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«By ROBERT MALINOWSKI A THESIS Submitted to Michigan State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

3D K9: USING QUICKTIME VR TO TEACH VETERINARY ANATOMY

By

ROBERT MALINOWSKI

A THESIS

Submitted to

Michigan State University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

MASTER OF ARTS

Department of Telecommunication

ABSTRACT

3D K9: USING QUICKTIME VR TO TEACH VETERINARY ANATOMY

By

ROBERT MALINOWSKI

A well-developed understanding of spatial anatomical relationships is an essential skill for individuals working in the field of veterinary medicine. To aid in the acquisition of this important ability, this multimedia project was created to assist veterinary technology students in learning canine skeletal anatomy in three dimensions.

The program will supply the learners with accurate information regarding anatomical landmarks, current nomenclature and proper pronunciation. Students will be able to continue the learning process even after the lab has closed or the gross anatomy portion of their course has ended.

The virtual specimens will be distributed to students on CD-ROM. This universal and versatile format will allow them to view the material on any modern personal computer at home, work or school.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

After changing my career direction at least a dozen times, I was fortunate to find the Digital Media Art and Technology program. This was exactly what I was looking for, a way to combine my two greatest interests: veterinary medicine and computer technology. I’d like to thank Dr. Theresa Bernardo for introducing me to the program and her constant guidance these past two years. I appreciate all she has done to help me build my career and find my niche in the veterinary profession. I’d also like to thank Brian Winn and Carrie Heeter for the excellent courses they have offered and their valuable advice. I truly appreciate their expertise and their devotion to the students in the DMAT program. Thanks also to the entire Information Technology Center staff.

Without your support, I would have never been able to complete this project.

I would like to thank my family for their support over these last eight years. It’s been a long journey, but I’ve finally reached the end. I am grateful to my best friend Jeff a.k.a. “Potsy” for his assistance with designing the user interface. His artistic skills are amazing, and I couldn’t have done this without his help.

I’d like to thank my fiancée Jennifer for her love and support. She is always there to support me in everything I do and I’m lucky to have her in my life. Finally, I’d like to thank God for His love and guidance everyday of my life.

–  –  –

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………… vi LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………. vii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………… 1 Project Objectives………………………………………………….….…. 2 Personal Objectives…………………………………………………..….. 3 CHAPTER TWO LEARNING ANATOMY………………………………………………………. 4

CHAPTER THREE

3D IN MEDICAL EDUCATION……………………………………………… 7

CHAPTER FOUR

DESIGN…………………..………………………………………………..……. 11 Multimedia……………………………………………………………….. 11 Interactivity………………………………………………………………. 12 Usability and enjoyment…………………………………………………. 12 Delivery format: CD-ROM……………………………………………….. 12

CHAPTER FIVE

PRE-PRODUCTION…………………………………………………………… 14 Material collection……………………………………………………….. 14 Content research………………………………………………………….. 14 Scope…………………………………………………………………….. 15 Target Audience………………………………………………………….. 16 Primary Persona………………………………………………………….. 16 Interface Design………………………………………………………….. 18 Treatment………………………………………………………………… 18 Platform………………………………………………………………….. 19 Focus Group Discussion…………………………………………………. 19 Past anatomy courses…………………………………………….. 20 Experience with other learning resources………………………… 20 Lab and computer resources……………………………………… 21 Computer skills and connectivity………………………………… 22 iv CHAPTER SIX PRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….. 24 QuickTime VR object movie creation……………………………………. 25 Turntable ………………………….……………………………………… 26 Single vs. Multiple………………………………………………………... 27 Photography process……………………………………………………… 28 Image editing…………………………………………………………….. 29 De-wobbling……………………………………………………………… 30 Anatomical landmarks…………………………………………………..... 30 Proper pronunciation…………………………………………………..…. 32 Interface Design………………………………………………………..…. 33 Assembly in Macromedia Flash………………………………………….. 33 Prototype Assembly on CD-ROM……………………………………….. 34 Prototype Usability Testing……………….…………………………….… 35 Usability Testing Results………………………………………………… 36 Project Revisions………………………………………………….……… 38 Changes Planned for the Future..………………………………………… 39

CHAPTER SEVEN





CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………… 41 Technical Issues………………………………………………………….. 42 Content Issues……………………………………………………………. 44 The Student Perspective……………………………………………..…... 44 Future Endeavors………………………………………………………… 45 APPENDIX A: Focus group discussion guide………………………………… 48 APPENDIX B: Usability testing session task list……………………………… 50 APPENDIX C: Focus group discussion advertisement flyer…………………. 51 APPENDIX D: Usability testing sessions advertisement flyer………………. 52 APPENDIX E: Focus group discussion consent form ……….………………. 53 APPENDIX F: Usability testing sessions consent form………………………. 56 APPENDIX G: ActionScript for QuickTime VR effect in Flash……….……. 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………….…………………. 60

–  –  –

Table 1: Specimens and their associated landmarks …………………………… 22 Table 2: Camera settings ……………………..………………………………… 26 Table 3: Number of landmark images edited …………………………………… 29

–  –  –

During the first year of the veterinary technology program, the subject of anatomy is taught using cadavers and other preserved specimens. This approach is effective, but leaves the student dependent solely on their experiences in the course and twodimensional atlases for the rest of their career. This project was created to assist veterinary technology students in the understanding of spatial anatomical relationships.

The goal was to create a supplemental virtual anatomy experience that was available to each student twenty- four hours a day. What is learned during this project will be of benefit to students of both veterinary and human medicine.

Digital specimens were created using QuickTime’s VR object technology. This technique involves photographing the individual bones of a canine skeleton from a variety of angles and then stitching these photographs (2D) together using specialized software. This approach is far less expensive and time consuming than high-end volume rendering packages such as 3DS Max or Maya, which require intricate modeling of surfaces and volumes and don’t have the appearance of real tissue. The QuickTime VR process combines the still images to produce a photo-realistic object (3D) that can be manipulated with a mouse and viewed from any angle. The procedure can be completely automated, and a specimen can be photographed and processed in less than fifteen minutes.

The hardware and software used to accomplish this task cost less than $2000 and can be installed on a typical desktop PC. The Magellan Desktop Turntable is the cornerstone of the system. The specimen is mounted on this computer-controller turntable and photographed every ten degrees. A total of thirty-six images produce a high quality model with very smooth rotation. A digital camera with remote capture software allows the images to be acquired without unintentionally altering the camera’s position. Each camera option (flash, focus, exposure) is controlled from the PC. A custom profile is created, and the settings are applied to each image to ensure consistency between shots. The specimen is illuminated using a standard radiograph viewing box, which provides a diffuse fluorescent light source. No additional lights or camera flash are required.

Adobe Photoshop is used to perform minor corrections to each image and outline each anatomical landmark. The image series is then imported into Macromedia Flash to create an interactive computer-based anatomical atlas of the canine skeleton. The program can be viewed on any computer using the free Macromedia Flash Player software. The virtual atlas is distributed on CD-ROM and can also be made available online using a streaming server.

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The objective is to design an instructional tool that makes it fun and easy for veterinary technology students to learn canine skeletal anatomy. This learning tool will initially be distributed on CD-ROM, but an online version may also be made available in the future. The program will be easy to use, allowing the student to focus on learning the material rather than the interface. When the project is complete, the student will have a computer-based supplement to the standard cadaver specimens used for instruction in the anatomy course. This resource will be available to them later in their clinical rotations and also in their future careers.

PERSONAL OBJECTIVES

The primary personal objective is to learn more about how computers and technology can be used to enhance medical education. The advantages and disadvantages of the QuickTime VR format will be explored, as well as alternate 3D authoring tools and methods. The author seeks to improve his digital photography skills, and become more adept at using multimedia authoring programs such as Flash MX and Live Stage Pro.

This paper is a supplement to the CD-ROM multimedia production. The document addresses the importance of anatomical knowledge and spatial understanding for individuals in the veterinary profession. Multiple methods for creating threedimensional models and simulations are discussed. The design process is described in detail, including important highlights of the pre-production and production processes.

The final chapter summarizes what was learned from this project, whether or not the objectives were met and how it can be improved and expanded upon in the future.

–  –  –

A well-developed understanding of spatial anatomical relationships is an essential skill for individuals working in the field of veterinary medicine. This knowledge is vital for technicians, practitioners and surgeons alike. It serves as the basis for more complex subjects such as understanding physiology, diagnosing orthopedic diseases and interpreting multiple imaging modalities including radiographs, computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

At the vast majority of institutions today, anatomy is taught using physical specimens. The samples are only available to students in the laboratory during restricted hours. This approach severely limits access to the learning materials. To help alleviate this problem, students enrolled in Michigan State University’s veterinary medicine program receive what is called a “bone box” to take home and study. This resource contains a disarticulated canine skeleton and is very useful for the first few weeks of the anatomy course. The students must be careful not to lose or damage the samples since they are costly to replace. The bone box must be returned as soon as the first section of the course has ended. This method has been very successful in helping veterinary medicine students learn skeletal anatomy.

Due to limited funding and program resources, students in the veterinary technology program do not receive a bone box to help them learn anatomy. All of the specimens needed for their education are kept in the laboratory. This is very inconvenient since many of the students would prefer to learn the material at home on their own time. The majority of students in the program have hectic schedules outside of class. Most are working part-time or full-time jobs in order to finance their education.



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