al-Busaidi et al.; licensee InTech. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
242 Evapotranspiration - An Overview dums seem ideally suited to green roof cultivation is the fact that many possess Crassula‐ cean acid metabolism (CAM). During periods of soil moisture deficit, CAM plants keep their stomata closed during the day when transpiration rates are normally high and open them at night when transpiration rates are significantly lower. This is in contrast to C3 and C4 plants, which do not keep their stomata closed during the day and therefore have higher water use rates than CAM plants.
Research that examines the growth obstruction moisture point in Sedum is little, and its growth is confirmed as for the amount of pF 3.0 or lower moisture content [9, 10]. Sedum has the characteristic of doing shutting transpiring control and when plant under water stress conditions, carbon dioxide is absorbed at nighttime which also common in some Cras‐ sulaceous plants that have Crassulaceous Acid Metabolism (CAM). For terrestrial plant spe‐ cies CAM is generally considered to be an adaptation to growth in dry environments [11, 12]. CAM species generally have high water use efficiencies and slow growth rates and are most abundant in arid regions and dry microhabitats. The degree of CAM expression (the proportion of nighttime CO2 assimilation by PEP carboxylase) potentially may vary from CO2 uptake only at night, to CO2 uptake both at night and during daylight, to CO2 uptake only during the day. A greater proportion of nighttime CO2 uptake has been associated with greater water use efficiency. This phenomenon helps Sedum to save much water and keep it for longer time. Sedum is a drought tolerant plant and its growth and survival under very dry conditions, still not well known. Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Sedum plant to grow under different soils condition where evapotranspiration was the main indicator for plant interaction with dry conditions. In addition, the studies on the growth and survival of Sedum under saline water conditions are scanty and not well documented. Therefore, the other objective of the study was to evaluate Sedum growth un‐ der saline water irrigation either by surface or shower method.
Plot experiment was carried out in a glasshouse at Arid Land Research Center of Tottori University, Japan. The plots were made in two directions (North & South) with a slope of 20 and 30 degree, respectively. Twelve plots were filled up to 10 cm thickness with five types of soils (Table 1). The used soils have different criteria in which four of them were artificial and the other two were sandy and clayey soils. Sedum (Sedum aizoonvar.floibundum) plants were transplanted uniformly in all types of soils. Plants were irrigated by sprinkler with intensity of 20 mm/h. Air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation were measured continu‐ ously day and night by Hobo (Pro series, onset, USA) meter. Evaporation and evapotranspi‐ ration were measured by using micro-lysimeters and evaporation pan (class A) following pan evaporation method (ETo = Epan * Kpan, ETp= ETo * Kc) where ETo: reference evapotranspi‐
ration, Epan: pan evaporation, Kpan: pan coefficient, ETp: potential evapotranspiration, Kc:
crop factor .
Evapotranspiration of Succulent Plant (Sedum aizoonvar.floibundum) 243 http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/53213
Table 1. Soil physicochemical properties Growth chamber study Plastic containers of 15 cm height and 22 cm diameter were filled up to 10 cm height with different types of soils.
The physicochemical properties of the used soils were same as the soils used in glasshouse study (Table 1). Sedum plant was transplanted in each pot with in‐ tensity of 30 plants/pot. All soils were irrigated until the field point of pF 1.8. After 24 hours, the evaporation process was inhibited by covering soil surface with plastic sheet. All pots were transferred to growth chamber with a day time temperature of 40 oC, 60 % relative hu‐ midity and light of 10000 Lux. Whereas, at the night time, the temperature and relative hu‐ midity were 20 oC and 60 %, respectively. All pots were placed in weighing balance scale so water lost by transpiration process was monitored (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Weighing balance for transpiration measurements Physicochemical analysis All used soils were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve.
Soil texture was determined by pipette method. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was determined by atomic absorption 244 Evapotranspiration - An Overview spectrophotometer (Model Z-2300 Hitachi corp, Japan) after leaching with ammonium ace‐ tate solution and using sodium acetate as an index cation. Saturated hydrolyic conductivity was measured by constant head method. Whereas, percentage N and C were measured by C/N coda (MT700, Yanagimoto, Japan). The pF values for soil moisture characteristic curve were measured by suction and centrifuge methods for pF values of 0 - 4.2 and Saicromatar method for 4.2 - 6.0 (Figure 2). The selected properties of the soils are given in Table 1.
Salinity study Pot experiment was carried out in same glasshouse at Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, Japan. Sand dune soil was placed in 4 L pots. Sedum (Sedum aizoon var. floibun‐ dum) was planted in 24 pots at the planting density of 4 plants per pot. One group of the pots was irrigated with the saline water directly on the surface of the soil and the other group of pots was showered by the same water treatments. Irrigation with saline water was
started after 14 days of planting. Saline water treatments were consisted of four levels:
i. fresh water (0.7 dS m-1), ii. saline (15 dS m-1), iii. highly saline (30 dS m-1), and iv) sea water (46 dS m-1).
Sea water was diluted by tap water to achieve these ECw levels of irrigation water. Four sal‐ ine water treatments were combined with two types of irrigation methods e. g., surface or normal irrigation (N) and shower or sprinkler irrigation (S). These treatments are denoted as 0.7(N), 0.7(S), 15(N), 15(S), 30(N), 30(S), 46(N), and 46(S) respectively. Plants were irrigated twice a week depending on the loss of evapotranspiration (ETc) which was estimated by gravitational measurement. Extra water at the rate of 10% was added for leaching purpose.
Evaporation was measured by using evaporation pan (class A). Air temperature and relative humidity were measured during the day as well as night by Hobo meter (Pro series, onset, USA). Prior to the harvesting of the plants for their fresh and dry weight, plant height and leaf area (by portable area meter LI-3000A) were also measured. Post-harvest soil samples were collected from each pot at a depth of 0-20 cm. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in the 1: 5 soil-water suspensions. Data were analyzed statistically for analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared at the probability level of 5% using least significant difference (LSD) test .
3. Results and discussion
soil can keep and the plant can take which usually related to soil water plant interactions.
From Figure 2, it can be seen that Touhaku soil got the highest values for water content fol‐ lowed by K soil. That usually related to clay and silt contents in the soil. Moreover, as sand particles increase, volumetric water content decrease and that was the case with perlite and sand dune soils.
Figure 2. Soil water retention curve of studied soils
During the study period, the weather was changing with the average glasshouse tempera‐ ture and humidity of 29 oC and 74 %, respectively. Average value of temperature seems to be suitable for Sedum growth but high value of 35 oC could enhance water loss through evapo‐ transpiration (ET) process (Figure 3). Comparing ET values for both slopes of glasshouse study, it wasn’t a big difference in the water lost between both slopes. However, there was a big difference between soil types (Figures 3-4) and that mainly related to the physiochemical properties of each soil. Generally, it can be noticed that after irrigation the water loss was high and gradually decreased with time. It is ranking in the following order: V soil K soil Sand Touhaku Pearlite. Moreover, it can be seen that Touhakusoil got the highest value for mean ET (Figure 4). Whereas, Pearlite soil got the lowest values. This can be related to the soil physical properties in which Touhakusoil has much clay content that can keep much water that could be subjected to ET losses. In same time, it was encouraging plant growth and plant lost much water through transpiration process compared to other soils. For Pearlite soil, since it has coarse particles so most water was lost through drainage and the rest of water was used for plant growing mechanisms. However, water lost from different slopes and directions (North and South) was inconsistence and was changing with time.
Since ET is one of the growth indicators, it seems that plant growing in K, V andTouhaku soils was growing very good by giving high values for ET. Whereas, plant growing in Pear‐ lite soil was saving the water and reduce ET process (Figure 3 & 4).
246 Evapotranspiration - An Overview Figure 3. Irrigation and evapotranspiration values of Sedum in glasshouse study Figure 4. Mean values for Sedum evapotranspiration in glasshouse study Growth chamber study Growth chamber is a controlled environment and what happened inside the chamber can be more understandable than outside environment. In this study, Sedum transpiration ratio was continuously monitored by weighing scale (Figures 5-6). Day time was considered from 0-12 o’clock and night time from 12-24 o’clock. Figure 5 represent transpiration ratio at the first day of study. It can be seen that plants grown in V, K and sand soils got the highest transpiration values among others. Whereas, plants in Pearlite and PP soils got the lowest values in both intervals. This can be related to the soil physical properties which supply wa‐ ter to plants. Pearlite and PP are coarse soils with particle size of 3 and 1 mm, respectively, in which most water in the soil was in vapor form and not directly available for the plant.
Whereas, K and V soils have high values of clay and silt contents and that increasedwater holding capacity compared to others.
Evapotranspiration of Succulent Plant (Sedum aizoonvar.floibundum) 247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/53213 In this study, plants were irrigated at the beginning of the study and soil surface was sealed so the only way to loss water was through transpiration process. Amount of transpiration water usually depend on plant growth and available soil moisture content. In CAM plants the transpiration process usually increase with day time and decrease at night. In this study the plant was under water stress condition so soil water content was decreasing with time.