WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

«GALVESTON BAY REPORT CARD Photo by: Anja Borski/Galveston Bay Foundation OVERVIEW SECTION FULL REPORT PDF OVERVIEW SECTION Photo ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

GALVESTON BAY

REPORT CARD

Photo by: Anja Borski/Galveston Bay Foundation

OVERVIEW SECTION

FULL REPORT PDF

WWW.GALVBAYGRADE.ORG

OVERVIEW SECTION

Photo by Galveston Bay Foundation

Galveston Bay is resilient, but faces an uncertain future. The

Bay’s watershed is home to the fourth- and ninth-largest

cities in the U.S., Houston and Dallas. It’s also home to three ports, and remains a hub for the manufacturing and refining of chemicals and petroleum products. But people, industry, and commerce often come with environmental challenges.

Galveston Bay’s most significant problems are tied to pollution, declines in habitat acreage, and to the impacts of climate change, like sea level rise.

That Galveston Bay could receive C for overall health despite facing these monumental issues shows how resilient it is. This offers hope that we can change our negative impact on water quality, wetlands, seagrasses, and wildlife. But a healthier Galveston Bay is in everyone’s interest.

(About the grade: The combined GPA for all six categories together is a 2.1, which registers in the low C range. Unfortunately, the combined grade does not include grades for three of our indicators: Toxics in Sediment, Litter and Trash, and Oyster Reef Acreage* - There was not enough data available on these indicators to include them in the overall grade. We hope you will join us in encouraging local, state, and national leaders to pass legislation, and provide funding, that will improve monitoring and address these issues.

* Oyster reef habitat has been monitored and the data is being processed. We hope to be able to include current data in 2016.

2015 Galveston Bay Report Card 2

OVERVIEW SECTION

About the Bay Galveston Bay is Texas’ largest bay, covering about 600 square miles. The Galveston Bay watershed — the area of land that drains into a given body of water — is about 24,000 square miles. It stretches northward from the Houston metropolitan area, up the Trinity River basin, and past the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Half the population of Texas currently lives in the Galveston Bay watershed. The Bay’s urbanized, industrialized, and agricultural setting poses unique challenges for water quality, habitat protection, and resource conservation. If you live, work, or go to school in the Galveston Bay Watershed, you can find your local watershed now.

Galveston Bay is, by defi

–  –  –

Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. They are home to a huge amount of plant and animal life, and can produce large harvests of recreational and commercial fish and shellfish.

People are drawn to the water – and for good reason. Galveston Bay and the habitats

within its watershed provide many benefits to society, including:

–  –  –

Ensuring a healthy future for Galveston Bay is ensuring that future generations can enjoy a safe place to not only live, but also swim, boat, and fish.

–  –  –

About the Project The Galveston Bay Report Card is a citizen-driven, scientific analysis of the health of Galveston Bay. Supported by a grant from Houston Endowment and implemented by the Galveston Bay Foundation and the Houston Advanced Research Center, the report card’s goal is to engage community members in meaningful discussion about Bay health topics. The report card is also designed to inspire people to take actions that protect and preserve the Bay. We plan to update the report annually.

Through a series of surveys and interactive presentations, six topic categories were identified by the Galveston Bay Foundation as health topics of interest to the public in the fall of 2014: Water Quality, Pollution Events & Sources, Wildlife, Habitat, Human Health Risks, and Coastal Change. Scientists from the Houston Advanced Research Center then analyzed data and trends for 19 indicators. What has emerged is a compelling story about Galveston Bay, its challenges, opportunities, and greatest needs.

Each indicator features easy-to-understand grades, similar to the grades you would find in a school report card. These indicators show specific ways you can help the Bay, as well as data-driven infographics, additional resources, and downloadable full reports with expanded content. There is also specific data on each indicator.

How We Grade It is not easy to measure how “healthy” a bay system is. Estuaries are extremely dynamic environments that change by the minute. It is not always clear how much stress a particular component of the bay can take before it begins to deteriorate, how fast it may deteriorate, or if recovery after deterioration is even possible. The way an individual defines a “healthy” bay is often related to how we, as humans, value the services that the system provides us, such as seafood harvests, clean water for drinking and playing, and habitat that protects and stabilizes shorelines.

The goal of the federal Clean Water Act of 1972 is to make the nation’s waters swimmable and fishable. That goal was our guideline in measuring the indicators for this report card. In this project, the Bay’s health is perceived as a question of sustainability and resiliency: Do the indicator trends portray a Bay that will continue to provide recreation, food, clean water, and protection from storms?





Instead of trying to apply a universal grading methodology to such a variety of Bay indicators, some degree of best professional judgment was used to determine overall category grades and indicator grading scales. A detailed explanation outlines how grades were calculated and when grading relied heavily on best professional judgment based on available data. This is disclosed in the downloadable PDFs for each indicator.

Letter grades correspond to a 4.0 grade point average scale, and are accompanied by descriptors ranging from “Excellent” to “Critical.” 2015 Galveston Bay Report Card 4

OVERVIEW SECTION

CONTACT US Working Together For a Healthy Bay As Texans and residents of the Galveston Bay watershed, we all carry the responsibility of protecting and preserving the Bay for future generations. The Bay is at the heart of immense ecological and economic productivity. It’s also a special place to many people who enjoy its views, tranquility, and recreational opportunities. The indicators selected for this report represent a diverse cross-section of Bay features, but they are not intended to be all-encompassing. We have already identified a few topics for future indicator expansion: water clarity, chlorophyll-a concentrations (an indicator of productivity at the base of the food chain), marine mammals and reptiles, land use/ development, harmful algal blooms, invasive species, and species range expansions.

We welcome your comments, suggestions and ideas to improve the report card, which we plan to update annually. A healthy environment is good for the communities we live, work, and play in. So please share this report with your family and friends. We encourage you to ask questions and seek innovative solutions to challenging environmental issue.

Galveston Bay Foundation

–  –  –

The Galveston Bay watershed received a B for water quality in 2014.That’s good news.

But the Galveston Bay watershed’s human population is growing. This means more land will be developed for homes, businesses, and transportation. As that happens, new safeguards will be needed to keep the Bay from being overloaded with nutrients that degrade water quality.

A good way to gauge the health of Galveston Bay is to assess the levels of life-sustaining nutrients and oxygen. Energy from the sun and elements like nitrogen and phosphorus are necessary for plants such as microscopic algae, seagrasses, and wetland grasses to exist in the Bay. These form the base of the food web upon which the entire ecosystem depends.

–  –  –

The water in Galveston Bay flows from watersheds on land into rivers and bayous, picking up nutrients and contaminants along the way. Too many nutrients can have negative effects on the health of the Bay. Surface waters in some watersheds contain more nutrients than they should. We need to watch those areas and determine the causes of elevated nutrient levels to ensure those nutrients do not cause more widespread problems in the future.

–  –  –

Making the Grade The levels of nutrients and dissolved oxygen found in samples taken from rivers, bayous, and the Bay itself in 2014 were most often at acceptable levels for supporting diverse and healthy aquatic life. So overall water quality earned a B grade. The water quality problems that did exist — relating to high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus — typically occur in bayous that receive runoff and wastewater from human activity in residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural areas.

2015 Galveston Bay Report Card 3

WATER QUALITY

SLOW YOUR RUNOFF: Nutrient pollution often peaks after heavy rainfall because of the particles picked up by the rain as it flows down roadways into storm drains, and then into the Bay and its tributaries.

There are several ways to slow runoff:

• Reduce or replace concrete areas with porous coverings like gravel.

• Install rain barrels to collect rainwater from your roof.

• Keep as much green space as possible on your property.

Learn more: www.galvbay.org/rainbarrel PICK UP AFTER YOUR PETS: Properly dispose of pet waste in the trash. Pet waste contains excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Those nutrients get carried from yards and parks by storm and irrigation runoff into creeks and other tributaries that flow into Galveston Bay.

Learn more: www.petwastepollutes.org

–  –  –

Algae blooms can choke waterways and lead to low oxygen levels in the water.

Some algae can even be toxic to humans, posing a threat to recreation and clean water for drinking.

Rivers and Bayous Nitrogen Grade: A (Excellent) Only 19 percent of samples collected from the rivers and bayous surrounding Galveston Bay were above nitrogen screening levels in 2014. In these waterways, a significant percentage of flowing water can come from wastewater treatment plants, particularly in dry, summer months. How that wastewater is treated — as well as what the runoff carries (fertilizer, pet waste, and other pollution from roads, parking lots, and yards) — impacts how much nitrogen is in the water of a river or bayou. If nitrogen levels in rivers and bayous become too high, Galveston Bay will likely be affected downstream.

–  –  –

Water quality concentrations (such as how much nitrogen is in the Bay and its tributaries) are monitored by federal, state, and local agencies. Data describing nitrogen concentrations in rivers, bayous, and the waters of Galveston Bay were obtained from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Surface Water Quality Monitoring Program and the TCEQ Clean Rivers Program.

–  –  –

Nitrogen grades are based on total ammonia-nitrogen in water. Ammonia was chosen to represent this indicator because the TCEQ data on it were the most complete for both tidal and non-tidal waters. Grades reflect the percent of samples that exceeded TCEQ screening levels in 2014, meaning the samples were above the range that is acceptable in Texas. The grading scale is based on the best professional judgement of coastal and estuarine scientists. This scale is also used to set water quality parameters in other coastal report cards, such as the one for Chesapeake Bay.

–  –  –

Keep Excess Nitrogen Out of Our Waterways

• Follow fertilizer directions carefully and don’t overfertilize your lawns or gardens.

• Have septic systems inspected and repaired if they are not functioning properly. The Houston-Galveston Area Council estimates that there are more than 300,000 onsite sewage facilities in its 13-county service area. Learn more and see a map of septic systems in your area.

• Leave as much of your property unpaved as possible so rainwater has a chance to soak in rather than run off.

• Plant a rain garden to prevent rainwater from running into storm sewers. Choose native plants that grow well in our climate and use compost instead of fertilizer.

–  –  –

Like nitrogen, phosphorus stimulates plant growth, but too much contributes • to algae blooms.

Phosphorus — commonly found in fertilizers, detergents, manure, sewage, and • industrial wastewater (effluent) — attaches to soil particles. This makes erosion a factor in phosphorus pollution.

Just like having too much nitrogen, too much phosphorus can cause an overgrowth of algae (or an “algae bloom”). Algae blooms can choke waterways and lead to low oxygen levels in the water. Some algae can even be toxic to humans, posing a threat to recreation and clean water for drinking.

Rivers and Bayous Phosphorus Grade: C (Adequate for Now) In 2014, eight sub-watersheds of Galveston Bay scored C, D, or F for exceeding the phosphorus water quality standards. About 43 percent of all samples exceeded total phosphorus screening levels.

Galveston Bay Phosphorus Grade: B (Good) In 2014, 33 percent of samples collected in Galveston Bay waters had phosphorus levels above screening levels set for the protection of aquatic life.

Water quality concentrations such as phosphorus are monitored by federal, state, and local agencies. Data describing phosphorus concentrations in rivers, bayous, and the waters of Galveston Bay were obtained from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Surface Water Quality Monitoring Program and the TCEQ Clean Rivers Program.

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |


Similar works:

«2014-15 Bulletin school of school of dentistry medicine school of school of graduate health related studies professions school ofschool of pharmacy pharmacy school of nursing umc.edu Mississippi’s Leading Health Sciences Campus Jackson, Mississippi The University of Mississippi Medical Center adheres to the principle of equal educational and employment opportunity without regard to race, creed, sex, color, religion, marital status, sexual orientation, age, national origin, disability or...»

«EPEC Education for Physicians on End-of-life Care Participant’s Handbook Plenary 3 Elements and Models of Endof-life Care © EPEC Project, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1999. The Project to Educate Physicians on End-of-life Care comes from the Institute for Ethics at the American Medical Association. Permission to produce for non-commercial, educational purposes with display of copyright and attribution is granted. Emanuel LL, von Gunten CF, Ferris FD. The Education for Physicians on...»

«Biographies of Participants Global Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (GCPPD2016) Toward the 2016 G7 Ise-Shima Summit April 26-27, 2016 1|P a g e GCPPD2016 Participants’ Biographies as of 20 April 2016 I. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENTS (Alphabetical Order) Afghanistan Hon. Dr. Obaidullah Kalemzai Member of Parliament, Lower House Hon. Dr. Kalemzai worked in USAID health branch for four years. He worked as head of central clinic commission for two years and also served as...»

«Facts About Moulds Introduction This information has been developed by Saskatchewan Health and the Occupational Health and Safety Division of Saskatchewan Labour and is intended to apply to private residences, public buildings and workplaces. Actions indicated in this document may differ between private residences and workplaces. For more information on workplace requirements, contact Saskatchewan Labour Occupational Health and Safety Division. Should I be concerned about mould in my building?...»

«March 4, 2015 If you have questions, please contact your regular Groom Supreme Court Hears Arguments On Availability of ACA attorney or one of the attorneys listed below: Tax Subsidies Through Federal Exchanges Jon W. Breyfogle jbreyfogle@groom.com The U.S. Supreme Court just heard oral arguments on yet another landmark case involving (202) 861-6641 the Affordable Care Act (the “ACA”), this time addressing one of the key features of the law: the availability of tax credits to subsidize the...»

«Ethics department Boosting your brainpower: ethical aspects of cognitive enhancements A discussion paper from the British Medical Association How might we try to enhance cognition? What are the ethical and social implications of cognitive enhancements? How should society respond? Key questions for debate and consideration November 2007 Boosting your brainpower: ethical aspects of cognitive enhancements. A discussion paper from the BMA. 2007 Boosting your brainpower: ethical aspects of cognitive...»

«BRIEF INTERVENTION FOR SUBSTANCE USE: FOR Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence A MANUAL FOR USE IN PRIMARY CARE Draft Version 1.1 for Field Testing World Health Organization Caveat relating to use of this document This document was written by Sue Henry-Edwards, Rachel Humeniuk, Robert Ali, Maristela Monteiro and Vladimir Poznyak and is currently available for use in unpublished draft form only. Copies of this document are available on the WHO website for clinical and/or research...»

«Dynamics of synapse function during postnatal development and homeostatic plasticity in central neurons Kevin Fu-Hsiang Lee Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctorate in Philosophy in Neuroscience Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine Faculty of Medicine University of Ottawa © Kevin Fu-Hsiang Lee, Ottawa, Canada, 2015 Table of Contents Page Title ix Acknowledgments xii Abstract xv Copyright...»

«The Big Cold: Health Beliefs of Elderly Haitians related to Influenza Immunizations by Marie Tamara Adonis-Rizzo, R.N., B.S.N. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, Florida December, 2004 Copyright by Marie Tamara Adonis-Rizzo 2004 11 The Big Cold: Health Beliefs of Elderly Haitians related to Influenza Immunizations By Marie Tamara...»

«Distribution Agreement In presenting this thesis or dissertation as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree from Emory University, I hereby grant to Emory University and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive, make accessible, and display my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known, including display on the world wide web. I understand that I may select some access restrictions as part of the online submission of...»

«Battered Women: A Health Care Problem In Disguise Virginia Koch Drake, R.N., M.S.N. Women should have the right to move about within the confines of their homes among those persons with whom they share the most intimate, interpersonal relationships without fearing for their safety and well-being, for life itself. In general women accept and expect that right as a given; however recent studies cited by Davidson (1978) from the National Institute of Mental Health suggest that 50%-60% of all...»

«HEALTH SERVICES FOR SEXUALLY ASSAULTED. COMPLAINANTS’ AND JUDICIAL USE OF A SELF-REFERRAL CENTRE;CASE-FLOW FROM ASSAULT TO LEGAL OUTCOME Helle Margrethe Floor Nesvold Emergency Medical Agency, City of Oslo Institute of Forensic Medicine, Oslo University Institute of Psychiatry, Section of adult psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval © Helle Margrethe Floor Nesvold, 2010 Series of dissertations submitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo No. 958 ISBN 978-82-8072-584-4 All...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.