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«Realize that listing objectives by chapter artificially separates the body into unnatural segments when in fact it is a beautifully constructed ...»

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Major learning outcomes:

 Identify assigned anatomical structures and their relationships.

 State examples of “Rule #2: Variability is the law of Life.” (William Ostler, 19 th c. Physician)

Realize that listing objectives by chapter artificially separates the body into unnatural segments when in fact it is

a beautifully constructed integrated whole. While I organize lectures in this same unnatural systemic approach, each test will include questions requiring integration of material across several chapters. Some examples of those types of objectives are listed at the end of the unit objectives.

Objectives primarily achieved in lab are followed by “L”.

A Note on Terminology Building an anatomical/physiological vocabulary is essential for success in both courses and your career.

 For each unit/system, be able to define and use each assigned word root.

For all units  Label all assigned features on all assigned Figures (available on my website).

I. Introductory material

1. List the levels of structural organization in the human body from least complex to most complex.

2. Define and give an example of each level of structural organization in the human body.

3. Describe and give examples of the relationships between structure and function at each level of organization.

4. Define anatomy and its subdisciplines.

5. Define the assigned word roots used to construct anatomical terminology. (This objective is to be met in all subsequent topics.)

6. List and give examples of the three parts of a typical medical term.

7. State why medical terms are preferred over eponyms.

8. Define the anatomical position.

9. Give the anatomical terms for assigned body regions.

10. Define all assigned directional terms and use each correctly in a sentence.

11. Define and identify examples of anatomical planes and sections.

12. List and identify the major body cavities and their general contents.

13. Sketch and label the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions.

13L. Define and locate (on torso models and yourself) the body cavities and abdominopelvic regions.

II. Cells

1. List the 3 major structural components of the human body.

2. List the 2 major compartments of body fluids.

3. List the 3 major subdivisions of extracellular fluid and their location.

4. List and sketch 9 types of cell shapes.

5. List 4 major structural components of a cell and the major functions of each component.

6. List 3 types of cell extensions and the function of each.

7. Describe, recognize, and give functions for assigned cell organelles.

8. Explain why the cell is considered the body’s unit of structure and function.

9. Describe the fluid-mosaicmodel of the plasma membrane.

III. Tissues

1. List the four basic tissue types.

2. Sketch an example of how a 3-D structure looks in a 2-D microscopic view.

3. Describe the general structural features and functions of epithelial tissues.

Human Anatomy Objectives -- Page 1 of 9

4. Differentiate the two types of glandular epithelium.

5. Describe the criteria used to classify covering and lining epithelia.

6. Give a description, location and function for simple squamous epithelium.

7. Describe the general structural features and functions of connective tissues.

8. Give a description, location and function for areolar connective tissue.

9. Describe the locations and structure of three types of epithelial membranes.

10. Describe the locations of the three types of serous membranes.

11. Describe the general structural features and functions of muscle tissues.

12. Give specific structural descriptions, locations and functions for the three types of muscle tissue.

13. List the two main cell types of nervous tissue.

14. Sketch and label the 3 major parts of a neuron.

15. Describe the two major tissue types and two fiber types found in a neuromuscular junction.

16L. For all assigned tissue types: be able to (a) describe and identify the tissue and its key features and (b) give a function and location for that tissue.

IV. Integumentary System

1. List the organs comprising the integumentary system.

2. List 5 functions of the integumentary system.

3. Describe the structure of the epidermis, including its layers and cell types.

4. Compare and contrast thick skin with thin skin.

5. Compare and contrast the structure, location and function of thick and thin skin.

6. Describe the structure of the dermis.

7. Describe the structure of the following accessory organs of the integumentary system: subcutaneous layer, hair (and arrector pili), nails, merocrine (eccrine) and apocrine glands, sebaceous glands.

8. Compare the location and functional features of the two dermal capillary networks.

9. List the three pigments primarily responsible for skin color.

10. List and define 6 terms relating color of skin to its diagnostic value.

11. Recall and apply the clinical applications assigned for this chapter.

10L. Identify the layers and features of the epidermis and dermis on histological slides.

11L. Locate and identify on slides and model all assigned structures (and their features).

V. Skeletal System—Bone tissue

1. List 3 major components of the skeletal system.

2. List 6 functions of the skeletal system.

3. Sketch and label the features of a typical long bone.

4. Describe the blood and nerve supply to a typical long bone.

5. Name and describe the cell types involved in bone formation and remodeling.

6. List the components (and percentage of each) of bone matrix.

7. Sketch, label, and describe the histology of compact and spongy bone.

8. Describe and sketch the processes of intramembranous and endochondral ossification in detail.

9. Describe and sketch the layers of an epiphyseal plate.

10. Compare and contrast the processes of interstitial and appositional growth.

11. Explain the process and purpose of bone remodeling.

12. Describe the causes, consequences, and prevention of osteoporosis.

13. Recall and apply all assigned clinical applications for this chapter.

VI. Skeletal system – Gross Anatomy

1. List the components and number of bones in the two divisions of the skeleton.

2. List and give an example of the 4 bone types, according to shape.

3. Define and give an example of a sesamoid and a sutural bone.

4. Describe the regions of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae in each region.

5. Sketch and label the processes of a typical vertebra, stating the function of each.

6. Name and state the structural classification of the two types of intervertebral joints.

7. Describe the structure and function of the two components of an intervertebral disc.

Human Anatomy Objectives -- Page 2 of 9

8. Name and describe the formation and function of the normal vertebral curves.

9. Name and describe three abnormal vertebral curvatures.

10. Compare and contrast the structure and function of the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

11. Name and describe the structure and function of the 3 arches of the foot.

12L. Compare and contrast the structure of the male and female pelvis, and use this information to identify an unknown pelvis.

13L. Compare and contrast the structure and function of the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

14L. For each bone of the body, identify all assigned features (and their functions) on bones, APR photographs, and radiographs.

15L. State which side of body a given bone is from.

16L. List the cranial nerves by name and Roman numeral, their general function, and state through which foramen they exit or enter the skull.

VII. Articulations

1. Define a joint and describe the trade-offs involved in joint strength versus joint mobility.

2. Describe the four structural categories of joints (and their alternative names), and give an example of each.

3. Sketch and label the features of a simple synovial joint.

4. Describe the six subcategories of synovial joints, state the axes of motion of each, and give two examples of each.

5. List six factors that influence the range of motion of any joint.

6. List the terms used to describe the number of axes of movements possible at a synovial joint and give an example of each.

7. Define the assigned list of terms describing movements at synovial joints and demonstrate each movement with your own body.

8. Describe in detail the bones, cartilages, and connective tissues of the knee joint, giving the function of each structure. Be able to identify these features on a sketch.

9. Describe which structures strengthen the knee joint a) anteriorly, b) laterally, c) posteriorly, and d) internally.

10. State which structures of the knee joint primarily prevent a) abduction, b) adduction, c) hyperextension,

d) anterior displacement of the tibia, and e) posterior displacement of the tibia.

11. Explain why the knee joint is the most commonly injured joint in the body.

12. State the “3 C’s” which are commonly damaged by a lateral blow to the knee.

12L. Identify the assigned articulations on skeletons, APR, or radiographs and give their complete structural classification and axes of movement.

13L. Identify the assigned structures on a fresh animal joint and knee joint model.

VIII. Muscular System

1. List four general functions of muscle tissue.

2. List four general properties of muscle tissue.

3. List the connective tissue wrappings of a skeletal muscle from superficial to deep and name the structure enclosed by each.

4. Define origin and insertion with respect to skeletal muscles.

5. Sketch a simple lever system and label the effort, fulcrum and resistance.

Describe how the body’s skeletal, articular, and muscular systems form lever systems.


7. Describe the trade-off between mechanical advantage and disadvantage.

8. Sketch 7 different fascicle arrangements.

9. Describe the influence of fascicle arrangement on power and range of motion.

10. Define 4 terms used to describe how muscles work in groups and give an example of each.

11. Sketch a muscle fiber, labeling all assigned features.

12. Differentiate between a myofiber, a myofibril, and a myofilament.

13. Sketch and label the features of a sarcomere.

14. List and locate the three major proteins of the sarcomere.

Human Anatomy Objectives -- Page 3 of 9

15. Give a general explanation of the sliding-filament mechanism of muscle contraction.

16. Describe the nerve and blood supply to a skeletal muscle.

17. Describe the growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle.

18. Compare the histology of cardiac and smooth muscle to skeletal muscle.

19. Compare the nerve and blood supply of cardiac and smooth muscle to skeletal muscle.

20. Compare visceral smooth muscle to multi-unit smooth muscle.

21. Define peristalsis and state which smooth muscle type exhibits peristalsis.

22. Compare the growth and regeneration of cardiac and smooth muscle to skeletal muscle.

23L. Identify all assigned muscles and connective tissue features on the plastinated limbs, APR, and torso models.

24L. State the functional group to which any assigned human muscle belongs, and give a more precise function if included in the lab exercise.

25L. Describe the boundaries and contents of the femoral triangle.

26L. Contrast the terms fascia lata, iliotibial tract, and tensor fasciae latae.

IX. Cardiovascular System

1. Explain why the heart is described as a double pump.

2. Describe the position of the heart in the body, including its borders and surfaces.

3. Diagram and label the three layers of the pericardium

4. Sketch and name the layers of the heart wall.

5. List, from superficial to deep, the structures a surgeon must cut through to reach a chamber of the heart to repair a patent foramen ovale.

6. Be able to describe and identify all assigned external features of the heart on diagrams.

7. Describe the functional reason for the difference in wall thickness between atria and ventricles.

8. Be able to label all internal features of the heart on a diagram.

9. Describe in detail the path of blood flow through the heart, including all chambers and valves.

10. Describe the structure and function of the heart’s fibrous skeleton.

11. Sketch the general scheme of coronary circulation.

12. Describe the histology of blood vessels and the differences between arteries and veins

13. Give the structural and functional differences between conducting arteries, distributing arteries, resistance arteries & arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.

14. Describe the structural differences between the three types of capillaries and where each type is found in the body.

15. Diagram and label an arteriovenous anastomosis, indicating its relationship to a capillary bed.

16. Give an example of an arterial anastomosis and a venous anastomosis.

17. Compare and contrast the pulmonary and systemic circulations, relating these to differences in thickness of the ventricular walls.

18. Sketch and label the general scheme of systemic arterial circulation; systemic venous circulation.

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