«Brasilia, July 2009 The Portuguese version of the Open School Collection was produced in association with Vale Foundation. The authors are ...»
Conceptual Framework and Methodology
for the Open School Programme:
Education and Culture for Peace
Conceptual Framework and Methodology
for the Open School Programme:
Education and Culture for Peace
Brasilia, July 2009
The Portuguese version of the Open School Collection was produced in association with Vale Foundation.
The authors are responsible for the choice and presentation of facts contained in this book, as well as for the opinions expressed herein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not indicate a commitment on the part of the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or region, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Building Knowledge Conceptual Framework and Methodology
for the Open School Programme:
Education and Culture for Peace Brasilia Office © 2009. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Original title: Construindo saberes: referências conceituais e metodologia do Programa Abrindo Espaços: educação e cultura para a paz. Brasilia: UNESCO, Fundação Vale, 2008.
Compilation and final text: Marlova Jovchelovitch Noleto Text and copy-editing: Gabriela Athias Collaborators: Cristina Cordeiro, Helena Povere, Lia Diskin, Candido Gomes, Marisa Sari, Julio Jacobo, Regina Vassimon, Anailde Almeida, Leoberto N. Brancher, and Rita Ippolito Technical revision: Marlova Jovchelovitch Noleto, Rosana Sperandio Pereira, Alessandra Terra Magagnin, and Candido Gomes Translation: Cláudia David Proofreading: Thais de Marco Layout: Paulo Selveira Cover and graphic design: Edson Fogaça Building knowledge: conceptual references and methodology of the Open School Programme: Education and Culture for Peace. – Brasilia: UNESCO, MEC, 2009.
80 p. – (Open school collection: how-to-do series; 1).
ISBN: 978-85-7652-099-3 Construindo saberes: referências conceituais e metodologia do Programa Abrindo Espaços: educação e cultura para a paz.
1. Culture of Peace 2. Violence 3. Schools 4. Extracurricular Activities 5. Disadvantaged Youth 6. Social Programmes 7. Brazil I. UNESCO II. Brazil. Ministry of Education III. Títle DDC 303.66 Ministry Secretaria de Educação Continuada, Brasilia Office Alfabetização e Diversidade (Secad/MEC) of Education SAUS, Quadra 5, Bloco H, Lote 6,
The Making Room/Open School Programme would not exist without collaboration from unquestionably competent participants who are truly committed to improving the quality of education in Brazil.
Among these individuals, the Minister of Education, Fernando Haddad, deserves special thanks. An academic and executive who has demonstrated great skill in redirecting the Brazilian educational system, he goes above and beyond to support the initiatives developed by the UNESCO Office in Brazil.
Naturally, this appreciation extends to his whole team, especially to the Executive Secretary at the Ministry of Education, José Henrique Paim Fernandes, President of the National Fund for the Development of Education – FNDE when the programme began; to the Secretary of Continuing Education, Literacy and Diversity, André Lazaro; and to the National Coordinator of the Open School Programme, Regina Vassimon.
We thank the Governor elect of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Tarso Genro, and the Secretary of Social Assistance and Human Rights of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Ricardo Henriques, for it was under their tenures as Minister of Education and Secretary of Continuing Education, Literacy and Diversity, respectively, that the programme was launched and took shape.
Finally, we thank UNESCO staff directly or indirectly involved in Open School, who work restlessly for the success of the programme.
Open School: Education and Culture for Peace Series
Foreword Replicating a Culture of Peace
Vincent Defourny From Laboratory of Ideas to Public Policy
André Luiz de Figueiredo Lázaro Introduction Open School: Social Inclusion and Education for the 21st Century.
Marlova Jovchelovitch Noleto About the Knowing and Doing Series
2000: A Hallmark in the Culture of Peace
The year 2000 – Making Room: Education and Culture for Peace is created
Peace and Inclusion at School
Opening the gates
Violence drops at schools participating in the Making Room Programme
Scaling up and consolidating a public policy: creation of the Open School Programme
Learning from State Experiences
A community experience in social cohesion – Pernambuco
The programme goes through different stages and experiments with different formats – Rio de Janeiro......54 The community embraces the programme and overcomes resistance – Bahia
Local design for the programme is created in a participatory fashion – Rio Grande do Sul
The programme is a priority and becomes public policy in the state – São Paulo
Fo re w o rd
Replicating a Culture of Peace
In the year when Making Room: Education and Culture for Peace celebrates its 10th anniversary, the UNESCO Office in Brazil has the opportunity to launch the translation to Spanish and English of a series of seven publications to systematize an initiative for social inclusion and violence reduction focusing on schools, youths, and the community.
The Making Room/Open School Programme consists of making public school spaces available on weekends, offering activities in the areas of sport, leisure, culture, digital inclusion, and basic vocational training. By contributing to breaking the institutional isolation of schools and placing them at the heart of coordination with the community, the programme embodies one of the principles of a culture of peace: fostering the co-existence of different groups and favoring conflict resolution through negotiation.
UNESCO thanks the Ministry of Education for the partnership which made it possible to launch this collection, a tool to replicate a programme which has already been converted into public policy and is found at schools in all 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District.
The purpose of the publications is to share with society the knowledge and experience amassed by UNESCO through management of the Making Room Programme, whose mission includes assessing initiatives focused on building and disseminating a culture of peace.
9 Moreover, they seek to provide technical assistance to our partners for the development of programmes and projects that can make Brazil more just and less unequal, particularly for vulnerable populations. These population groups include thousands of youths living in the poverty-stricken outskirts of larger cities, where schools taking part in Open School develop the programme.
Becoming familiar with the publications is only the first step to be taken by those interested in identifying one more successful option in promoting a culture of peace, social inclusion, and violence reduction. UNESCO Brazil is at the service of states, municipalities, and other partners committed to strengthening their participation in programmes of this nature for continued cooperation.
In 2004, taking into consideration the positive results of the Open School: Education and Culture for Peace Programme, within and around schools, the Ministry of Education decided to expand the experience of opening public schools on weekends and, in partnership with UNESCO, launched the Open School: Education, Culture, Sport and Work Opportunities for Young Men and Women. This Programme has been implemented in all Brazilian states and the Federal District.
The Ministry of Education is pleased to launch, in partnership with UNESCO, the translation of the Open School collection to Spanish and English, in order to provide a contribution to schools and teachers, within South-South Cooperation experiences similar to those of the Open School Programme.
The Programme has a high potential to contribute to turning schools into privileged spaces of belonging, participation and learning for young men and women and their communities. We hope that this publication will contribute with ideas and actions capable of transforming the work of many other schools, as it has already done in Brazil.
Open School: Social Inclusion and Education for the 21st Century In 2000, during the celebration of the International Year for the Culture of Peace, UNESCO Brazil launched the Making Room Programme: Education and Culture for Peace.
Over the course of the past eight years, the programme, which combines social inclusion and education by opening public schools on weekends, has solidified; it is the first UNESCO Brazil action to have become public policy. The methodology proposed by Making Room is the basis for the Open School Programme, which was created in 2004 by the Ministry of Education and is now operating in all Brazilian states.
Between 2000 and 2006, in partnership with municipal and state education secretariats, the Making Room Programme opened 10 thousand schools and served approximately 10 million people in the first five states where it was implemented – Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia and São Paulo. It should be noted that the programme has been implemented in almost all of São Paulo’s state education network, reaching 5,306 out of 6,000 schools. Titled Family School in that state, the programme had 30 thousand volunteers and 35 thousand university students working directly in the schools.
The scope of Making Room over the course of its existence reveals the wealth of experience gathered by the UNESCO team and, above all, by the programme’s partners and developers.
This partnership with the Ministry of Education has enabled us to translate a series of seven publications that systematize all facets of the methodology of the Making Room Programme – 13 conceptual grounds, practical applications and recommendations, experts’ analyses, implementation costs – in addition to including two primers whose content teaches us how to experience, in practice, the creation of a culture of peace. These primers are a guide to teachers, students, supervisors, and all of those involved in running Making Room and Open School; they emphasize the need for tools to guide the work of our educators in the creation of a culture of peace.
We often say that UNESCO has many objectives but a single mission, underscored in the Organization’s constitution: “Since wars begin in the minds of people, it is in the minds of people that the defenses of peace must be built.” Through the creation and implementation of the Making Room Programme, UNESCO Brazil could serve as a laboratory of ideas, assisting in the creation of methodological guidelines for a national programme based on a culture of peace. The goal was to propose a space for social inclusion and for the valorization of public schools.
Through its inclusion in UNESCO’s broader field of action, the programme aids in strengthening the concept of lifelong education, as well as in combating and eradicating poverty. It focuses on building a new school for the 21st century – one which typifies “school as a function” rather than “school as a location”. This means a school which truly contributes to the holistic and human development of its students and the community.
The programme works to help transform schools into welcoming spaces where there is a sense of belonging, places where exchanges and meetings take place. The goal is that schools should be able to incorporate youths’ requests into the programming offered on weekends, as well as their artistic and cultural expressions, strengthening the participation of students and youths in school activities.
We also expect that opening schools on weekends will contribute to a reflection on “school during the week,” with the recommendation of new practices that can intervene positively in studentteacher relationships. It is true that when students feel welcome, they develop a special relationship with the school and are less likely to drop out. Therefore, we can state that the programme helps to reduce the alarming figures that result from a comparison between the large number of students starting primary education and the smaller percentage of students who finish high school.
We should also underscore the crucial role played by education in the reduction of social inequality. There is no social transformation without investment in education. Research by the 14 World Bank and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) shows that one additional year of education in the life of female students results in the reduction of infant and maternal mortality, for instance. These studies also present the effect of one additional year of education on employability and wage indicators in Latin America.
The youth as a focus The Making Room Programme was created based on a series of research studies on youth carried out by UNESCO Brazil. According to these studies, youths used to be – and still are – the group with the highest level of involvement in violence situations, both as agents and as victims. Most of these violent acts happen on weekends, in the outskirts of cities, and they mainly involve youths in lower income brackets and in vulnerable situations.
In addition, most schools, especially those in the outskirts of large cities, were involved in situations of extreme violence. Launched by UNESCO in 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004, the Maps of Violence, by researcher Julio Jacobo Waiselfisz, were crucial in understanding the role played by youths in cases of violence in the country.
Considering this information, we can understand that behind a seemingly simple idea – opening schools on Saturdays and Sundays to offer activities in the areas of culture, sport, art, leisure, and professional training to youths and their families – is a strategy to empower youths, strengthen the community, strengthen the role of the school, and contribute to a reduction in violence rates, thus building a culture of peace.