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«TSHEKASEKO YA MOLAO WA KGATELELO YA BOLOI (MOLAO 3 WA 1957) Projeke 135 Letšatšikgwedi la mafelelo bakeng sa diswayaswayo: 30 Moranang 2016 ISBN: ...»

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Tokomane ya Therišano 139

TSHEKASEKO YA MOLAO WA KGATELELO YA BOLOI

(MOLAO 3 WA 1957)

Projeke 135

Letšatšikgwedi la mafelelo bakeng sa diswayaswayo: 30

Moranang 2016

ISBN: 978-0-621-44208-3

ii

MATSENO

Khomišene ya Kaonafatšo ya Molao ya Afrika Borwa e hlanngwe ka South African Law

Reform Commission Act, 1973 (Molao 19 wa 1973).

Maloko a khomišene ke-

Moahlodi Mandisa Muriel Lindelwa Maya (Modulasetulo) Moahlodi NaranNgaka an (Jody) Kollapen (Motlatša Modulasetulo) Moprofesa Marita Carnelley Moprofesa Vinodh Jaichand Mrn Irvin Lawrence Moprofesa Annet Oguttu Moememdi Mahlape Sello Moh Thina Siwendu Mongwaledi ke Mrn Nelson Matibe. Dikantoro tša Khomišene di go 2007 Lenchen Avenue

South, Centurion. Dikgokaganyo di swanetše go romelwa go:

The Secretary South African Law Commission Private Bag X668

PRETORIA

0001 Mogala: (012) 622-6336 Fekese: (086) 266 1935 Emeile: jjoni@justice.gov.za Tokomane ye e hwetšagala gape go inthanete mo http://www.justice.gov.za/salrc/index.htm iii Komiti ya boeletši tshekasekong ya Molao wa Kgatelelo ya Boloi e be e na le maikarabelo a projeke ye. Moetapele wa projeke yoo a nago le maikarabelo a projeke ke Moprofesa Marita Carnelley (Yunibesithi ya KwaZulu Natal), Mokomišenare wa SALRC. Maloko a

Komiti ke:

Moprofesa David Bilchitz (Yunibesithi ya Johannesburg) Ngaka Sibusiso Masondo (Yunibesithi ya KwaZulu Natal) Moh Likhapa Mbatha Moprofesa Pitika Ntuli (Moprofesa wa rotšego modiro, Yunibesithi ya KwaZulu Natal) Moprofesa Theodore Petrus (Yunibesithi ya Fort hare) Monyakišiši yo a neilwego projeke ye, yoo go ka ikgokaganywago le yena bakeng sa tshedimošo ka botlalo, ke Moh Ms Jennifer Joni.

iv

KETAPELE

Tokokmane ye ya ditherišano e phethagaleditšwe go dira bjalo ka motheo wa ditherišano tša Khomišene, go hwetša dikarabo le diswayaswayo gotšwa go bakgathatema ba malebana, mme le go phatlalatša tshedimošo ka ga tshekaseko ya Molao wa Kgatelelo ya Boloi setšhabeng. Ka lebaka la mehola ye, tokomane ye ga e na diswayaswayo tšeo di hlalošitšwego ka botlalo bakeng sa kaonafatšo ya Molao. Dipono, diphetišo le diswayaswayo tokomaneng ye di se tšewe bjalo ka tša Khomišene tša phethišo. Tokomane e gatišwa ka botlalo bakeng sa go phethagaletša batho le mekgatlo yeo e ratago go ka dira diswayaswayo goba go nea ditšhišinyo bakeng sa kaonafatšo ya lekala le la molao ka tshedimošo ya matseno go ba kgontšha go dira dithomelo tše malebana go Khomišene.

Bafetodi ba kgopelwa go romela diswayaswayo ka tsela ya lengwalo, dikemedi goba dikgopolo go Khomišene pele ga la 30 Moranang 2016 atereseng yeo e tšwelelago letlakaleng la peleng. Monyakišiši o tla leka go go thuša mo o lebanego le mathata gona. Swayaswayo yeo e setšego e rometšwe go Khomišene ga se ya swanela go boeeletšwa; bakeng sa maemo a, bafetodi ba swanetše go laetša gore ba dumellana le swayaswayo ya peleng, ge se e le maemo ao.

Khomišene e tla tšea gore bafetodi ba dumela gore Khomišene e tšee gotšwa go goba e bolela ka diswayaswayo le diswayaswayo tše malebana le bafetodi, ntle le dikemedi di na le maswayo a go laetša “Sepheri”. Bafetodi ba swanetše go tseba gore Khomišene e ka kgopelwa, ka tlase ga Molao wa Kgodišo ya Phihlelelo ya Tshedimošo (Molao 2 wa 2000), go ntšha tshedimošo yeo e lego dikemeding.

v Matseno ………………………………………………………………………………………………….ii Ketapele………………………………………………………………………………………................iv Dikagare…………………………………………………………………………………………………v Lenaneo la didirišwa……………………………………………………………………………………vii Lenaneo la bafetodi go tokomane ya morero……….………………………………………………xii

–  –  –

DIDIRIŠWA Khomišene ya Kaonafatšo ya Molao ya Afrika Borwa Tokomane ya morero 29, Tshekaseko ya Molao wa Kgatelelo ya Boloi (Projeke 135, Lewedi 2014) Dipuku le dikgaolo gare go dipuku Albertyn C and Goldblatt B „Equality‟ in Constitutional Law of South Africa 2nd ed Juta, Cape Town 2005 Ashton, E.H. The Basuto Oxford University Press, London 1952 Bennett TW (ed) Traditional African Religions in South African Law University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town 2011 Bond G and Ciekawy, D. (eds) Witchcraft Dialogues: Anthropological and Philosophical Exchanges Centre for International Studies, Ohio 2001 Chavundika G L Realities of Witchcraft Zambezia 1986 Clark S Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe Oxford University Press, New York 1997 Comaroff J, Comaroff J L (eds) Modernity and its Malcontents: Ritual and Power in Postcolonial Africa University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1993 Crawford J R Witchcraft and Sorcery in Rhodesia Oxford University Press, London 1967.

Currie I, de Waal J, The Bill of Rights Handbook 5th ed Juta, Cape Town 2005

–  –  –

Evans-Pritchard E E Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford University Press, London 1937 Geschiere P The Modernity of Witchcraft: Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa University Press of Virginia, London 1997 Hund J „African Witchcraft and Western Law: Psychological and Cultural Issues‟ 2004 Journal of Contemporary Religion 67-84, Krige E J and Krige J D The Realm of a Rain Queen Oxford University Press, London 1943 Leff D, Fontleve M and Martin L A Pagan Witches Touchstone Witchcraft and Witch hunts in South Africa Leslie C (ed) The Anthropology of Folk Religion Vintage Books, New York 1960 Leymann A C and Myers, J.E. Magic, Witchcraft and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural: Mayfield Publishing Company, London 1985 Mafico T J Witchcraft: Belief and realities: A debate, Zambezia1986 Malawi Law Commission Issues Paper: Witchcraft Act Review Programme Lilongwe 2009 Mbiti J S African Religions and PhilosophyHeinemann Educational Books Ltd, London 1969 Meek C K Law and Authority in a Nigerian Tribe Oxford University Press, London 1937

–  –  –





Niehaus I Witchcraft, Power and Politics: Exploring the Occult in the South African Lowveld. David Philip, Cape Town 2001.

Online Etymology Dictionary, 2015.

Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary 6th ed Oxford University Press, 2003 Osei M Witchcraft and the Religion of the Hlubi of Qumbu: Focusing on the Issues of Sickness and Healing in the Society Unpublished thesis University of South Africa, Pretoria 2003 Parrinder G Witchcraft: European and African Penguin Books, London 1963 Pauw B A Christianity and Xhosa Tradition: Belief and Ritual among Xhosa-speaking Christians Oxford University Press, Cape Town: 1975 Pauw H C „The Xhosa‟ 1994 Institute for Planning Research, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth Petrus T S „A Proposal Towards a Theory on Witchcraft-related Crime in Postcolonial South Africa‟ 2006 Acta Criminologica 142-151 Petrus T.S. „An anthropological study of witchcraft-related crime in the Eastern Cape and its implications for law enforcement policy and practice‟ Unpublished thesis Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 2009 Ralushai Commission of Inquiry (Chairperson Professor NV Ralushai) Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Witchcraft Violence and Ritual Murders in the Northern Province of the Republic of South Africa 1996 Reynolds, B. Magic, Divination and Witchcraft among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia Chatto and Windus, London 1963

–  –  –

Stein R L and Stein P L The Anthropology of Religion, Magic and Witchcraft 3rd ed Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River 2011 Tebbe N Witchcraft and Statecraft: Liberal Democracy in Africa Georgetown Law Journal, 96.

Trevor-Roper H R The European Witch Craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries and Other Essay: Harper and Row, New York 1970 Van Wyk IWC „African Witchcraft in theological perspective‟ 2004 Hervormde Teologiese Kollege University of Pretoria 1201-1228 Webster‟s New World Thesaurus Pocket Books 2003.

Yaseen A Witch hunts in modern South Africa: An under-represented facet of gender – based violence, Fact Sheet, Medical Research Council-UNISA. Crime Violence and Injury Lead Programme. June 2009, MELATO Case v Minister of Safety and Security; Curtis v Minister of safety and Security 1996 (3) SA 617 (CC).

Mogaramedi v S 2015 SACR 427 (GP).

S v Alam 2006 (2) SACR 613 (Ck).

S v Lawrence; S v Nagel; S v Solberg 1997 (4) SA 1176 (CC) S v Mokwanyana 1995 (3) SA 391 (CC).

S v Latha 2012 (2) SARC 30 (ECG) S v Maluluke [2007] JOL 19283 (T) S v Manamela 2000 (3) SA 1 (CC).

S v Mashimbye [2005 JOL 16159 (T).

S v Netshiavha 1990 (2)SACR 331 (A) S v Phahlane [2005] JOL 14525 (T).

xi S v Phama 1997 (1) SACR 485 ( E) MELAO Adjustment of Fines Act 101 of 1991 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act, 1996 Criminal Law (Sentencing) Amendment Act 38 of 2007 Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983 Mpumalanga Witchcraft Suppression Bill 2007 Traditional Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 Witchcraft Suppression Act 3 of 1957 Witchcraft Suppression Amendment Act 50 of 1970 Witchcraft Suppression Amendment Act 33 of 1997 DIKWANO Convention on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

–  –  –

KGAOLO 1 MATSENO Tokomane ye ya ditherišano e latela kgatišo ya swayaswayo, ka la 09 Lewedi 1.1 2014, ya tokomane ya morero,1 yeo e bego e na le maikemišetšo a go tšweletša nyakišišo setšhabeng, go thoma poledišano, mme le go hlaloša kaonafatšo ya molao yeo e hlokegago. Khomišene ya Kaonafatšo ya Molao ya Afrika Borwa (SALRC goba Khomišene) e tšeya monyetla wo go leboga bao ba fetotšego taletšo ya diswayaswayo mme ba phethagaleditše tshedimošo ye malebana bakeng sa tlhabollo ya tokomane ye ya ditherišano.

Tokomane ya ditherišano e iša dinyakišišo pele ka go phethagaletša dikgetho 1.2 bakeng sa kaonafatšo ya molao ka tshepo ya gore se se tla ba le swayaswayo ye kwagalago malebana le tshekaseko ye šišintšwego ya Molao wa Kgatelelo ya Boloi (Molao goba WSA). Tokomane e laetša hlokego ya kaonafatšo, dithomelo bakeng sa diswayaswayo tša setšhaba, dipheto tša peleng tšeo di fihleletšwego ke Khomišene, mme e leka dikgopolo tša setšhaba ditharollong tšeo di tsopotšwego ke Khomišene.

Khomišene e ikemišeditše go rerišana le Bakgathatema ba malebana ka moka.

1.3 Godimo ga kgatišo ya tokomane ya ditherišano bakeng sa diswayaswayo tša setšhaba, re ikemišeditše go rerišana le bakgathatema ba farologanego bao ba angwago ke tiragatšo ya boloi. Morago ga tshepetšo ye, Khomišene e tla dira pego, yeo e tla bago le diswayaswayo tša mafelelo le molao woo o kaonafaditšwego woo o hlokegago. Pego e tla romelwa go Tona ya Toka le Ditirelo tša Tshokollo, yoo a ka tsenyago tirišong diswayaswayo tša Khomišete ka go tšweletša molaothalwa wo šišintšwego Palamenteng.

–  –  –

Ka Dibokwane 2007, SALRC e hweditše kgopelo gotšwa go Mokgatlo wa 1.4 Tšhomišano wa Ditokelo tša Baditšhaba wa Afrika Borwa (SAPRA) go diragatša dinyakišišo ka ga bomolaotheo ba Molao le Molaokaka wa Kgatelelo ya Boloi wa Mpumalanga woo o šišintšwego woo o gatišitšwego ka 2007.2 Mo kgweding ya Phupu goba Mosegamanye 2007, morago ga khwetšo ya kgopelo 1.5 yeo e hlalošitšwego gotšwa go SAPRA, mekgatlo ye mengwe ya go swana le Mokgatlo wa Baalafi ba Setšo (THO) le Khansele ya Baditšhaba ya Afrika Borwa ba hlohleleditšwe go kgathatema le go thekga tshekaseko. Tshekaseko e akareditše Molaokakanywa wa Kgatelelo ya Boloi wa nako yela wa tšhišinyo ka lefsa wa Mpumalanga. Mekgatlo ka boraro ka moka e dirile dithomelo go SALRC bakeng sa go eleletšwa tshekasekong ya Molao.

1.6 SALRC e bile le kopano ya bakgathatema ka la 4 Lewedi 2008, moo go bego go rerišanwa ka dithomelo.3 Morago ga kopano ye, ka la 14 Dibatsela 2008, Khomišene e hweditše thomelo yeo e fetotšwego gotšwa go SAPC le thomelo gotšwa go (THO), ka bobedi ba tšona di kgopela kakaretšo ya dinyakišišo lenaneong la SALRC.

Dithomelong tša yona, SAPRA e šišinya phumolo ya Molao ka lebaka la gore o 1.7 dira boloi bosenyi le bao ba ipitšago baloi go swana le baditšhaba. Gape ba šišinya gore ga go hlokego ya molao wo o laolago boloi, mme le gore tirišompe ya boloi e swanetše go šongwa go ya ka molao wa setlwaedi. Motheo wa tšhišinyo ke gore boloi ke karolo ya tumelo yeo e tsejwago le bodumedi. Thomelo ya SAPRA e lemoga gore Molao o hlola bothata ke ge o sa phethagaletše hlalošo ya “moloi” goba “boloi”. SAPRA e lemoga gore bogologolo, ebile le tshwaraganyong ya Afrika Borwa, mantšhu a “moloi” le “boloi” a be a 2 In about March 2014, subsequent to the release of the issue paper to a closed list of stakeholders, the SALRC received communication from the SAPRA pointing out some factual inaccuracies regarding the background to the investigation. These factual inaccuracies relate to the originator of the investigation and the identification of the issues that were brought to the fore and by which organisation. The SALRC is indebted to SAPRA for bringing to its attention the said inaccuracies and ensuring that the issues around the origin of the investigation are completely accurate.

3 The SAPRA, the SAPC (represented by Lawyers for Human Rights (LHR)), and the THO attended the meeting. The invitation to the THO was extended by the SAPC.



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