WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 12 |

«LECTURE NOTES For Environmental Health Students MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Zinabu Anamo Negga Baraki Haramaya University In collaboration with the Ethiopia ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

LECTURE NOTES

For Environmental Health Students

MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY

Zinabu Anamo

Negga Baraki

Haramaya University

In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center,

the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education

March 2008

Funded under USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 663-A-00-00-0358-00.

Produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education.

Important Guidelines for Printing and Photocopying Limited permission is granted free of charge to print or photocopy all pages of this publication for educational, not-for-profit use by health care workers, students or faculty. All copies must retain all author credits and copyright notices included in the original document. Under no circumstances is it permissible to sell or distribute on a commercial basis, or to claim authorship of, copies of material reproduced from this publication.

©2008 by Zinabu Anamo, B.Sc, M.Sc and Negga Baraki, B.Sc, MPH All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided above, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the author or authors.

This material is intended for educational use only by practicing health care workers or students and faculty in a health care field.

PREFACE The importance of an organized material for the study of a subject is very important and especially where reference materials and text books relevant to the subject matter are in restricted access. The course of medical entomology offered to environmental science students is a pre-requisite to the course vector control. This is aimed as an introductory course to vector control and insects of public health importance, most common in Ethiopia. The aim is to give a general insight to the biology of arthropods, their habits and habitats before embarking on a detailed study of insect vectors.

This lecture note is prepared in line with the curriculum of the current training of Environmental Health Science Students at the different sister universities networked through the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative (EPHTI). The contents of the lecture-note are as agreed with the relevant departments in the sister universities who offer similar training.

The relevant information for the course is organized from various books of entomology and medical entomology. The aim is to save time for the instructor to concentrate on interactive discussion and minimize the usual oral lecturing and facilitate practical training.

iii The contents of this lecture note are organized in a logical flow of six chapters. The first chapter is introduction to the subject matter and public health problems of arthropods. The second chapter focuses on identification of arthropods, Chapter three is about insects, Chapter four is about Insect morphology, Chapter five is on Developments and life histories of insects and Chapters six is on Insect behavior and activity.

It is noteworthy here to indicate to the learner that this material is not full in itself to give all the knowledge and experience required, but is a good road map to influence the reader to get initiated for searching more and valid information from various sources. This material, therefore, does not replace any standard text book.

In conclusion, the authors are open and thankful for any comments from readers that help to improve the material.

–  –  –

Our sincere thanks and appreciation goes to The Carter Center /EPHTI/ for financial and material support of this lecture note.

Many thanks to Ato Bizatu Mengiste and Ato Zeyede Kebede for their valuable comments forwarded during intra workshop review for improving the lecture note to the maximum benefit of the students.

We would like to extend our thanks to reviewers from sister institutions: Dr. Natsanet Worku (Gonder University), Professor K.N. Panicker (Addis Ababa University), Ato Alemayahu Woldecherkos (Hawassa University), Ato Mohamud Adulkader (Mekele University), Ato Ahemed Mohammed (Jimma University) and W/o Atsedu Yashwalul (Defense University College) for their practical comments, which we have taken the utmost care to include in the lecture note.

We are also grateful to Ato Gebre-Emanuel Teka (Senior Environmental Health professional now on retirement) and Dr.

Messay Fettene (Akililu Lemma Institute of pathobiology, Addis Ababa University) for their immense contributions to the betterment of this teaching material.

–  –  –

Contents Pages Preface …………………………………………………. i Acknowledgement …………………………………… iii Table of contents …………………………………….. v List of figures …………………………………………. ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL

ENTOMOLOGY...………………… 1

1.1 Learning objectives ……………………………….. 1





1.2. Introduction ……………………………………….. 1

1.3 Definition of terms …………………………………. 3

1.4 Existing public health problems ………………….. 6

CHAPTER TWO: ARTHROPODS AND THEIR

IDENTIFICATION …………………. 9

2.1 Learning Objectives ……………………………….. 9

2.2. Introduction ………………………………………... 9

2.3 Common identification Characteristics of Arthropods: ………………………………………… 10

2.4 Taxonomy (Scientific Classification) of Arthropods ………………………………………… 11

2.5 Arthropod Habitats ………………………………… 19 vii

2.6. Arthropod Species Abundance ………………….. 20

2.7. Advantages and disadvantages of arthropods... 22

2.8. General control methods of arthropods ………… 26 CHAPTER THREE: THE INSECTS …………………. 31

3.1 Learning Objectives ………………………………. 31

3.2. Introduction ……………………………………….. 31

3.3. The Orders of Insecta ……………………………. 32

3.4. Uses of insects ……………………………………. 62 3.4.1 Insects as human food (entomophagy): ……… 62 3.4.2 Insects as feed for domesticated animals: …… 64 3.4.3. Other benefits of insects ………………………. 65

3.5. Insect diversity ……………………………………. 67 3.5.1 Why insect are so successful in their species diversity? ……………………………………………….. 67

3.6 Insect collecting technique ……………………….. 70

CHAPTER FOUR: THE MORPHOLOGY OF

INSECTS ………………………… 79

4.1 Learning Objectives ……………………………….. 79

4.2 Introduction ………………………………………… 79

4.3. The External Morphology ……………………….. 80 4.3.1. Exoskeleton …………………………………….. 83 4.3.2. Body Divisions of Insects ……………………… 86

4.4. Internal Morphology of Insects ………………….. 105 4.4.1. Digestive system: ………………………………. 106

–  –  –

ix

6.3. Insect behavior ……………………………………. 150

6.4. Insect Senses ……………………………………... 163 6.4.1. Sense of touch …………………………………. 163 6.4.2. Sense of smell and taste ………………………. 164 6.4.3. Sense of hearing ……………………………….. 164 6.4.4. Sense of sight …………………………………... 164

6.5. Defenses in Insects ………………………………. 165 References: ……………………………………………. 175 Annex …………………………………………………… 177 Glossary ……………………………………………….. 182 x

LIST OF FIGURES

Page Figure 2.1. common classification tree of phylum Arthropoda ………………………………... 15 Figure 3.1. Examples of diptera …………………….. 38 Figure 3.2.

Lice of human …………………………….. 40 Figure 3.3.

Adult chewing louse. …………………….. 42 Figure 3.4. The bedbug………………………………… 45 Figure 3.5. An adult flea ………………………………. 48 Figure 3.6. Examples of Hymenoptera ………………. 50 Figure 3.7. Examples of lipdoptera …………………... 52 Figure 3.8. Examples of orthoptera …………………. 53 Figure 3.9.

An adult Cockroach ………………………. 56 Figure 3.10. Examples of Coleoptera ………………... 59 Figure 3.11. Examples of isopteran Termites……….. 61 Figure 3.12 Forceps to pick up insects ………………. 71 Figure 3.13 Film canisters to hold small insects…….. 72 Figure 3.14 Insect killing jar …………………………… 73 Figure 3.15 Insect collecting net ……………………… 74 Figure 3.16 Pheromone trap …………………………. 77 Figure 4.1. The major body axes and the relationship xi of parts of the appendages to the body………………. 82 Figure 4.2. The general structure of insect cuticle …. 85 Figure 4.3.

Generalized adult-winged insect........ 86 Figure 4.4. Lateral view of the head of a generalized pterygote insect…………………………… 88 Figure 4.5. Pre-oral and anterior foregut morphology in insects…………………………………… 90 Figure 4.6. Frontal view of the head and dissected mouth parts of an adult earwig……………. 91 Figure 4.7. Insect mouth parts……………………….... 95 Figure 4.8. Types of insect antennae…………………. 98 Figure 4.9.

Generalized wing illustrating venation…... 100 Figure 4.10.

The hind leg of a cockroach…………….. 101 Figure 4.11. The insect leg…………………………….. 103 Figure 4.12.

Dissection of a male black field cricket… 105 Figure 4.13. Intestinal tract of a generalized insect…. 108 Figure 4.14. Circulatory system structure……………. 113 Figure 4.15.

Cross section through the abdomen illustrating some of the tracheation…….. 116 Figure 4.16.

Some variations on the tracheal system of insects ……………………………….... 118 Figure 4.17. Musculature of a grasshopper………….. 122 Figure 4.18. The nervous system of generalized insect……………………………………… 127

–  –  –

1.1 Learning objectives

By the end of this chapter the learner will be able to:

Identify existing public health problems with regard to • arthropods Define important terms with regard to the subject • matter

1.2. Introduction Arthropods are one of the most remarkable creatures on the earth, and they merit study for at least two major reasons.

First, arthropods have unsurpassed diversity and niches;

because of their extensive variation. These animals can provide an in-depth understanding of nature and the many ways that biological problems have been met. Arthropods fly, jump, hide, they see ultraviolet light, they produce and molt an extraordinary exoskeleton, and they posses’ magnificent colors and shapes. Few habitats exclude arthropods. In withstanding harsh environments, they are unparalleled. Some live in the arid deserts, some in hot springs up to 80 Oc, others Medical Entomology on mountain picks as high as 6096 meters, some in tropical rain forest, and there are arthropods that live in Arctic O temperatures that reach below – 20 c. A second major reason is that knowledge of arthropods is essential as we manipulate eco-systems for increased food production and better health.

Back in the early 1900s, many entomologists were concerned about the competition for food between human kind and arthropods, and some entomologists believed that arthropod control was imperative for survival of human race. Although such a position may seem some what extreme, arthropods do consume or spoil sufficient crops and products to feed many millions of people who starve each year. And arthropod/ insect –transmitted diseases, to humans, animals and crops, remain a threat to health and civilizations. As a result, it is good to understand “what arthropods are to the layman”. Fore

example:

To some people arthropods are unpleasant • creatures: crabs, spiders, beetles, caterpillars.

To some people arthropods are fliers:

• mosquitoes, moth, bees, and wasps.

1.3 Definition of terms Entomology: It is a science that deals with the study of arthropods in general, and incorporates sciences like zoology, biology, parasitology and micro-biology.

Medical Entomology Arthropods: “Arthro” means jointed and “Poda” means legs.

Arthropods are invertebrate animals with jointed-legs and identified by their peculiar characteristics. This will be described in detail in chapter two.

Medical Entomology: This is a branch of entomology which deals with arthropods which affect the health and well-being of man and vertebrate animals. In other words, medical entomology is the medical science directly concerned with vectors that affect human and animal health. There are also

other branches of entomology. For example:

Industrial Entomology/Economical Entomology:

• deals with industrially or economically important arthropods (industrial pests).

Agricultural Entomology:

- Agricultural pest science • dealing with arthropods that affect plants and animals.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 12 |


Similar works:

«Can polymorphisms in the glutathione pathway modulate cystic fibrosis severity? a,1,2 Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, 2 Carmen Sílvia Bertuzzo, ¹Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, 1José Dirceu Ribeiro ¹Department of Pediatrics, University of Campinas Unicamp, Center for Pediatrics Research CIPED, School of Medical Sciences FCM. Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126. Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz Campinas SPBrasil CEP: 13083-887. 2 Department of Medical Genetics, University of Campinas – Unicamp...»

«Pinaclav 250 mg/125 mg Film-coated Tablets PACKAGE LEAFLET: INFORMATION FOR THE USER Pinaclav 250 mg/125 mg Film-Coated Tablets Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine.Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.This medicine has been prescribed for you (or for your child). Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their symptoms are the same as yours....»

«The Behavioural Insights Team Update Report 2015-16 Update Report 2015-16 2 © Behavioural Insights Ltd. Not to be reproduced without the permission of the Behavioural Insights Team Update Report 2015-16 Contents Forewords 4 Rt. Hon. Ben Gummer, Minister for the Cabinet Office Sir Jeremy Heywood, Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service Executive Summary 6 1. Health and Wellbeing 11 2. Education and Skills 19 3. Home Affairs 29 4. Energy, Sustainability and Consumers 38 5. Growth,...»

«The value of (customized) insurance for farmers in rural Bangladesh Daniel Clarke1 Narayan Das2 Francesca de Nicola3 Ruth Vargas Hill3 Neha Kumar3 Parendi Mehta3 March 30, 2012 Abstract Farmers in rural Bangladesh face multiple sources of uninsured risk to agricultural production and household assets. Developing insurance products that help farmers manage risks in agricultural production and health is an important goal, but designing cost-effective insurance products and establishing...»

«Askham Bryan College Corporation Corporation Meeting Minutes of the meeting held Monday 15 December 2014 – 3.00pm – 6.45pm Committee Room A, Askham Bryan College, York The meeting was preceded with an optional tour of the Animal Management Centre. Unfortunately, due to ill health the Health and Safety Session was deferred until the next meeting. In order to ensure themselves that all is in order with regard to the Health and Safety report, the Governors asked whether a revised report could...»

«Current Procedural Terminology (Excerpted from Current Procedural Terminology 2013 published by the AmericanMedical Association) NOTE: If you have questions about coding, please contact your insurance company for their interpretation of the new codes. For additional help with your coding questions, CAMFT recommends: http://insurancemaze.wordpress.com/ Health care professionals, including LMFTs, are required to use Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) to identify treatment procedures on...»

«1 Retina Implant Project Chronic Implantation of Active Epiretinal Implants Dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR IN MEDICINE by Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues Department of Ophthalmology Philipps-University Marburg October, 2003 2 Statement of originality “I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a...»

«Clinical Pathways Frequently asked questions Clinical Pathways Defined A clinical pathway is a document outlining a standardised, evidence-based multidisciplinary management plan, which identifies the appropriate sequence of clinical interventions, timeframes, milestones and expected outcomes for a homogenous patient group. (Quality Improvement and Enhancement Program, Clinical Pathways Board: 2002). How do clinical pathways fit into the strategic direction of Queensland Health Strategic...»

«From: Dr. Vladimir Pastouk & Team 9 Critical Secrets How You Can Turn Back the Hands of Time, Smile Confidently and Chew Comfortably While Eating the Foods You Love Medical Miracle Gives Denture Wearers the Confidence & Chewing Force of 90% of What You had when YOU were a Young Adult Dear Friend, Get back more Who said you can't turn back the clock? Obviously, whoever it was didn't know about than your teeth; innovative dental options to fix loose-fitting dentures or replace missing teeth....»

«Summer 2015 MULTI-ETHNIC CHURCHES info@9marks.org | www.9marks.org Tools like this are provided by the generous investment of donors. Each gift to 9Marks helps equip church leaders with a biblical vision and practical resources for displaying God’s glory to the nations through healthy churches. Donate at: www.9marks.org/donate.Or make checks payable to “9Marks” and mail to: 9 Marks 525 A St. NE Washington, DC 20002 For any gift of $300 ($25/month), you’ll receive two new 9Marks books...»

«SUD Services Provider Manual Muskegon CMH Services Community Mental Health of Ottawa County West Michigan CMH System Quick Reference SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW SECTION 2 ACCESS TO SUBSTANCE USE (SUD) DISORDER SERVICES SECTION 3 UTILIZATION MANAGEMENT SECTION 4 CLIENT RIGHTS AND REQUIRED NOTIFICATIONS SECTION 5 BENEFIT INFORMATION SECTION 6 CMHSP FINANCIAL AND REPORTING PROCEDURES SECTION 7 PROVIDER SELECTION, QUALIFICATIONS AND SERVICE REQUIREMENTS SECTION 8 PROVIDER AGREEMENT &...»

«Front cover: planning and implementing HIV testing and linkage programs in non-clinical settings: a guide for program managers Table of Contents Acknowledgements Chapter 1. About the Implementation Guide Chapter 2. Getting Started—Preparing to Implement HIV Testing and Linkage in Non-Clinical Settings Chapter 3. Targeting and Recruitment Chapter 4. Risk Reduction Chapter 5. HIV Tests and Testing Strategies Chapter 6. Implementing HIV Testing in Non-Clinical Settings Chapter 7. Referral and...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.