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«MSc Thesis BY NIGUSSU FASIL KEDESEGNE Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Department of Parasitology and Pathology ...»

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Thesis Ref.No.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SHEEP AND GOAT SKIN LESIONS CAUSED BY

DIFFERENT AGENTS AND IMPACT ON THE RESPECTIVE LEATHERS AT

TANNERIES

MSc Thesis

BY

NIGUSSU FASIL KEDESEGNE

Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture,

Department of Parasitology and Pathology June, 2014 i DEBRE ZEIT,

ETHIOPIA

CHARACTERIZATION OF SHEEP AND GOAT SKIN LESIONS CAUSED BY

DIFFERENT AGENTS AND IMPACT ON THE RESPECTIVE LEATHERS AT

TANNERIES

A thesis submitted to College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Science in Tropical Veterinary pathology BY

NIGUSSU FASIL KEDESEGNE

June, 2014

DEBRE ZEIT, ETHIOPIA

ii Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture Department of Pathology and Parasitology As members of the examining Board of the final MSc open defense, we certify that we have read and evaluated the Thesis prepared by Nigussu Fasil. Entitled: Gross and Microscopic Characterization of sheep and goat skin lesions caused by different agents and impact on the respective leathers at tanneries. And recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the thesis requirement for the degree of Masters of Science in Tropical Veterinary Pathology.

Dr. Hagos Ashenafi Chairman Signature Date Dr. Birhanu Mekibeb External Examiner Signature Date Dr. Bulto Giro Internal Examiner Signature Date

1. Dr. Tilaye Demissie Major Advisor Signature Date

2. Dr. Getachew Terefe Co-Advisor Signature Date 3.

Co-Advisor Signature Date Dr. Hagos Ashenafi Department chairperson Signature Date iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

STATEMENT OF AUTHOR

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF APPENDICES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abstract

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Skin anatomy and histology

2.2. Skin and hides as commodities

2.3. Contribution of skin and hides to the Ethiopian economy

2.4. Diagnosis of Parasitic skin diseases

2.4.1 History

2.4.2. Clinical examination

2.4.3. Skin scraping examinations

2.4.4. Collection of free living ectoparasites

2.4.5. Histopathology

2.5. Status of ectoparasites of small ruminants in Ethiopia

2.5.1. Ectoparasites damage

2.5.2. Mange mites

2.5.3. Pediculosis

2.5.4. Sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus)

2.5.5. Ticks

–  –  –

2.6. Sheep and goat pox

2.6.1. Causes and factors affecting skin defects in sheep and goats in Ethiopia...... 18 2.6.2. Microbial causes

2.6.3. Description of major skin lesions and defects

2.6.4. Defects caused during life

2.6.5. Damages caused after death

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1. Study area

3.2. Study design

3.2.1. Sample size determination

3.2.2. Study population and sampling technique

3.2.3. Histopathological technique

3.3. Data Analysis and management

4. RESULTS

4.1. Gross pathological lesion characterization

4.1.1. Gross lesions due to lice infestation

4.1.2. Gross lesion due sheep ked infestation

4.1.3. Gross lesion due to tick and fleas infestation

4.1.4. Gross lesion due to pox infection

4.2. Microscopic lesions

4.2.1. Microscopic lesion due to lice infestation

4.2.2. Microscopic lesion due to sheep ked infestation

4.2.3. Microscopic lesion due to tick and flea infestation

4.2.4. Microscopic lesion due to pox infection

–  –  –

4.3. Quality grading and skin defect analysis

5. DISCUSSION

6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

7. REFERENCES

8. ANNEXES

–  –  –

First, I declare that this thesis is my bonafide work and that all sources of material used for this thesis have been duly acknowledged. This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced (MSc) degree at Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture and is deposited at the University/College library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library. I solemnly declare that this thesis is not submitted to any other institution anywhere for the award of any academic degree, diploma, or certificate.

Name: Nigussu Fail Signature: ______________

College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Debrezeit Date of Submission: _9/6/2014____

–  –  –

Before all, I praise the living God through Jesus Chris for his protection, divine miracles and wonderful guidance throughout this study period!

I am greatly indebted to my Advisors, Dr.Getachew Terefe and Dr.Tilaye Demissie for their technical guidance, insight understanding of my condition and time devotion to correct this paper. My appreciation also goes to the of the Vise president for Reasesch and Technology Transfer of the Addis Ababa University for funding the project under the “Hide and skin quality improvement” thematic research project.





I would like to acknowledge Dr. Asegedech Sirak, Dr.Getenet Abie and Dr.Selemon Gebre of Sebeta National Animal Disease Investigation Center for their valuable technical support and encouragement My deep appreciation goes to Ato Behailu Wolde owner and General Manager of Genesis farms Ethiopia plc. For his ignitable courage, hospitality and financial support.

.

I would like to acknowledge my wife Emebet Bekele and my son Alpha Nigussu for the cost they paid and priceless sacrifation during the period of this study.

Thanks are also due to all family specially my mother Mastawet Birhanu and my brother Tedrows Fasil for their encouragement and true love. Finally, I would like to say thank you all my relatives who has the dream of my success.

–  –  –

Figure 1: Map of Oromia showing study zone

Figure 2: The same goat of fig 1 at wet blue stage with its circular rough defect............ 31 Figure 3: The same goat of fig 1 at wet blue stage with its circular rough defect............ 31 Figure 4: Young goat dead of characteristic pox lesion

Figure 5: Adult sheep with generalized pox lesions of diffused nodule

Figure 6: Lesions of pox of at Fig.4 sheep from flash side after flaying with nodules visible

Figure 7: Processed skin at crust stage with defect due to pox (skin of sheep at fig.5).... 34 Figure 8: Sheep skin infested by flea, with alopecia and with acute hemorrhagic lesion at the periphery of alopetic lesion

Figure 9: Defects on processed skin at crust stage due to flea infestation (from fig.8).... 35 Figure 10: Apparently normal skin as in controlled group

Figure 11: Defect called “cockle” at wet blue stage caused by mixed infestation by sheep ked and lice

Figure 12a: Perivascular infiltration of dermis×10 from positive lice lesion………...….37 Figure 12b: lymphocytes surrounding blood vessels×40 …...……………………….….37 Figure 13a: Eosinophilic infiltration of dermisfrom sheep ked positive lesion ………...37 Figure 13b: Perivascular infilitration (Lymphocyte and eosinophiles) …...……………37 Figure 14a: necrosis of corium with pickle Degeneration from tick positive lesion……38 Figure 14b: necrosos of sratum corium×40 from tick positive lesion…..………………39

–  –  –

Figure 15a: acanthosis and fibrosis from pox positive lesion……………………………40 Figure 15b: congestion and perivascular infiltration with Lymphocytes from pox positive lesion……………………………………………………………………………………..41 Figure 15c: hyperkeratosis and tissue proliferation from Pox positive lesion×40………41 Figure 15d: abscessed epidermis from pox positive lesion×40………………………...42

–  –  –

Annex 1: Histopathological Technique:

Annex 2: Leather manufacturing process

Annex 3: quality grades characteristics

Annex 4: skin scraping teqniques for mange mites

–  –  –

The objectives of this study were to determine the type and extent of damage and to characterize gross and microscopic lesions as well as quality grading of processed skin to crust stage. In this study 500 animals (350 sheep and sheep and 150 goats) were examined for any skin problem from both ectoparasites controlled and non controlled areas. Nine goats and 11 sheep with skin diseases were conveniently selected for characterization of pathological lesions and evaluation of defect in the tannery and quality grading. Ten goats and 10 sheep skins which apparently look normal were also taken to tannery as controls. Out of the 500 animals examined for skin abnormalities 42 % were infested by lice, 15.7% by fleas, 18.57% by sheep ked, 2.5% ticks, 2% mange, and 25% were infected by pox virus. Generally, the predominant gross pathologic lesions were crusts, scabs, pit depression, alopecia nodules, lichenification, fissuring and erythema. In pox infection lesions were macules, papules with central depression which finally became gray (necrotic) lesion and developed to scabs. Histopathologically pox lesions include acanthosis, parakeratosis and hyperkeratosis in the epidermis and the dermis showed vasculitis, infiltration of inflammatory cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts and histiocytes. Generally microscopic lesions induced by ectoparasites were similar with little variation and includes parakeratotic, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration with eosinophils. Perivascular with eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes infiltrations. Different downgrades to leather quality due to various agents were observed at tannery and this includes aesthetic appeal, poor grading and rejection of which 50% were rejected, 15.4% categorized as grade 6, 19.2% as grade 5, and 11.5% as grades 1-4 category (annex.2). Ectoparasites were the major causes of down grading and rejection followed by sheep and goat pox.

Key words: Ectoparasite, Crust, Goat, Inflammatory cells, Lesions, Sheep, Pox

–  –  –

In Ethiopia, livestock is second major source of foreign currency through export of live animals, meat, skins and hides. Skins from goats and sheep are important economic products contributing for the largest share to the total and agricultural export commodities (Ayele et al., 2003, FAO, 2005) followed by live animals. However in recent years, this rank has been relegated to fifth level mainly because of rejection and down grading by defects mainly due to infestation by external parasites (Bayou, 2005).

As farm damage is the greatest cause of downgrading, the farmer is the only person in a position to make the change. Skin problems caused by ectoparasites such as mange mites, lice, keds and ticks result in serious economic loss to smallholder farmers, the tanning industry and the country as a whole. Similarly, other skin diseases such as dermatophilosis, ring worm and lumpy skin disease significantly affect the general health and the quality of hides and skin in these animals. They can result in mortality, decreased production and reproduction, down grading and rejection of skins (Ayele et al., 2003, Yacob et al., 2008, Part I). According to Kassa (1998), skin problems due to ectoparasites cause 35% of sheep skin and 56% of goat skin rejection (Amsalu et al., 2000).

Even though small ruminants are important components of Ethiopian farming system, their contribution to food production and export income are far below the expected potential. This is because small ruminant production in Ethiopia is constrained by the compound effects of diseases, poor feeding and poor managements (Getachew, 1995).

The existence of various skin disease affecting small ruminants are frequently reported from different parts of Ethiopia to cause substantial economic losses by reducing the productivity and reproduction performance and degrading skin quality (Zewdu,1995).



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